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1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1836th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 836th year of the 2nd millennium, the 36th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1836, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 1 – Queen Maria II of Portugal marries Prince Ferdinand Augustus Francis Anthony of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
- January 5 – Davy Crockett arrives in Texas.
- January 12
- January 16 – Kane County, Illinois, is formed.
- January 18 – Dade County, Florida, is formed.
- February 8 – London and Greenwich Railway opens its first section, the first railway in London, England.
- February 16 – A fire at the Lahaman Theatre in Saint Petersburg kills 126 people.
- February 23 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of the Alamo begins, with an American settler army surrounded by the Mexican Army, under Santa Anna.
- February 25 – Samuel Colt receives a United States patent for the Colt revolver, the first revolving barrel multishot firearm.
- March 1 – Texas Revolution – Convention of 1836: Delegates from many Texas communities gather in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.
- March 2 – Texas Revolution – Convention of 1836: The Texas Declaration of Independence is signed by 60 delegates, and the Republic of Texas is declared.
- March 6 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of the Alamo ends; 182 Texan settler soldiers die in a struggle with approximately 5,000 Mexican soldiers.
- March 11 – Sultan Mahmud II abolishes the posts of Reis ül-Küttab and Kahya Bey, and establishes the Ottoman ministries of Foreign Affairs and of the Interior in their place.
- March 17 – Texas Revolution – Convention of 1836: Delegates adopt the Constitution of the Republic of Texas, modeled after the United States Constitution. It allows slavery, requires free blacks to petition Congress to live in the country, but prohibits import of slaves from anywhere but the United States.
- March 27
- March 29 – Richard Wagner's opera Das Liebesverbot is performed for the first time, in Magdeburg.
- March 31 (dated April) – The first monthly part of Charles Dickens's The Pickwick Papers ("The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club..., edited by Boz") is published in London.
- April 20 – The Wisconsin Territory is created; the first capital is Belmont.
- April 21 – Texas Revolution – Battle of San Jacinto: Mexican forces under General Antonio López de Santa Anna are defeated at San Jacinto, Texas.
- April 22 – Texas Revolution: Forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
- May 4 – The Ancient Order of Hibernians, an Irish Catholic fraternal organization, is founded in New York City.
- May 7 – The settlement of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico is elevated to the royal status of villa, by the government of Spain.
- May 14 – Texas Revolution: The Treaties of Velasco are signed, between Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna and the Republic of Texas, but never ratified by the Mexican government.
- May 15 – Francis Baily, during an eclipse of the Sun, observes the phenomenon named after him as Baily's beads.
- May 19 – Fort Parker massacre: Among those captured by Native Americans is 9-year-old Cynthia Ann Parker; she later gives birth to a son named Quanah, who becomes the last chief of the Comanche.
- June 15 – Arkansas is the 25th state admitted into the United States of America.
- July 13 – The first numbered U.S. Patent 1 (after filing 9,957 unnumbered patents) is granted to John Ruggles, for improvements to railroad steam locomotive tires.
- July 21 – The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad opens between St. John and La Prairie, Quebec, the first steam-worked passenger railroad in British North America.
- July 27 – The settlement of Adelaide, South Australia, is founded.
- July 30 – The first English-language newspaper is published in Hawaii.
- August 17 – The Marriage Act in the United Kingdom establishes civil marriage and registration systems that permit marriages in nonconformist chapels, and a Registrar General of Births, Marriages, and Deaths.
- August 30 – The settlement of Houston, Texas is founded.
- September 1 – Rebuilding begins at the Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem.
- September 5 – Sam Houston is elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
- September 11 – The Riograndense Republic is proclaimed in South America.
- October 2 – Charles Darwin returns to England aboard HMS Beagle, with biological data he will later use to develop his theory of evolution, having left South America on August 17.
- October 13 – Theodor Fliedner, a Lutheran minister, and Friederike, his wife, open the Deaconess Home and Hospital at Kaiserswerth, Germany, as an institute to train women in nursing.
- October 22 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as first elected President of the Republic of Texas.
- October 24 – The earliest United States patent for a phosphorus friction match is granted to Alonzo Dwight Phillips, of Springfield, Massachusetts.
- October 25 – Construction begins on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad in North Carolina. Due to a lack of support in Raleigh, the route is revised to run from Wilmington to the Petersburg Railroad in Weldon.
- November 28 – The University of London is established by Royal Charter, with University College London and King's College London named as the first affiliated colleges.
- December 4 – The Whig Party (United States) holds its first national convention, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
- December 7 – 1836 United States presidential election: Martin Van Buren defeats William Henry Harrison, and three other Whig candidates.
- December 15 – The United States Patent Office burns in Washington, D.C.
- December 26 – The Crown colony of South Australia is officially proclaimed (subsequently celebrated in the state of South Australia as Proclamation Day).
- December 27 – Lewes avalanche: An avalanche at Lewes in Sussex, England, kills eight of fifteen people buried, when a row of cottages is engulfed in snow.
- December 28
- December 30 – In Saint Petersburg, the Lehman Theater catches fire, killing 800 people.
- The first printed literature in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is produced by Justin Perkins, an American Presbyterian missionary in Persia.
- The New Board brokerage group is founded in New York City.
- Eugène Schneider and his brother Adolphe Schneider purchase a bankrupt ironworks near the town of Le Creusot, in the Burgundy region of France, and found the steelworks and engineering company Schneider Frères & Cie.
- George Catlin ends his 6-year tour of 50 tribes in the Dakota Territory.
- John Murray III publishes A Hand-book for Travellers on the Continent; being a guide through Holland, Belgium, Prussia and northern Germany, and along the Rhine from Holland to Switzerland, the first of Murray's Handbooks for Travellers, in London.
- Chatsworth Head is found near Tamassos, Cyprus.
- January 2 – Mendele Mocher Sforim, Russian Yiddish writer (d. 1917)
- January 8 – Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Dutch-English painter (d. 1912)
- January 10 – Charles Phillip Ingalls, American pioneer, father of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1902)
- January 14
- January 24 – Signe Rink, Greenland-born Danish writer, ethnologist (d. 1909)
- January 27 – Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer for whom masochism is named (d. 1895)
- February 5 – Tenshoin, wife of 13th Shōgun of Japan, Tokugawa Iesada (d.1883)
- February 16 – Robert Halpin, Irish mariner, cable layer (d. 1894)
- February 18 – Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Indian religious leader (d. 1886)
- February 21 – Léo Delibes, French composer (d. 1891)
- February 24 – Winslow Homer, American painter (d. 1910)
- March 2 – Henry Billings Brown, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1913)
- March 4 – Stuart Robson, American stage comedian (d. 1903)
- March 12 – Isabella Beeton, English writer on household management (d. 1865)
- March 20 – Sir Edward Poynter, French-born British artist (d. 1919)
- March 28 – Frederick Pabst, German-American brewer (d. 1904)
- April 27 – Charles Bendire, U.S. Army captain, ornithologist (d. 1897)
- May 7 – Manuel de la Cámara y Libermoore, Spanish admiral (d. 1920)
- May 23 – Touch the Clouds, Native American chieftain (Teton Lakota Sioux) (d. 1905)
- May 26 – Mélanie de Pourtalès, French salonniére, courtier (d. 1914)
- May 27 – Jay Gould, American financier (d. 1892)
- May 28 – Friedrich Baumfelder, German composer, conductor, and pianist (d. 1916)
- May 31 – Jules Chéret, French printmaker (d. 1932)
- June 9 – Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, English physician, suffragette (d. 1910)
- June 16 – Wesley Merritt, American general (d. 1910)
- June 28 – Lyman J. Gage, American financier (d. 1927)
- July 8 – Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (d. 1914)
- July 9 – Camille of Renesse-Breidbach, Belgian nobleman, entrepreneur and author (d. 1904)
- July 24 – Jan Gotlib Bloch, Polish banker and warfare author (d. 1902)
- August 5 – John T. Raymond, American actor (d. 1887)
- August 11 – Sarah Morgan Bryan Piatt, American poet (d. 1919)
- August 13 – Bishop Nicholas of Japan, Japanese Orthodox priest (d. 1912)
- August 25 – Bret Harte, American writer (d. 1902)
- September 5 – Justiniano Borgoño, 37th Prime Minister of Peru (d. 1921)
- September 7 – Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1908)
- September 10 – Joseph Wheeler, American general, politician (d. 1906)
- September 11 – Fitz Hugh Ludlow, American author (d. 1870)
- September 17 – William Jackson Palmer, American founder of Colorado Springs, Colorado (d. 1909)
- September 22 – Fredrique Paijkull, Swedish educator, folk high school pioneer (d. 1899)
- September 26 – Thomas Crapper, English plumber, inventor (d. 1910)
- September 30 – Remigio Morales Bermúdez, Peruvian politician, 56th President of Peru (d. 1894)
- October 2 – Benjamin Harris Babbidge, 19th Mayor of Brisbane (d. 1905)
- October 4 – Piet Cronjé, Boer general (d. 1911)
- October 5 – Enomoto Takeaki, Japanese samurai, admiral (d. 1908)
- October 6 – Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz, German neuroanatomist (d. 1921)
- October 15 – James Tissot, French artist (d. 1902)
- October 27 – Thomas Gwyn Elger, English astronomer (d. 1897)
- November 3 – Elena Arellano Chamorro, Nicaraguan pioneer educator (d. 1911)
- November 8 – Milton Bradley, American businessman, inventor (d. 1911)
- November 11 – Thomas Bailey Aldrich, American poet, novelist (d. 1907)
- November 18
- November 22 – Sir George Barham, English businessman, founder of Express County Milk Supply Company (d. 1913)
- December 7 – Frank Manly Thorn, American lawyer, politician, essayist and journalist (d. 1907)
- December 18 – Kawamura Sumiyoshi, Japanese admiral (d. 1904)
- January 1 – Bernhard Meyer, German physician, ornithologist (b. 1767)
- January 11 – John Molson, Canadian entrepreneur (b. 1763)
- January 21 – Ferenc Novák, Hungarian Slovene writer (b. 1791)
- January 30 – Betsy Ross, maker, designer of the first American flag (b. 1752)
- January 31 – John Cheyne, British physician, surgeon and author (b. 1777)
- February 1 – Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, French chemist (b. 1758)
- February 18 – Cornplanter, native American (Seneca) chief (b. 1750)
- February 21 – William Van Mildert, last Prince Bishop of Durham, and founder of Durham University (b. 1765)
- March 2 - James Grant, Texas politician, physician and military participant in the Texas Revolution (b. 1793)
- March 6 (at the Alamo)
- James Bowie, Texan revolutionary (b. 1796)
- Davy Crockett, American frontiersman, Congressman and soldier (b. 1786)
- William Barret Travis, Texan revolutionary (b. 1809)
- James Bonham, Alamo defender (b. 1807)
- Micajah Autry, Alamo defender (b. 1793)
- Almaron Dickinson, American soldier (b. 1800)
- Jośe Gregorio Esparza, Alamo defender (b. 1802)
- March 16 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician (b. 1773)
- March 27 – James Fannin, Texas revolutionary (b. 1804)
- April 7 – William Godwin, English writer (b. 1756)
- April 21 - Manuel Fernández Castrillón, Mexican general (b. 1780)
- April 29 – Simon Kenton, American frontiersman, Revolutionary militia general (b. 1755)
- May 23 – Edward Livingston, American jurist, statesman (b. 1764)
- June 10 – André-Marie Ampère, French physicist (b. 1775)
- June 14 - Zhang Binglin, Chinese linguist (b. 1869)
- June 20 – Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, French cleric, constitutional theorist (b. 1748)
- June 23 – James Mill, British historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher (b. 1773)
- June 28 – James Madison, 85, 4th President of the United States (b. 1751)
- August 20 – Agnes Bulmer, English poet (b. 1775)
- August 21 – Claude-Louis Navier, French engineer, physicist (b. 1785)
- August 25 – Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, German physician (b. 1762)
- September 5 – Ferdinand Raimund, Austrian playwright (b. 1790)
- September 12 – Christian Dietrich Grabbe, German playwright (b. 1801)
- September 14 – Aaron Burr, 3rd Vice President of the United States (b. 1756)
- September 17 – Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist (b. 1748)
- September 23
- November – Tenskwatawa, Shawnee prophet, political leader (b. 1775)
- November 5 – Karel Hynek Mácha, Czech poet (b. 1810)
- November 6 – King Charles X of France (b. 1757)
- November 16 – Christiaan Hendrik Persoon, Dutch mycologist (b. 1761)
- November 26 – John Loudon McAdam, Scottish engineer, road-builder (b. 1756)
- December 27 – Stephen F. Austin, American pioneer (b. 1793)
- Thomas, R. H. G. (1972). London's First Railway – The London & Greenwich. London: Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-0468-X.
- "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p76
- Wikisource. – via
- The World Book Encyclopedia. 1970. (U.S.A.) Library of Congress catalog card number 70-79247.
- "The Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836)". University of Texas School of Law. Archived from the original on January 8, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- wikisource:1836 (33) Registration of Births &c. A bill for registering Births Deaths and Marriages in England.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 260–261. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Railroad — Wilmington & Raleigh (later Weldon)". North Carolina Business History. CommunicationSolutions/ISI. 2006. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- Mattusch, Carol C. (1988). Greek Bronze Statuary: from the beginnings through the fifth century B.C.. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0801421489. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- "Chronicle of Events from August 1836 to September 1837". American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge. Boston: Charles Bowen. 1838.
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