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|Ab urbe condita||2307|
|Balinese saka calendar||1475–1476|
|English Regnal year||1 Mar. 1 – 1 Ph. & M.|
|Chinese calendar||癸丑年 (Water Ox)
4250 or 4190
— to —
甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4251 or 4191
|- Vikram Samvat||1610–1611|
|- Shaka Samvat||1475–1476|
|- Kali Yuga||4654–4655|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 23
|Minguo calendar||358 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2096–2097|
1680 or 1299 or 527
— to —
1681 or 1300 or 528
- January 5 – A great fire breaks out in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
- January 12 – Bayinnaung is crowned king of the Burmese Taungoo Dynasty.
- January 25 – São Paulo, Brazil, is founded.
- February 9 – Thomas Wyatt surrenders to government forces in London.
- February 12 – After claiming the throne of England the previous year, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason.
- March 18 – Princess Elizabeth is imprisoned in the Tower of London.
- April 12 – Mary of Guise becomes Regent of Scotland.
- July 23–25 – Queen Mary I of England marries King Philip of Naples, the only son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Winchester, England.
- August 2 – Battle of Marciano: Senese–French forces are defeated by the Florentine–Imperial army.
- August 12 – Battle of Renty: French forces led by Francis, Duke of Guise turn back an invasion of Picardy, by Charles V.
- November – English captain John Lok voyages to Guinea.
- Mikael Agricola becomes the bishop of Turku.
- Saadi conquer the Kingdom of Fez.
- Exact center year of Counter Reformation.
- The name of the beer brewed by New Belgium Brewing Company is based on a recipe from this date, called "1554."
- Luso-Chinese agreement: Portugal reaches an agreement with the Ming Dynasty of China, to be allowed to legally trade in the province of Guangdong.
- Rao Surjan Singh becomes ruler of Bundi.
- January 1 – Louis III, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1593)
- January 9 – Pope Gregory XV (d. 1623)
- January 20 – King Sebastian of Portugal (d. 1578)
- February 8 – Marina de Escobar, Spanish nun (d. 1633)
- February 27 – Giovanni Battista Paggi, Italian painter (d. 1627)
- March – Richard Hooker, Anglican theologian (d. 1600)
- March 1 – William Stafford, English courtier and conspirator (d. 1612)
- March 18 – Josias I, Count of Waldeck, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1578-1588) (d. 1588)
- March 22 – Catherine de Parthenay, French noblewoman and mathematician (d. 1631)
- March 26 – Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, French military leader (d. 1611)
- March 28 – Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich of Russia (d. 1581)
- March 30 – Paul Laurentius, German divine (d. 1624)
- April – Stephen Gosson, English satirist (d. 1624)
- April 15 – Simon VI, Count of Lippe, Count of Lippe-Detmold (1563-1613) (d. 1613)
- May 20 – Paolo Bellasio, Italian composer (d. 1594)
- June 3 – Pietro de' Medici, Italian noble (d. 1604)
- June 5 – Benedetto Giustiniani, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1621)
- June 21 – Joachim of Zollern, Titular Count of Hohenzollern (d. 1587)
- July 5 – Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France (d. 1592)
- October 1 – Leonardus Lessius, Jesuit theologian (d. 1623)
- October 3 – Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, English poet (d. 1628)
- October 10 – Arnold III, Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt-Tecklenburg-Limburg and Lord of Rheda (d. 1606)
- October 20 – Bálint Balassi, Hungarian writer and noble (d. 1594)
- October 28 – Enevold Kruse, Danish noble (d. 1621)
- October 30 – Prospero Farinacci, Italian jurist (d. 1618)
- November 30 – Sir Philip Sidney, English courtier and poet (d. 1586)
- December 17 – Ernest of Bavaria, Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1612)
- December 19 – Philip William, Prince of Orange (d. 1618)
- date unknown
- January 2 – João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, Portuguese prince (b. 1537)
- January 11 – Min Bin, king of Arakan (b. 1493)
- January 16
- February 12
- February 21
- February 23 – Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English politician (executed) (b. c.1515)
- March 3 – John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony (b. 1503)
- April 11 – Thomas Wyatt the Younger, English rebel (executed) (b. 1521)
- April 23 – Gaspara Stampa, Italian poet (b. 1523)
- May 2 – William Waldegrave, English Member of Parliament (b. 1507)
- June 19
- June 28 – Leone Strozzi, French Navy admiral (b. 1515)
- August 25 – Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, English politician (b. 1473)
- September 22 – Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Spanish conquistador (b. c. 1510)
- December 22 – Alessandro Bonvicino, Italian painter (b. 1498)
- December – John Taylor, Bishop of Lincoln (b. 1503)
- approx. date – Susannah Hornebolt, English artist (b. 1503)
- date unknown
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 150–153. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Samson, Alexander (2005). "Changing Places: The Marriage and Royal Entry of Philip, Prince of Austria, and Mary Tudor, July-August 1554". The Sixteenth Century Journal. 36 (3): 761–784. doi:10.2307/20477489. JSTOR 20477489.
- Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 245. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
- Kerr, Robert (1824). A general history and collection of voyages and travels. 7. Edinburgh: Blackwood. p. 229. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
- Walsh, Michael J. (May 10, 2006). Pocket Dictionary of Popes. A&C Black. p. 58. ISBN 9780860124207.
- Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku; Gates, Henry Louis (February 2, 2012). Dictionary of African Biography. 1–6. OUP USA. p. 312-313. ISBN 9780195382075.
- Arnold, III, J Barto; Weddle, Robert S. (1978). The Nautical Archeology of Padre Island: The Spanish Shipwrecks of 1554. Academic Press. p. 151. ISBN 9780120636501.
- "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Lady Jane Grey (1537 - 1554)". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
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