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1741 (MDCCXLI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1741st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 741st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1741, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 13 – Lanesborough, Massachusetts is created as a township.
- February 13 – Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, popularizes the term "the balance of power" in a speech in Parliament Max Cryer, Common Phrases: And the Amazing Stories Behind Them (Skyhorse Publishing, 2010) p26
- February 14 – Actor Charles Macklin gives his breakthrough performance, as Shylock in The Merchant of Venice and pioneers a new, psychologically realistic style, as William Shakespeare's text is revived and replaces George Granville's comedy The Jew of Venice 
- March 9 – Prussian troops bring down the Austrian fortress of Glogau (now Głogów in Poland).
- March 13 – The Royal Navy brings 180 warships, frigates and transport vessels, led by Admiral Edward Vernon, to threaten Cartagena, with more than 27,000 crew against the 3,600 defenders 
- April 6 – The New York Slave Insurrection, a plot to set fire to New York City, is discovered.
- April 10 – An Austrian army is defeated by Prussian troops of Frederick the Great in the Battle of Mollwitz.
- May 4 – Vitus Bering sets out from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, to map the coasts of Siberia and Alaska.
- May 9 – Spain's defenders in New Grenada, under the command of General Blas de Lezo defeats Edward Vernon's Royal Navy force at the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, leading to the British retreat to Jamaica. "Cartagena, Expedition against", by James D. Drake, in The Encyclopedia of North American Colonial Conflicts to 1775, ed. by Spencer Tucker (Harper Collins, 2008)
- May 14 – HMS Wager, one of the vessels of George Anson's voyage around the world is wrecked on the coast of Chile, killing most of the crew who had survived scurvy 
- May 15 – Nader Shah, Emperor of Persia, narrowly escapes an assassination attempt.
- May 21 – King George II of Great Britain orders the British Army to prepare for an invasion of Prussia to defend Hanover.
- June 25 – Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned Queen Regnant of Hungary in Bratislava.
- July 8 – Jonathan Edwards repeats his Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God sermon at Enfield, Connecticut.
- July 15 – Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska, and sends some men aboard his ship ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.
- August 4–5 – War of Jenkins' Ear – Invasion of Cuba: British Admiral Edward Vernon captures Guantánamo Bay in Cuba, which he renames Cumberland Bay, but which his forces are forced to abandon on December 9.
- August 10 – Raja Marthanda Varma of Travancore defeats the Dutch East India Company in the Battle of Colachel, ending the Dutch colonial rule in India and marking the first "major" defeat of a European colonial military power in India.
- September 11 – Linz falls to the Bavarian Army.
- October 12 – George II, as Elector of Hanover, signs the Neustadt Protocol with France, but fails to inform his British government until after his return from Germany 
- November 25–26 – Franco-Bavarian troops commanded by Maurice of Saxony storm Prague.
- December 6 &ndash (November 25, O.S.); Elizabeth of Russia becomes czarina, after a palace coup. 
- December 7 –
- December 19 – Vitus Bering dies during his expedition, east of Siberia.
- December 25 – Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale, Centigrade, the predecessor of the Celsius scale.
- Stemmatographia by Hristofor Zhefarovich, regarded as the first Serbian and Bulgarian secular printed book, is printed in Vienna.
- The Royal Order of Scotland is founded.
- January 14 – Benedict Arnold, American Revolutionary War general, traitor (d. 1801)
- January 27 – Hester Thrale, Welsh diarist (d. 1821)
- February 7 – Henry Fuseli, Swiss painter and writer (d. 1825)
- March 13 – Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1790)
- March 17 – William Withering, British physician (d. 1799)
- March 20 – Jean Antoine Houdon, French sculptor (d. 1828)
- April 14 – Emperor Momozono of Japan (d. 1762)
- April 17 – Samuel Chase, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1811)
- May 13 – Ingeborg Akeleye, Norwegian noble known for her love life (d. 1800)
- May 23 – Andrea Luchesi, Italian composer (d. 1801)
- June 11 – Joseph Warren, American Patriot, physician (d. 1775)
- June 26 – John Langdon, American politician (d. 1819)
- September 22 – Peter Simon Pallas, German zoologist (d. 1811)
- October 4 – Edmond Malone, Irish scholar (d. 1812)
- October 18 – Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French general, author (d. 1803)
- October 24 – Johann August von Starck, German pastor (d. 1816)
- November 15 – Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss physiognomist (d. 1801)
- Date unknown –
- January 15 – Ramon Despuig, Spanish-born 67th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1670)
- February 13 – Johann Joseph Fux, Austrian composer (b. 1660)
- February 21 – Jethro Tull, British agriculturist (b. 1674)
- March 16 – Eleonora Luisa Gonzaga, Tuscan princess (b. 1686)
- March 17 – Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French poet (b. 1671)
- March 31 – Pieter Burmann the Elder, Dutch classical scholar (b. 1668)
- April 10 – Celia Fiennes, English travel writer (b. 1662)
- May 21 – Henry Dawnay, 2nd Viscount Downe, Irish peer (b. 1664)
- May 24 – Lord Augustus FitzRoy, Royal Navy officer during the Battle of Cartagena de Indias (b. 1716)
- May 25 – Daniel Ernst Jablonski, German theologian (b. 1660)
- June 14 – Landgravine Caroline of Hesse-Rotenburg, German noble (b. 1714)
- June 18 – François Pourfour du Petit, French anatomist, ophthalmologist and surgeon (b. 1664)
- July 3 – Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine, Sardinian queen consort (b. 1711)
- July 28 – Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer (b. 1678)
- August 4 – Andrew Hamilton, American lawyer (b. 1676)
- August 31 – Johann Gottlieb Heineccius, German jurist (b. 1681)
- September 7 – Blas de Lezo, Spanish admiral (b. 1689)
- September 28 – Edward Bayly, Irish politician (b. 1684)
- October 12 – Joseph Talcott, British Governor of the Connecticut Colony for more than 17 years, since 1724. (b. 1670)
- November 18 – Stephen Delancey, major colonial New York figure (b. 1663)
- November 24 – Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (b.1688)
- December 14 – Charles Rollin, French historian (b. 1661)
- December 19 – Vitus Bering, Danish-born explorer (b. 1681)
- December 21 – Bernard de Montfaucon, French Benedictine monk (b. 1655)
- December 31 – Andrew Archer, English politician (b. 1659)
- Humphrey v. Whitney, in Massachusetts Reports, Volume 20 (West Publishing, 1836) pp157-158
- John Russell Brown, Shakespeare's Plays in Performance (Hal Leonard Corporation, 1993) p63
- Bryan Perrett, Why the Germans Lost: The Rise and Fall of the Black Eagle (Pen and Sword, 2013) p8
- Dolores Luna Guinot, From Al-Andalus to Monte Sacro (Trafford Publishing, 2014)
- "The 'Negro Plot Trials': An Account", by Douglas O. Linder (2009), FamousTrials.com
- Stephen R. Bown, Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner, and a Gentlemen Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail (Macmillan, 2005)
- Michael Axworthy, Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant (I.B.Tauris, 2010)
- Brendan Simms and Torsten Riotte, The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714–1837 (Cambridge University Press, 2007) p1041
- Joachim Whaley, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume II: The Peace of Westphalia to the Dissolution of the Reich, 1648-1806 (Oxford University Press, 2012) p354
- Andrew C. Thompson, George II: King and Elector (Yale University Press, 2011) p140
- Spencer Tucker, A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p739
- Hugh LeCaine Agnew, The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Hoover Press, 2004) p1871
- "Chirikov, Alexei", by Anna Shishigina, in Encyclopedia of the Arctic, ed. by Mark Nuttall (Routledge, 2005) p333
- "Ulrika Eleonora | queen of Sweden". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
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