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|Ab urbe condita||2272|
|Balinese saka calendar||1440–1441|
|English Regnal year||10 Hen. 8 – 11 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4215 or 4155
— to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
4216 or 4156
|- Vikram Samvat||1575–1576|
|- Shaka Samvat||1440–1441|
|- Kali Yuga||4619–4620|
|Japanese calendar||Eishō 16
|Minguo calendar||393 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2061–2062|
1645 or 1264 or 492
— to —
1646 or 1265 or 493
- January 1 – Ulrich Zwingli preaches for the first time, as people's priest of the Great Minister in Zürich.
- March 4 – Hernán Cortés and his conquistadores land in Mexico.
- April 21 (Maundy Thursday) – Hernán Cortés reaches San Juan de Ulúa; next day (Good Friday) he sets foot on the beach of modern-day Veracruz.
- June 28 – Charles I of Spain becomes Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (rules until 1556).
- July 4 – Martin Luther joins the debate regarding papal authority, against Johann Eck at Leipzig.
- July 10 – The Prince of Ning rebellion begins, after Zhu Chenhao declares the Ming dynasty's Zhengde Emperor a usurper, and leads his army north in an attempt to capture Nanjing.
- August 15 – Panama City is founded.
- August 20 – Ming Dynasty Chinese philosopher and general Wang Yangming, governor of Jiangxi, defeats Zhu Chenhao, ending the Prince of Ning rebellion. Wang has expressed the intention of using fo–lang–ji cannons in suppressing the rebellion, probably the earliest reference in China to the breech-loading Frankish culverin.
- September 20 – Ferdinand Magellan departs from Spain with a fleet of five ships, to sail westbound to the Spice Islands.
- October 12 – Hernán Cortés and his men, accompanied by 3,000 Tlaxcalans, enter Cholula.
- November 8 – Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlan, and the court of Aztec ruler Moctezuma.
- The first civil revolt in Anatolia takes place, led by Alevi preacher Celâl.
- The Spanish invade Barbados.
- Spanish conquistadors sailing up the Pacific coast from Panama first observe modern-day Nicaragua, landing at Gulf of Nicoya.
- Havana moves from the southern to the northern part of Cuba.
- A large pandemic spreads from the Greater Antilles into Central America, and perhaps as far as Peru in South America. This widespread epidemic kills off much of the indigenous populations in these areas (the first widely documented epidemic in the New World).
- Central Mexico Amerindians' population reaches 25.3 million.
- The Mexican Indian Wars begin.
- Cacao comes to Europe.
- St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn is completed in Estonia.
- The first recorded fatal accident involving a gun in England is recorded at Welton, East Riding of Yorkshire.
- The artistic form appears in Georgia and spreads.[vague]
- January 1 – Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas, Spanish colonial administrator (d. 1593)
- January 18 – Isabella Jagiellon, queen consort of Hungary (d. 1559)
- February 5 – René of Châlon, Prince of the House of Orange (d. 1544)
- February 15 – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, first Spanish Governor of Florida (d. 1574)
- February 16 – Gaspard de Coligny, French Huguenot leader (d. 1572)
- February 17 – Francis, Duke of Guise, French soldier and politician (d. 1563)
- February 19 – Froben Christoph of Zimmern, author of the Zimmern Chronicle (d. 1566)
- March 4
- March 17 – Thoinot Arbeau, French priest and author (d. 1595)
- March 22 – Catherine Brandon, Duchess of Suffolk, English noblewoman (d. 1580)
- March 31 – King Henry II of France (d. 1559)
- April 13 – Catherine de' Medici, Italian noblewoman, queen consort of Henry II of France and regent of France (d. 1589)
- May 27 – Girolamo Mei, Italian humanist historian (d. 1594)
- June 6 – Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist (d. 1603)
- June 12 – Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1574)
- June 15 – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, royal bastard of Henry VIII (d. 1536)
- June 23 – Johannes Goropius Becanus, Dutch physician, linguist and humanist (d. 1572)
- June 24 – Theodore Beza, French theologian (d. 1605)
- July 20 – Pope Innocent IX (d. 1591)
- September 23 – Francis, Count of Enghien, French military leader (d. 1546)
- October 14 – Marie of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Princess of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and by marriage Electress Palatine (d. 1567)
- November 9 – Ogasawara Nagatoki, Japanese daimyō (d. 1583)
- November 22 – Johannes Crato von Krafftheim, German humanist and physician (d. 1585)
- date unknown
- January 12 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1459)
- January – Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Spanish explorer (b. 1475)
- February 6 – Lorenz von Bibra, Prince-Bishop of the Bishopric of Würzburg (b. 1459)
- March 29 – Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua (b. 1466)
- April 15 – Henry, Count of Württemberg-Montbéliard (1473–1482) (b. 1448)
- April 18 – Sibylle of Bavaria, Electress Palatine consort (b. 1489)
- May 2 – Leonardo da Vinci, Italian inventor and artist (b. 1452)
- May 4 – Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino (b. 1492)
- May 13 – Artus Gouffier, Lord of Boissy, French nobleman and politician (b. 1475)
- June 2 – Philippe de Luxembourg, French Catholic cardinal (b. 1445)
- June 24 – Lucrezia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara (b. 1480)
- July 13 – Zhu Youyuan, Ming Dynasty politician (b. 1476)
- July 27 – Zanobi Acciaioli, librarian of the Vatican (b. 1461)
- August 11 – Johann Tetzel, German opponent of the Reformation (b. 1465)
- August 23 – Philibert Berthelier, Swiss patriot (b. c. 1465)
- September – John Colet, English churchman and educator (b. 1467)
- date unknown
- Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. "Chapter 38". Historia Verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España.
- Stanislawski, Dan (1983). The Transformation of Nicaragua 1519–1548. Ibero-Americana. 54. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-09680-0.
- Crosby, Jr., Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492.
- "Henry II | king of France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
- "Leonardo da Vinci | Biography, Art, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
- Hourihane, Colum (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture. OUP USA. p. 396. ISBN 9780195395365.
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