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|Ab urbe condita||2289|
|Balinese saka calendar||1457–1458|
|English Regnal year||27 Hen. 8 – 28 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4232 or 4172
— to —
丙申年 (Fire Monkey)
4233 or 4173
|- Vikram Samvat||1592–1593|
|- Shaka Samvat||1457–1458|
|- Kali Yuga||4636–4637|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 5
|Minguo calendar||376 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2078–2079|
1662 or 1281 or 509
— to —
1663 or 1282 or 510
- January 7 – Catherine of Aragon, first queen of Henry VIII of England, dies.
- January 22 – John of Leiden, Bernhard Knipperdolling, and Bernhard Krechting are executed in Münster for their roles in the Münster Rebellion.
- February 2 – Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina.
- February 25 – Jacob Hutter is burned at the stake for heresy.
- April 30 – The Inquisition is implemented in Portugal.
- May 2 – Anne Boleyn, second queen of Henry VIII of England, is arrested on the grounds of incest, adultery, and treason.
- May 6 – Incan emperor Manco Inca Yupanqui, having on April 18 escaped from imprisonment in Cuzco, begins his revolt against his captors, when his army begins the 10-month Siege of Cuzco, against a garrison of Spanish conquistadors and Indian auxiliaries, led by Hernando Pizarro.
- May 17 – The five men accused of adultery with Anne Boleyn, including her own brother George Boleyn, are executed.
- May 19 – Anne Boleyn, queen consort of Henry VIII of England is executed in the Tower of London.
- May 30 – Henry VIII of England marries Jane Seymour.
- June 24 – Cristóbal de Oñate founds San Juan Bautista del Teul.
- June 26 – Andrés de Urdaneta and a few companions arrive in Lisbon, completing a circumnavigation which began with de Loaísa's expedition of 1525.
- June 27 – San Pedro Sula is founded by Pedro de Alvarado.
- August 10 – Francis III, Duke of Brittany, Dauphin of France, dies having caught a chill after a game of tennis which has developed into a fever; under torture Sebastiano de Montecuccoli, his Italian secretary, confesses to poisoning him and is brutally executed on October 7. Francis' younger brother, Henry, Duke of Orléans, succeeds as heir to the kingdom.
- October 13 – The Pilgrimage of Grace, a rebellion in York (England), is "resolved" by Robert Aske.
- War resumes between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Francis seizes control of Savoy, and captures Turin. Charles triumphally enters Rome, following the Via Triumphalis, and delivers a speech before the Pope and College of Cardinals, publicly challenging the king of France to a duel.
- Battle of Un no Kuchi: Takeda Family forces defeat Hiraga Genshin.
- Various religious buildings are closed as part of Henry VIII of England's Dissolution of the Monasteries, including
- The legal and political union of Wales with England is reinforced, by An Acte for Lawes & Justice to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realme.
- Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein: Protestantism is introduced in Denmark and Norway, by King Christian III.
- John Calvin's Institutio Christianæ religionis, a seminal work of Protestant systematic theology, is published.
- Battle of Reynogüelén: Spanish conquistadors defeat a group of Mapuches in Chile, during the expedition of Diego de Almagro.
- The Portuguese crown divides Colonial Brazil into fifteen donatory captaincies.
- A trade compact exempts French merchants from Ottoman law and allows them to travel, buy and sell throughout the sultan's dominions, and to pay low customs duties on French imports and exports. The compact is renewed in 1569.
- January 22 – Philibert, Margrave of Baden-Baden (d. 1569)
- February 2
- February 12 – Leonardo Donato, Doge of Venice (d. 1612)
- February 24 – Pope Clement VIII (d. 1605)
- March 6 – Santi di Tito, Italian painter (d. 1603)
- March 10 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, English politician (d. 1572)
- March 31 – Ashikaga Yoshiteru, Japanese shōgun (d. 1565)
- April 8 – Barbara of Hesse (d. 1597)
- May 3 – Stephan Praetorius, German theologian (d. 1603)
- May 13 – Jacobus Pamelius, Belgian bishop (d. 1587)
- August 10 – Caspar Olevian, German Protestant theologian (d. 1587)
- August 14 – René, Marquis of Elbeuf (d. 1566)
- October 18 – William Lambarde, English antiquarian, writer on legal subjects, politician (d. 1601)
- October 21 – Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt (d. 1586)
- October 28 – Felix Plater, Swiss physician (d. 1614)
- November 11 – Marcantonio Memmo, Doge of Venice (d. 1615)
- November 22 – Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (d. 1606)
- December 26 – Yi I, Korean Confucian scholar (d. 1584)
- December 29 – Henry VI, Burgrave of Plauen (d. 1572)
- date unknown
- Juan de Fuca, Greek maritime pilot (d. 1602)
- Jeong Cheol, Korean administrator and poet (d. 1593)
- Cornelis Cort, Dutch engraver (d. 1578)
- Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset, English statesman and poet (d. 1608)
- Leonor de Cisneros, Spanish Protestant (d. 1568)
- Guilford Dudley, son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (d. 1554)
- Roger Marbeck, chief physician to Elizabeth I of England (d. 1604)
- Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, British statesman and admiral (d. 1624)
- Friedrich Sylburg, German classical scholar (d. 1596)
- Ikeda Tsuneoki, Japanese military commander (d. 1584)
- Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese warlord d. 1598)
- January 6 – Baldassare Peruzzi, Italian architect and painter (b. 1481)
- January 7 – Catherine of Aragon, First Queen of Henry VIII of England (b. 1485)
- January 22
- February 25
- March 1 – Bernardo Accolti, Italian poet (b. 1465)
- March 15 – Pargali Ibrahim Pasha, Ottoman grand vizier (b. 1493)
- April 4 – Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (b. 1460)
- May 17 – George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford, English diplomat (executed) (b. 1503)
- May 19 – Anne Boleyn, second queen of Henry VIII of England (executed) (b. c. 1501/1507)
- May 31 – Charles I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels, Count of Kladsko, Governor of Bohemia and Silesia (b. 1476)
- June 29 – Bernhard III, Margrave of Baden-Baden (b. 1474)
- July 12 – Erasmus, Dutch philosopher (b. 1466)
- July 23 – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England (b. 1519)
- June 28 – Richard Pace, English diplomat (b. 1482)
- August 10 – Francis III, Duke of Brittany, Dauphin of France, brother of Henry II (b. 1518)
- September 25 – Johannes Secundus, Dutch poet (b. 1511)
- September 26 – Didier de Saint-Jaille, 46th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller
- September 27 – Felice della Rovere, also known as Madonna Felice, was the illegitimate daughter of Pope Julius II (b. 1483)
- October 6 – William Tyndale, English Protestant Bible translator (b. c. 1494)
- October 14 – Garcilaso de la Vega, Spanish poet (b. 1503)
- December 21 – Sir John Seymour, English courtier (b. 1474)
- date unknown
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