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|Ab urbe condita||2300|
|Balinese saka calendar||1468–1469|
|English Regnal year||38 Hen. 8 – 1 Edw. 6|
|Chinese calendar||丙午年 (Fire Horse)
4243 or 4183
— to —
丁未年 (Fire Goat)
4244 or 4184
|- Vikram Samvat||1603–1604|
|- Shaka Samvat||1468–1469|
|- Kali Yuga||4647–4648|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 16
|Minguo calendar||365 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2089–2090|
1673 or 1292 or 520
— to —
1674 or 1293 or 521
- January 8 – The first Lithuanian-language book, a Catechism (Katekizmo paprasti žodžiai, Simple Words of Catechism), is published in Königsberg by Martynas Mažvydas.
- January 13 – Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey is sentenced to death for treason in England.
- January 16 – Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia, replacing the 264-year-old Grand Duchy of Moscow with the Tsardom of Russia.
- January 28 – King Henry VIII of England dies in London and is succeeded by his 9-year-old son Edward VI as King of England.
- February 20 – Edward VI of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey.
- March 31 – King Francis I of France dies at the Château de Rambouillet and is succeeded by his eldest surviving son Henry II (on his 28th birthday) as King of France.
- April 4 – Catherine Parr, widow of King Henry VIII of England, secretly marries Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley.
- April 24 – Battle of Mühlberg: Emperor Charles V defeats the Lutheran forces of the Schmalkaldic League.
- August 13 – The Duchy of Brittany unites with the Kingdom of France.
- September 10
- Battle of Pinkie Cleugh: An English army under the Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, defeats a Scottish army under James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, the Regent. The English seize Edinburgh.
- Conspirators led by Ferrante Gonzaga murder Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma and son of the Pope, and hang his body from a window of his palace in Piacenza.
- Huguenots increasingly immigrate to the English county of Kent, especially Canterbury, from France.
- The Chambre Ardente is established in Paris for trying heretics.
- Work on construction of the Château de Chambord, in the Loire Valley, for Francis I of France, ceases.
- John Dee visits the Low Countries, to study navigation with Gemma Frisius.
- Edward VI of England outlaws execution by boiling.
- January 15 – Duchess Hedwig of Württemberg, by marriage countess of Hesse-Marburg (d. 1590)
- January 20 – Laurence Bruce, Scottish politician (d. 1617)
- January 24 – Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Austrian Archduchess (d. 1578)
- February 8 – Girolamo Mattei, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1603)
- February 18 – Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī, Syrian Arab co-founder of the Isfahan School of Islamic Philosophy (d. 1621)
- February 24 – Don John of Austria, military leader (d. 1578)
- March 1 – Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (d. 1628)
- March 26 – Bernardino Bertolotti, Italian instrumentalist and composer (d. 1609)
- April 8 – Lucrezia Bendidio, noblewoman and singer in Renaissance Ferrara (d. 1584)
- May 15 – Magnus Pegel, German mathematician (d. 1619)
- May 19 – Gustaf Banér, Swedish nobleman and member of the Privy Council of Sweden (d. 1600)
- June 28 – Cristofano Malvezzi, Italian organist and composer (d. 1599)
- July 5 – Garzia de' Medici, Italian noble (d. 1562)
- August 10 – Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (d. 1619)
- September 10 – George I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (d. 1596)
- September 14 – Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Dutch statesman (d. 1619)
- September 22 – Philipp Nicodemus Frischlin, German philologist and poet (d. 1590)
- September 20 – Faizi, Indo-Persian poet and scholar (d. 1595)
- September 29 – Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish fiction writer (d. 1616)
- October 2 – Philipp Ludwig, Count Palatine of Neuburg (1569-1614) and Count Palatine of Sulzbach (1604-1614) (d. 1614)
- October 18 – Justus Lipsius, Flemish humanist (d. 1606)
- October 29 – Princess Sophia of Sweden, Swedish princess (d. 1611)
- November 7 – Rudolf Hospinian, Swiss writer (d. 1626)
- November 10
- November 12 – Claude of Valois, daughter of King Henry II of France (d. 1575)
- November 26 – Nicolaus Taurellus, German philosopher and theologian (d. 1606)
- December 5 – Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historian and geographer (d. 1625)
- December 15 – Magdalena of Nassau-Dillenburg, German noblewoman (d. 1633)
- date unknown
- Matteo Perez d'Aleccio, Italian painter (d. 1616)
- Mateo Alemán, Spanish novelist and man of letters (d. 1609)
- Peter Bales, English calligrapher (d. 1610)
- Louis Carrion, Flemish humanist and classical scholar (d. 1595)
- Oichi, Japanese noblewoman (d. 1583)
- Krzysztof Mikołaj "the Thunderbolt" Radziwiłł, Polish nobleman (d. 1603)
- Richard Stanihurst, English translator of Virgil (d. 1618)
- Roemer Visscher, Dutch writer (d. 1620)
- Stanisław Żółkiewski, Polish nobleman (d. 1620)
- January 5
- January 16 – Johannes Schöner, German astronomer and cartographer (b. 1477)
- January 18 – Pietro Bembo, Italian cardinal and scholar (b. 1470)
- January 19 – Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, English nobleman, politician and poet, beheaded (b. c.1517)
- January 27 – Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, Queen consort of the Romans, Bohemia and Hungary (b. 1503)
- January 28 – King Henry VIII of England (b. 1491)
- February 25 – Vittoria Colonna, marchioness of Pescara (b. 1490)
- February 28 – Philippa of Guelders, Duchess of Lorraine (b. 1467)
- March 31 – King Francis I of France (b. 1494)
- April 11 – Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Prussia, Danish princess (b. 1504)
- May 22 – Daniel, Metropolitan of Moscow (b. c. 1492)
- c. May – Edward Hall, English chronicler and lawyer (b. c.1496)
- June 21 – Sebastiano del Piombo, Italian painter (b. 1485)
- July 20 – Beatus Rhenanus, German humanist and religious reformer (b. 1485)
- August 7 – Saint Cajetan, Italian priest and saint (b. 1480)
- August 17 – Katharina von Zimmern, Swiss sovereign abbess (b. 1478)
- September 10 – Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma (b. 1503)
- September 17 – Frederick II of Legnica, Duke of Legnica from 1488 (until 1495 and 1505 with his brothers) (b. 1480)
- October 18 – Jacopo Sadoleto, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1477)
- December 2 – Hernán Cortés, Spanish conquistador of Mexico (b. 1485)
- December 28 – Konrad Peutinger, German humanist and antiquarian (b. 1465)
- date unknown
- "Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey | English poet". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
- "Henry VIII | Biography, Wives, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
- Hunt, Alice (2008). The Drama of Coronation: Medieval Ceremony in Early Modern England. Cambridge University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781139474665.
- "Francis I | king of France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
- "Henry II | king of France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
- James Gairdner (1924). The English Church in the Sixteenth Century: From the Accession of Henry VIII to the Death of Mary. Macmillan and Company Limited.
- Geoffrey Parker (June 25, 2019). Emperor: A New Life of Charles V. Yale University Press. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-300-24102-0.
- Carol Kidwell (November 2, 2004). Pietro Bembo: Lover, Linguist, Cardinal. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-7735-7192-1.
- "La tumba de Hernán Cortés, una historia fascinante" [The grave of Hernan Cortes, a fascinating story] (in Spanish). Mexico Desconocido. April 3, 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
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