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|Ab urbe condita||2328|
|Balinese saka calendar||1496–1497|
|English Regnal year||17 Eliz. 1 – 18 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
4271 or 4211
— to —
乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
4272 or 4212
|- Vikram Samvat||1631–1632|
|- Shaka Samvat||1496–1497|
|- Kali Yuga||4675–4676|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 3
|Minguo calendar||337 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2117–2118|
1701 or 1320 or 548
— to —
1702 or 1321 or 549
- January 21 – Queen Elizabeth I of England grants a monopoly on producing printed sheet music, to Thomas Tallis and William Byrd.
- February 8 – William I of Orange founds Leiden University.
- February 13 – Henry III of France is crowned at Reims.
- February 14 – Henry III of France marries Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont.
- March 3 – Battle of Tukaroi; The Mughal Empire decisively defeat the Karrani dynasty of Bengal.
- June 24 – William I of Orange marries Charlotte of Bourbon.
- June 28 – Battle of Nagashino: Oda Nobunaga defeats Takeda Katsuyori in Japan's first modern battle.
- July 7 – Raid of the Redeswire: Sir John Carmichael defeats Sir John Forster, in the last battle between England and Scotland.
- July 26 – Edmund Grindal succeeds Matthew Parker, as Archbishop of Canterbury.
- August 5 – Henry Sidney is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
- October 10 – Battle of Dormans: Catholic forces under Henry I, Duke of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others.
- October 22 – The city of Villa de la Asunsion (today Aguascalientes is founded in New Spain, by permission from Philip II of Spain.
- December 15 – Stephen Báthory becomes king of Poland.
- December 16 – An earthquake hits Valdivia.
- Russians occupy Pernau in western Estonia, and the fortress of Weissenstein.
- Portugal founds the city of Luanda, Angola.
- The seat of the Audiencia Real in Chile moves from Concepción to Santiago.
- Abraham Ortelius becomes geographer to Philip II of Spain.
- The bubonic plague decimates Venice.
- Gaspar da Cruz, a Portuguese Dominican friar, writes about his travels to the Ming Dynasty of China, including the Chinese civil service handbook The Bureaucratic System of the Ming Dynasty, and how the Chinese draw lots, to determine which days of the year are most auspicious or most ill-fated to travel upon.
- January 22 – Louis III, Cardinal of Guise (d. 1621)
- January – Elizabeth Cecil, 16th Baroness de Ros (d. 1591)
- February 4 – Pierre de Bérulle, French cardinal and statesman (d. 1629)
- February 15 – Louis Gunther of Nassau, Count of Nassau-Katzenelnbogen (d. 1604)
- February 16 – Richard Carpenter, English priest and theologian (d. 1625)
- February 21 – Marten Pepijn, painter (d. 1643)
- February 25 – Bernard of Wąbrzeźno, Polish Catholic priest and Benedictine monk (d. 1603)
- February 27
- April 18 – Frederick Magnus, Count of Erbach-Fürstenau (1606–1618) (d. 1618)
- April 21 – Francesco Molin, Doge of Venice (d. 1655)
- April 26 – Marie de' Medici, queen of Henry IV of France (d. 1642)
- May 20 – Robert Heath, English judge and politician (d. 1649)
- May 30 – Diego Salcedo, Spanish bishop (d. 1644)
- June 15 – Lelio Biscia, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1638)
- June 24 – William Petre, 2nd Baron Petre, English peer and MP (d. 1637)
- June 26 – Anne Catherine of Brandenburg (d. 1612)
- July 2 – Elizabeth de Vere, Countess of Derby, British businessman (d. 1627)
- July 11 – Thomas Berkeley, English politician (d. 1611)
- July 14 – Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau, German prince (d. 1653)
- July 28 – Fernando de Valdés y Llanos, Spanish Catholic archbishop (d. 1639)
- July 31 – Simon Steward, English politician (d. 1632)
- August 14 – Robert Hayman, English-born poet (d. 1629)
- August 15 – Diego, Prince of Asturias, Portuguese prince (d. 1582)
- August 18 – Countess Palatine Anna Maria of Neuburg, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (d. 1643)
- August 24 – William Burton, British antiquarian (d. 1645)
- November 4 – Guido Reni, Italian painter (d. 1642)
- November 26 – John Augustus, Count Palatine of Lützelstein, German count (d. 1611)
- December 4 – The Nun of Monza, Italian nun (d. 1650)
- December 18 – Michelagnolo Galilei, Italian lutenist and composer (d. 1631)
- date unknown
- Jakob Böhme, German mystic (d. 1624)
- David Calderwood, Scottish divine and historian (d. 1650)
- Concino Concini, 3rd Prime Minister of France (d. 1617)
- Anna Kostka, Polish noblewoman (d. 1635)
- Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, successful London merchant (d. 1645)
- William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle (d. 1622)
- Arbella Stuart, Duchess of Somerset (d. 1615)
- Cyril Tourneur, English dramatist (d. 1626)
- Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell (d. 1608)
- January 4 – Sidonie of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Calenberg (b. 1518)
- January 14 – Barbara Uthmann, German businessperson (b. 1514)
- January 22 – James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault (b. 1516)
- January 29 – Hernando de Aragón, Spanish Roman Catholic archbishop (b. 1498)
- February 9 – Karl Friedrich of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, heir apparent of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (b. 1555)
- February 20 – Maria of Jever, last ruler of the Lordship of Jever (b. 1500)
- February 21 – Claude of Valois, Duchess consort of Lorraine and French princess (b. 1547)
- February 28 – Limahong, Chinese pirate
- March 11 – Matthias Flacius, Croatian Protestant reformer (b. 1520)
- March 15 – Annibale Padovano, Italian composer and organist (b. 1527)
- March 17 – Georg Cracow, German lawyer and politician (b. 1525)
- March 24 – Yosef Karo, Spanish-born Jewish rabbi (b. 1488)
- April 15 – Wolrad II, Count of Waldeck (b. 1509)
- May 17 – Matthew Parker, English Roman Catholic archbishop (b. 1504)
- May 28 – Sophia Jagiellon, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1522)
- June 3 – Francisco de Ibarra, Spanish explorer and colonial governor in Mexico (b. c. 1539)
- June 7 – Sir George Heron, English politician
- June 28 – Yonekura Shigetsugu, Japanese samurai
- June 29
- July 14 – Richard Taverner, English Bible translator (b. 1505)
- July 29 – Jon Simonssøn, Norwegian humanist (b. 1512)
- August 2 – Christopher II, Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern (b. 1537)
- September 17 – Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious reformer (b. 1504)
- September 24 – Anna of Oldenburg, Regent of East Frisia (b. 1501)
- October 17 – Gaspar Cervantes de Gaeta, Spanish Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1511)
- October 20 – Kaspar Eberhard, German theologian (b. 1523)
- October 24 – Peder Oxe, Danish finance minister (b. 1520)
- November 2 – Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach, German princess (b. 1529)
- December 1 – Diego Andrada de Payva, Portuguese theologian (b. 1528)
- December 23 – Akiyama Nobutomo, Japanese retainer (b. 1531)
- December 31 – Pierino Belli, Italian soldier and jurist (b. 1502)
- date unknown
- "Thomas Tallis". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- B.W. Ife. "Introduction to Christopher Columbus, Journal of the first voyage". King's College London. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- Bugeja, Anton (2014). "Clemente Tabone: The man, his family and the early years of St Clement's Chapel" (PDF): 42–57. Archived from the original on June 20, 2018.
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