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|Ab urbe condita||2303|
|Balinese saka calendar||1471–1472|
|English Regnal year||3 Edw. 6 – 4 Edw. 6|
|Chinese calendar||己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4246 or 4186
— to —
庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
4247 or 4187
|- Vikram Samvat||1606–1607|
|- Shaka Samvat||1471–1472|
|- Kali Yuga||4650–4651|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 19
|Minguo calendar||362 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2092–2093|
1676 or 1295 or 523
— to —
1677 or 1296 or 524
- January 6 – Spanish Captain Hernando de Santana founds the city of Valledupar, in modern-day Colombia.
- February 8 – Pope Julius III succeeds Pope Paul III as the 221st pope.
- March 12 – Arauco War: Battle of Penco – Several hundred Spanish and indigenous troops under the command of Pedro de Valdivia defeat an army of 60,000 Mapuche in modern-day Chile.
- March 12 – Acapulco is founded by 30 families sent from Mexico City
- March 24 – "Rough Wooing": England and France sign the Treaty of Boulogne, by which England withdraws from Boulogne in France and returns territorial gains in Scotland.
- March 29 – Sherborne School in England is refounded by King Edward VI.
- April 16 – Valladolid debate on the rights and treatment of indigenous peoples of the Americas by their Spanish conquerors opens at the Colegio de San Gregorio in Valladolid, Castile.
- June 12 – The city of Helsinki, Finland (belonging to Sweden at this time) is founded by King Gustav I of Sweden.
- July (at least) – John Dee finishes his studies at the Old University of Leuven.
- July 7 – Chocolate is introduced to Europe.
- July 21 – The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) is approved by Pope Julius III.
- October 2 – Battle of Sauðafell in Iceland: Daði Guðmundsson of Snóksdalur defeats the forces of Catholic Bishop Jón Arason who is captured and executed, resulting in Iceland becoming fully Protestant.
- Altan Khan crosses the Great Wall of China and besieges Beijing, burning the suburbs.
- The summit level canal between Alster and the Trave in Germany ceases to be navigable.
- The first grammatical description of the French language is published by Louis Maigret.
- The first book in Slovene, Catechismus, written by Protestant reformer Primož Trubar, is printed in Schwäbisch Hall, Holy Roman Empire.
- Nostradamus' first almanac is written.
- Approximate date – The discovery of silver at Zacatecas and Guanajuato in Mexico stimulates silver rushes.
- January 18 – Tsugaru Tamenobu, Japanese daimyō (d. 1607)
- February 1 – John Napier, Scottish mathematician (d. 1617)
- February 17 – Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, Dutch army commander (d. 1606)
- February 22 – Charles de Ligne, 2nd Prince of Arenberg (d. 1616)
- March 6 – Michelangelo Naccherino, Italian sculptor (d. 1622)
- March 8 – William Drury, English politician (d. 1590)
- April 5 – Andrés Pacheco, Spanish churchman and theologian (d. 1626)
- April 9 – Giulio Pace, Italian philosopher (d. 1635)
- April 12 – Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, Lord Great Chamberlain of England (d. 1604)
- April 16 – Francis Anthony, English apothecary and physician (d. 1623)
- April 18 – Alessandro Pieroni, Italian painter (d. 1607)
- May 8 – John I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (d. 1604)
- May 25 – Camillus de Lellis, Italian saint and nurse (d. 1614)
- June 16 – Marie Eleonore of Cleves, Duchess consort of Prussia (1573–1608) (d. 1608)
- June 27 – King Charles IX of France (d. 1574)
- June 28 – Johannes van den Driesche, Flemish Protestant clergyman and scholar (d. 1616)
- July 3 – Jacobus Gallus, Slovenian composer (d. 1591)
- August 6 – Enrico Caetani, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1599)
- August 8 – Petrus Gudelinus, Belgian jurist (d. 1619)
- September 1 – Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia, Spanish admiral (d. 1615)
- September 10 – Alonso de Guzmán El Bueno, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia, commander of the Spanish Armada (d. 1615)
- September 17 – Pope Paul V (d. 1621)
- September 29 – Joachim Frederick of Brieg, Duke of Wołów (1586-1602) (d. 1602)
- September 30 – Michael Maestlin, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1631)
- October 1 – Anne of Saint Bartholomew, Spanish Discalced Carmelite nun (d. 1626)
- October 4 – King Charles IX of Sweden (d. 1611)
- October 8 – Antonio Zapata y Cisneros, Spanish cardinal (d. 1635)
- October 25 – Ralph Sherwin, English Roman Catholic priest (martyred 1581)
- October 28 – Stanislaus Kostka, Polish saint (d. 1568)
- November 1 – Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Prince-Bishop of Osnabruck and Paderborn (d. 1585)
- November 6 – Karin Månsdotter, Swedish queen (d. 1612)
- December 2 – Antonio Fernández de Córdoba y Cardona, Spanish diplomat (d. 1606)
- December 6 – Orazio Vecchi, Italian composer (d. 1605)
- December 21
- December 22 – Cesare Cremonini, Italian philosopher (d. 1631)
- December 28 – Vicente Espinel, Spanish writer (d. 1624)
- December 29 – García de Silva Figueroa, Spanish diplomat and traveller (d. 1624)
- December 31 – Henry I, Duke of Guise (d. 1588)
- date unknown
- Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi, Polish Jewish author (d. 1625)
- Willem Barentsz, Dutch navigator and explorer (d. 1597)
- Anselmus de Boodt, Belgian mineralogist and physician (d. 1632)
- Matthijs Bril, Flemish painter (d. 1583)
- Helena Antonia, Austrian court dwarf (d. 1595)
- Sarsa Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia (d. 1597)
- Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, Irish rebel (d. 1616)
- Robert Balfour, Scottish philosopher (d. 1625)
- Henry Barrowe, English Puritan and Separatist (d. 1593)
- Emilio de' Cavalieri, Italian composer (d. 1602)
- Cornelis Corneliszoon, Dutch inventor of the sawmill (d. c. 1600)
- Philip Henslowe, English theatrical entrepreneur (d. 1616)
- Brianda Pereira, Azorean Portuguese heroine (d. 1620)
- January 12 – Andrea Alciato, Italian jurist and writer (b. 1492)
- January 22 – Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah, second ruler of Golconda
- January 28 – Magnus III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Lutheran administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin (b. 1509)
- February 22 – Francesco III Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (b. 1533)
- March 7 – William IV, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1493)
- March 8 – John of God, Spanish friar and saint (b. 1495)
- April 12 – Claude, Duke of Guise, French soldier (b. 1496)
- April 13 – Innocenzo Cybo, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1491)
- April 30 – King Tabinshwehti of Burma (b. 1516)
- May 18 – Jean, Cardinal of Lorraine, French churchman (b. 1498)
- May 20 – Ashikaga Yoshiharu, Japanese shōgun (b. 1511)
- June 13 – Veronica Gambara, Italian poet (b. 1485)
- July 19 (probable date) – Jacopo Bonfadio, Italian historian, executed (b. c. 1508)
- July 22 – Jorge de Lencastre, Duke of Coimbra (b. 1481)
- July 30 – Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton, English politician (b. 1505)
- August 18 – Antonio Ferramolino, Italian architect and military engineer
- October 20 – Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria (b. 1488)
- October 23 – Tiedemann Giese, Polish Catholic bishop (b. 1480)
- October 24 – Louis of Valois, French prince (b. 1549)
- October 26 – Samuel Maciejowski, Polish Catholic bishop (b. 1499)
- November 6 – Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg (b. 1487)
- November 7 – Jón Arason, last Catholic bishop of Iceland (b. 1484)
- December 6 – Pieter Coecke van Aelst, Flemish painter (b. 1502)
- December 8 – Gian Giorgio Trissino, Italian humanist, poet, dramatist and diplomat (b. 1478)
- December 29 – Bhuvanaikabahu VII, King of Kotte (b. 1468)
- date unknown – Aq Kubek of Astrakhan, ruler of Astrakhan Khanate
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 218–223. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Broecke, Steven Vanden (2003). The Limits of Influence: Pico, Louvain, and the Crisis of Renaissance Astrology. Leiden: Brill. p. 168. ISBN 9789004131699.
- "Alster-Beste Kanal (Alster-Trave-Kanal.)". Lost Canals of Schleswig-Holstein. 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- Joze Krasovec (1 October 1999). The Interpretation of the Bible: The International Symposium in Slovenia. A&C Black. p. 1078. ISBN 978-0-567-34563-9.
- Alexandre Dumas (1999). La Reine Margot. Oxford University Press. p. 510. ISBN 978-0-19-283844-5.
- Charles George Herbermann; Edward Aloysius Pace; Condé Bénoist Pallen (1913). The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church. Encyclopedia Press. p. 581.
- Grolier Incorporated (1993). Academic American encyclopedia. Grolier. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-7172-2047-2.
- The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2003. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-85229-961-6.
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