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|Ab urbe condita||2283|
|Balinese saka calendar||1451–1452|
|English Regnal year||21 Hen. 8 – 22 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||己丑年 (Earth Ox)
4226 or 4166
— to —
庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
4227 or 4167
|- Vikram Samvat||1586–1587|
|- Shaka Samvat||1451–1452|
|- Kali Yuga||4630–4631|
|Japanese calendar||Kyōroku 3
|Minguo calendar||382 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2072–2073|
1656 or 1275 or 503
— to —
1657 or 1276 or 504
- February 14 – Tangaxuan II, last cazonci of the Tarascan State, is executed by conquistador Nuño de Guzmán, ending the Tarascan State's independence from Spain.
- February 24 – Charles V is crowned emperor in Bologna, by Pope Clement VII.
- June 25 – The Augsburg Confession is presented to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
- August 3 – Battle of Gavinana: Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert of Chalon (who is killed in the action). The Piagnon (followers of the memory of Girolamo Savonarola) are overthrown, ending the Siege of Florence, and the Medici are restored, in the person of the Pope's nephew Alessandro de' Medici.
- September 15 – The miraculous portrait of Saint Dominic in Soriano appears in Soriano Calabro, Calabria.
- October 8 – A flood engulfs Rome.
- October 26 – The Knights of Malta are formed, when the Knights Hospitaller are given Malta by Charles V. They transfer the island capital from Mdina to Birgu.
- November 5 – St. Felix's flood devastates Zeeland: a large part of the Verdronken Land van Reimerswaal is lost leading to decline of the city of Reimerswaal.
- December – Martim Afonso de Sousa's expedition sets out for the Americas from Portugal.
- The ducal palace of Celle is constructed in Germany.
- Austrian forces capture Esztergom, Hungary, and raid as far as Buda.
- Humayun starts to rule the Mughal Empire.
- Paracelsus leaves Nürnberg.
- Erasmus publishes A handbook on manners for children (De Civilitate Morum Puerilium Libellus), which becomes popular and widely translated.
- January 1 – Thomas Bromley, English lord chancellor (d. 1587)
- January 5 – Gaspar de Bono, Spanish monk of the Order of the Minims (d. 1571)
- January 31 – Ōtomo Sōrin, Japanese Christian Daimyō (d. 1587)
- February 17 – Louis III, Count of Löwenstein (d. 1611)
- February 18 – Uesugi Kenshin, Japanese samurai and warlord (d. 1578)
- February 26 – David Chytraeus, German historian and theologian (d. 1600)
- March 11 – Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (d. 1573)
- May 5 – Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, French nobleman (d. 1574)
- May 7 – Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, French Protestant general (d. 1569)
- June 17 – François de Montmorency, French nobleman (d. 1579)
- June 20 – Johannes Schenck von Grafenberg, German physician (d. 1598)
- July 3 – Claude Fauchet, French historian (d. 1601)
- August 1 – Daniel, Count of Waldeck (d. 1577)
- August 11 – Ranuccio Farnese, Italian prelate (d. 1565)
- August 14 – Giambattista Benedetti, Italian mathematician and physicist (d. 1590)
- August 25 – Ivan IV of Russia (d. 1584)
- September 30 – Geronimo Mercuriale, Italian philologist and physician (d. 1606)
- October 1 – Walter Aston, English politician (d. 1589)
- October 21 – Jacques Jonghelinck, Flemish sculptor (d. 1606)
- October 30 – Charles d'Angennes de Rambouillet, Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1587)
- November 1 – Étienne de La Boétie, French judge and writer (d. 1563)
- November 6 – Josias Simler, Swiss scholar (d. 1576)
- December 1 – Bernardino Realino, Italian Jesuit (d. 1616)
- December 5 – Nikolaus Selnecker, German musician (d. 1592)
- date unknown
- Julius Caesar Aranzi, Italian anatomist (d. 1589)
- Vincenza Armani, Italian actress (d. 1569)
- Christopher Báthory, Prince of Transylvania (d. 1581)
- Jean Bodin, French jurist (d. 1596)
- Pey de Garros, Provençal poet (d. 1585)
- Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki, Polish bishop, political thinker and philosopher (d. 1607)
- Thomas Hoby, English diplomat and translator (d. 1566)
- Kōriki Kiyonaga, Japanese daimyō in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods (d. 1608)
- Jan Kochanowski, Polish writer (d. 1584)
- Ralph Lane, English explorer (d. 1603)
- Jean Nicot, French diplomat and scholar (d. 1606)
- Richard Tarlton, English actor (d. 1588)
- Mordecai Yoffe, Bohemian author of Levush Malkhut (d. 1612)
- Moses Isserles, Polish rabbi and Talmudist (d. 1572)
- Claude Le Jeune, French composer (d. 1600)
- Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, captain of the Scottish Guard of Henry II of France (d. 1574)
- Gráinne O'Malley, Irish ruler (d. 1603)
- Teodora Ginés, Dominican musician and composer (d. 1598)
- Shane O'Neill, Irish chieftain and rebel (d. 1567)
- Turlough Luineach O'Neill, Irish chieftain of Tyrone (d. 1595)
- Jöran Persson, Swedish politician (d. 1568)
- Nicholas Sanders, English Catholic propagandist (d. 1581)
- Ruy López de Segura, Spanish priest (d. 1580)
- February 7 – Enrique de Cardona y Enríquez, Spanish Catholic cardinal and bishop (b. 1485)
- April 12 – Joanna la Beltraneja, princess of Castile (b. 1462)
- May 3 – Stephen VII Báthory, Hungarian nobleman and military commander
- June 4 – Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan (b. 1493)
- June 5 – Mercurino di Gattinara, Italian statesman and jurist (b. 1465)
- June 6 – Boniface IV, Marquess of Montferrat, Italian nobleman (b. 1512)
- June 28 – Margaret of Münsterberg, Duchess consort and regent of Anhalt (b. 1473)
- August 2 – Kanō Masanobu, chief painter of the Ashikaga shogunate (b. 1434)
- August 3
- August 6 – Jacopo Sannazaro, Italian poet (b. 1458)
- August 10 – Konstanty Ostrogski, Grand Hetman of Lithuania (b. 1460)
- August 28 – Gerold Edlibach, Swiss historian (b. 1454)
- August 29 – Moise of Wallachia
- September 13 – Queen Jeonghyeon, Korean royal consort (b. 1462)
- September 15 – Maria Paleologa, Italian noblewoman (b. 1508)
- October 10 – Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, English noble (b. 1477)
- November 24 – Mingyi Nyo, founder of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) (b. 1459)
- November 29 – Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, British statesman (b. c. 1473)
- December 1 – Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands (b. 1480)
- December 22 – Willibald Pirckheimer, German humanist (b. 1470)
- December 26 – Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire (b. 1483)
- date unknown
In video games
- The stage "Skull and Crossbones" in the 1992 video game Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time is set in this year.
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