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1694 (MDCXCIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1694th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 694th year of the 2nd millennium, the 94th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1694, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- February 5 – The ship Ridderschap van Holland is lost at sea, after it departs the Cape of Good Hope, but does not arrive at Batavia.
- February 6 – The colony of Quilombo dos Palmares, Brazil, is destroyed.
- March 1 – The HMS Sussex treasure fleet of thirteen ships is wrecked in the Mediterranean off Gibraltar, with the loss of approximately 1,200 lives.
- May 27 – Battle of Torroella: The French Navy defeats Spain.
- July 27 – The Bank of England is founded through Royal charter by the Whig-dominated Parliament of England, following a proposal by Scottish merchant William Paterson to raise capital, by offering safe and steady returns of interest guaranteed by future taxes. A total of £1.2 million is raised for the war effort against Louis XIV of France by the end of the year, to establish the first-ever government debt.
- September 5 – The Great Fire of Warwick breaks out in England and destroys half the town. Donors raise £110,000 toward disaster relief, with Queen Anne contributing £1,000.
- Autumn – A major windstorm spreads the Culbin Sands over a large area of farmland, in Scotland.
- October 23 – British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phips, fail to seize Quebec from the French.
- October 25 – Queen Mary II of England founds the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich.
- December – Thomas Tenison is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
- December 3 – The Parliament of England passes the Triennial Act, requiring general elections every three years.
- December 28 – Queen Mary II of England dies of smallpox aged 32, leaving her husband King William III to rule alone but without an heir. Since he is also without a royal hostess, Mary's sister Princess Anne is summoned back to court (having been banished after an unseemly row with the queen), as his official heiress.
- The Lao empire of Lan Xang unofficially ends.
- The notorious voyage of the English slave ship Hannibal (part of the Atlantic slave trade out of Benin) ends with the death of nearly half of the 692 slaves aboard.
- Rascians establish the settlement which will become Novi Sad on the Danube.
- The Académie française publishes the first complete edition of its Dictionnaire in Paris.
- April 25 – Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, English architect (d. 1753)
- May 11 – Princess Maria Theresia of Liechtenstein (d. 1772)
- June 4 – François Quesnay, French economist (d. 1774)
- June 26 – Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and mineralogist (d. 1768)
- June 27 – John Michael Rysbrack, Flemish sculptor (d. 1770)
- July 4 – Louis-Claude Daquin, French composer (d. 1772)
- August 5 – Leonardo Leo, Italian composer (d. 1744)
- August 8 – Francis Hutcheson, Irish philosopher (d. 1746)
- August 26 – Elisha Williams, American rector of Yale College (d. 1755)
- September 22 – Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, English statesman and man of letters (d. 1773)
- September 25 – Henry Pelham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1754)
- October 26 – Johan Helmich Roman, Swedish composer (d. 1758)
- November 16 – Isabella Simons, banker in the Austrian Netherlands (d. 1756)
- November 21 – Voltaire, French philosopher (d. 1778)
- November 28 – Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (d. 1728)
- December 22 – Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer (d. 1768)
- January 2 – Henry Booth, 1st Earl of Warrington, English politician (b. 1651)
- January 7 – Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, English aristocrat and soldier (b. c.1618)
- January 10 – Andrew Balfour, Scottish doctor (b. 1630)
- January 16 – Francesco Morosini, Doge of Venice from 1688 to 1694 (b. 1619)
- January 19 – François Marie, Prince of Lillebonne, French nobleman and member of the House of Lorraine (b. 1624)
- February 1 – John Louis of Elderen, Bishop of Liege (b. 1620)
- February 4 – Natalya Naryshkina, Tsaritsa of Russia (b. 1651)
- February 17 – Antoinette du Ligier de la Garde Deshoulières, French writer (b. 1638)
- February 26 – Charles Scarborough, English physician, mathematician (b. 1615)
- March 5 – Vittoria della Rovere, Italian noble (b. 1622)
- March 12 – John Conant, English theologian, clergyman, and academic administrator (b. 1608)
- April 8 – Nicolás de Villacis, Spanish painter (b. 1616)
- April 12 – John Swinfen, English politician (b. 1613)
- April 16 – Claire-Clémence de Maillé-Brézé, French noblewoman (b. 1628)
- April 27 – John George IV, Elector of Saxony (b. 1668)
- May 24 – Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, English politician (b. 1656)
- June 2 – Gaspar Téllez-Girón, 5th Duke de Osuna, Spanish duke (b. 1625)
- June 17 – Philip Howard, English Catholic Cardinal (b. 1629)
- July 12 – Juan de Santiago y León Garabito, Spanish Catholic prelate, Bishop of Guadalajara and Bishop of Puerto Rico (b. 1641)
- August 8 – Antoine Arnauld, French philosopher and mathematician (b. 1612)
- August 22
- September 10 – Thomas Lloyd, Quaker preacher of provincial Pennsylvania (b. 1640)
- October 15 – Samuel von Pufendorf, German jurist (b. 1632)
- November 22 – John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1630)
- November 25 – Ismaël Bullialdus, French astronomer (b. 1605)
- November 28 – Matsuo Bashō, Japanese poet (b. 1644)
- November 29 – Marcello Malpighi, Italian physician (b. 1628)
- December 2 – Pierre Puget, French artist (b. 1622)
- December 5 – William Beecher, English politician (b. 1628)
- December 7 – Tiberio Fiorilli, Italian-born actor (b. 1608)
- December 9 – Paolo Segneri, Italian Jesuit (b. 1624)
- December 11 – Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma from 1646 until his death (b. 1630)
- December 20 – Erasmus Finx, German polymath (b. 1627)
- December 28 – Queen Mary II of England, Scotland and Ireland (b. 1662)
- date unknown – Hafız Post, Turkish musician
- "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p46
- "Greenwich Hospital". Retrieved March 7, 2012.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
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