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1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1877th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 877th year of the 2nd millennium, the 77th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1877, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 1 – Queen Victoria is proclaimed Empress of India by the Royal Titles Act 1876, introduced by Benjamin Disraeli, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom .
- January 8 – Great Sioux War of 1876 – Battle of Wolf Mountain: Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle with the United States Cavalry in Montana.
- January 20 – The Conference of Constantinople ends, with Ottoman Turkey rejecting proposals of internal reform and Balkan provisions.
- January 29 – The Satsuma Rebellion, a revolt of disaffected samurai in Japan, breaks out against the new imperial government; it lasts until September, when it is crushed by a professionally led army of draftees.
- February 17 – Major General Charles George Gordon of the British Army is appointed Governor-General of the Sudan.
- March – The Nineteenth Century magazine is founded in London.
- March 2 – In the Compromise of 1877, the 1876 United States presidential election is resolved with the selection of Rutherford B. Hayes as the winner, even though Samuel J. Tilden won the popular vote on November 7, 1876.
- March 4
- March 15 – 1877 Australia v. England Series: The first Test cricket match is held between England and Australia.
- March 24 – For the only time in history, The Boat Race between the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford is declared a "dead heat" (i.e., a draw).
- April 10 – The first human cannonball act in the British Isles, and perhaps the world, is performed by 14-year-old Rossa Matilda Richter ("Zazel") at the London Royal Aquarium.
- April 12
- April 24 – Russo-Turkish War (1877–78): Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
- May 5 – Great Sioux War of 1876: Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada, to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles.
- May 6 – Realizing that his people are weakened by cold and hunger, Chief Crazy Horse of the Oglala Sioux surrenders to United States troops in Nebraska.
- May 8–11 – At Gilmore's Gardens in New York City, the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is held.
- May 9 (May 10 0:59 UTC) – Iquique Earthquake and tsunami: An earthquake of at least magnitude 8.5 Ms occurs on the west coast of South America, killing 2,541 around the Pacific Rim.
- May 16 – The 16 May 1877 crisis occurs in France.
- May 21 (May 9 O.S.) – By a speech in the Parliament of Romania by Mihail Kogălniceanu, the country declares itself independent from the Ottoman Empire (recognized in 1878 after the end of the Romanian independence war).
- June 15 – Henry Ossian Flipper becomes the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy.
- June 17 – American Indian Wars – Battle of White Bird Canyon: The Nez Perce defeat the U.S. Cavalry at White Bird Canyon, in the Idaho Territory. This begins the Nez Perce War.
- June 20 – Alexander Graham Bell installs the world's first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
- June 21 – The Molly Maguires are hanged at Carbon County Prison, in Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania.
- June 26 – The eruption of the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador causes severe mudflows that wipe out surrounding cities and valleys, killing 1,000.
- June 30 – The British Mediterranean fleet is sent to Besika Bay.
- July – The serial publication of Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina is concluded, in The Russian Messenger.
- July 9 – The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club begins its first lawn tennis tournament at Wimbledon.
- July 16 – Great Railroad Strike of 1877: Riots by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad railroad workers in Baltimore lead to a sympathy strike and rioting in Pittsburgh, and a full-scale worker's rebellion in St. Louis, briefly establishing a Communist government, before U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes calls in the armed forces.
- July 19 – Russo-Turkish War: The first battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought.
- July 30 – Russo-Turkish War: The second battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought.
- July 30 – Russo-Turkish War: The Turkish army and its allies destroy the Bulgarian city of Stara Zagora and massacre the inhabitants.
- August 9 – American Indian Wars – Battle of the Big Hole: Near Big Hole River, Montana, a small band of Nez Perce people who refuse government orders to move to a reservation, clash with the United States Army. The army loses 29 soldiers, and the Indians lose 89 warriors, in an Army victory.
- August 12 – American astronomer Asaph Hall discovers Deimos, the outer moon of Mars.
- August 18 – Asaph Hall discovers Phobos, the inner moon of Mars.
- September 1 – The Battle of Lovcha, third battle in the Siege of Plevna, is fought. Russian forces successfully reduce the Ottoman fortress at Lovcha.
- September 5 – American Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier, after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
- September 22 – Treaty 7 is concluded between several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes and the Canadian Confederation, at the Blackfoot Crossing of the Bow River, settling the Blackfoot on Indian reserves in what will become southern Alberta.
- September 24 – Battle of Shiroyama in Kagoshima, Japan: The Imperial Japanese Army annihilates heavily outnumbered rebel samurai under Saigō Takamori (who is killed), ending the Satsuma Rebellion.
- October 22 – The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners.
- November 14 – Henrik Ibsen's first contemporary realist drama The Pillars of Society is premièred at the Odense Teater.
- November 21 – Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record sound, considered Edison's first great invention. Edison demonstrates the device for the first time on November 29.
- November 22 – The first college lacrosse game is played between New York University and Manhattan College.
- December 9 – The fourth battle of the Russo-Turkish War is fought, concluding the Siege of Plevna.
- December 13 – Serbia restates its previous declaration of war against Turkey.
- December 17 – disastrous premiere of Anton Bruckner's Third Symphony in D minor at the Vienna Philharmonic
- December 30 – Brahms' Symphony No. 2 premieres in Vienna.
- January 2 – Slava Raškaj, Croatian painter (d. 1906)
- January 3 – Josephine Hull, American actress (d. 1957)
- January 17 – Marie Zdeňka Baborová-Čiháková, Czech botanist and zoologist (d. 1937)
- January 22 – Hjalmar Schacht, German economist, politician and banker (d. 1970)
- January 24 – Louise van den Plas, Belgian suffragist, activist (d. 1968)
- January 26 – Kees van Dongen, Dutch-French painter (d. 1968)
- February 4 – Eddie Cochems, father of the forward pass in American football (d. 1953)
- February 7
- February 8 – Carl Tanzler, German-born radiology technologist (d. 1952)
- February 12 – Louis Renault, French industrialist, founder of Renault (d. 1944)
- February 14 – Edmund Landau, German mathematician (d. 1938)
- February 17
- February 19 – Gabriele Münter, German painter (d. 1962)
- February 25 – Erich von Hornbostel, Austrian musicologist (d. 1935)
- March 2 – Consuelo Vanderbilt, Duchess of Marlborough (d. 1964)
- March 4
- March 10
- March 12 – Wilhelm Frick, German Nazi politician (d. 1946)
- March 18 – Edgar Cayce, American psychic (d. 1945)
- March 21 – Maurice Farman, French pilot, aircraft designer (d. 1964)
- March 25 – Walter Little, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
- March 29 – Alois Kayser, German missionary (d. 1944)
- April 7 – Isabella Mary Macdonald, granddaughter of Canadian Prime Minister John A. Macdonald (d. 1959)
- April 15 – Georg Kolbe, German sculptor (d. 1947)
- April 17 – Lionel Pape, English actor (d. 1944)
- April 23 – Charles D. Herron, United States Army general (d. 1977)
- April 30 – Alice B. Toklas, American writer (d. 1967)
- May 3 – Karl Abraham, German psychoanalyst (d. 1925)
- May 5 – Halfdan Egedius, Norwegian painter, illustrator (d. 1899)
- May 23 – Grace Ingalls, youngest sister of American author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1941)
- May 24 – Samuel W. Bryant, American admiral (d. 1938)
- May 25 - Billy Murray, singer (d. 1954)
- May 27 – Isadora Duncan, American dancer (d. 1927)
- June 4 – Heinrich Otto Wieland, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
- June 7 – Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944)
- June 11 – Renée Vivien, British poet who wrote in French (d. 1909)
- June 12 – Thomas C. Hart, American admiral, politician (d. 1971)
- June 14
- June 18 – James Montgomery Flagg, American artist, comics artist and illustrator (d. 1960)
- June 19 – Charles Coburn, American actor (d. 1961)
- July 2
- July 6 – Arnaud Massy, French golfer (d. 1950)
- July 13 – Erik Scavenius, Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1962)
- July 17 – Ernst von Dohnányi, Hungarian conductor (d. 1960)
- July 19
- July 31 – Louisa Bolus, South African botanist and taxonomist (d. 1970)
- August 1
- August 6 – Wallace H. White, Jr., U.S. Senator from Maine (d. 1952)
- August 7 – Ulrich Salchow, Swedish figure skater (d. 1949)
- August 15 – Stanley Vestal, American writer, poet, historian (d. 1957)
- August 16 – Roque Ruaño, Spanish priest, civil engineer (d. 1935)
- August 22 – Ananda Coomaraswamy, Ceylonese Tamil philosopher (d. 1947)
- August 26 – John Latham, Australian politician, judge (d. 1964)
- August 27
- August 29 – Dudley Pound, British admiral (d. 1943)
- September 1
- September 2 – Frederick Soddy, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1956)
- September 6 – Buddy Bolden, American jazz musician (d. 1931)
- September 14 - Leonhard Seppala, Norwegian-American sled dog breeder, trainer and musher (d. 1967)
- September 15 - Wilhelm Adam, German general (d. 1949)
- September 16 - Carsten Tank-Nielsen, Norwegian admiral (d. 1957)
- September 25 – Plutarco Elías Calles, Mexican general and President of Mexico, 1924–1928; known as Jefe Maximo ("Maximum Boss") from 1928 to 1934 (d. 1945)
- September 26
- October 4 – Razor Smith, English cricketer (d. 1946)
- October 10 – William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield, British businessman, philanthropist (d. 1963)
- October 15 – Helen Ware, American stage, film actress (d. 1939)
- October 21 – Oswald Avery, Canadian-American physician, medical researcher (d. 1955)
- October 22 – Frederick Twort, English bacteriologist (d. 1950)
- October 24 – Ernst Mielck, Finnish composer (d. 1899)
- October 27 – George Thompson, English cricketer (d. 1943)
- October 29 – Narcisa de Leon, Filipino film mogul (d. 1966)
- October 30 – Hugo Celmiņš, 2-time Prime Minister of Latvia (d. 1941)
- November 1 – Else Ury, German writer, children's book author (d. 1943)
- November 2 – Claire McDowell, American silent film actress (d. 1966)
- November 3 – Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, 2-time President of Chile (d. 1960)
- November 9
- November 15 – William Hope Hodgson, English author (d. 1918)
- November 17 – Frank Lahm, Brigadier General USAF, airship pilot, early military aviator trained by the Wright brothers (d. 1963)
- November 22
- November 24
- December 3 – Richard Pearse, New Zealand airplane pioneer (d. 1953)
- December 16 – Kichisaburō Nomura, Japanese admiral and diplomat (d. 1964)
- December 24 – Sigrid Schauman, Finnish painter (d. 1979)
- December 30 – Edward Ellington, British military officer; Marshal of the Royal Air Force (d. 1967)
- January 1 – Karl von Urban, Austrian field marshal (suicide) (b. 1802)
- January 2 – Alexander Bain, Scottish inventor (b. 1811)
- January 4 – Cornelius Vanderbilt, American entrepreneur (b. 1794)
- January 20 – Dato Maharajalela Lela, Malay nationalist
- February 18 – Henrietta A. Bingham, American editor (b. 1841)
- February 20 – Louis M. Goldsborough, United States Navy admiral (b. 1805)
- February 25 – Jung Bahadur Rana, Nepalese ruler (b. 1817)
- March 1 – Antoni Patek, Polish watchmaker (b. 1811)
- March 24 – Walter Bagehot, British businessman, essayist and journalist (b. 1826)
- March 25 – Caroline Chisholm, Australian humanitarian (b. 1808)
- April 8 – Bernardino António Gomes, Portuguese physician and naturalist (b. 1806)
- April 14 – Konstantin Bernhard von Voigts-Rhetz, Prussian general (b. 1809)
- May 19 – Charlotta Djurström, Swedish actress and theater manager (b. 1807)
- May 26 – Kido Takayoshi, Japanese statesman (b. 1833)
- June 3
- June 17 – John Stevens Cabot Abbott, American historian, pastor, and pedagogical writer (b. 1805)
- June 22 – John R. Goldsborough, U.S. Navy commodore (b. 1809)
- July 16 – Samuel McLean, American congressman (b. 1826)
- July 27 – John Frost, British Chartist leader (b. 1784)
- August 2 – Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz, Prussian field marshal Urdu (b. 1796)
- August 8 – William Lovett, British Chartist leader (b. 1800)
- August 17 – Isaac Aaron, English-born physician, owner of the Australian Medical Journal and secretary of the Australian Medical Association (d. 1877)
- August 29 – Brigham Young, American Mormon leader (b. 1801)
- August 30 – Raphael Semmes, American and Confederate naval officer (b. 1809)
- September 2 – Constantine Kanaris, Greek politician (b. 1795)
- September 3 – Adolphe Thiers, French historian, politician (b. 1797)
- September 5 – Crazy Horse, American Oglala Lakota chief (b. 1840-45)
- September 12 – Emily Pepys, English child diarist (b. 1833)
- September 13 – Alexandre Herculano, Portuguese writer and historian (b. 1810)
- September 17 – Henry Fox Talbot, English photographer (b. 1800)
- September 24 – Saigō Takamori, Japanese samurai (b. 1828)
- October 3 – James Roosevelt Bayley, first Roman Catholic Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore (b. 1814)
- October 10 – Johann Georg Baiter, Swiss philologist, textual critic (b. 1801)
- October 16 – Théodore Barrière, French dramatist (b. 1823)
- October 28 – Julia Kavanagh, Irish novelist (b. 1824)
- October 29 – Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Confederate Civil War General, first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan (b. 1821)
- November 1 – Oliver P. Morton, American politician (b. 1823)
- November 2 – Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, Prussian field marshal (b. 1784)
- December 12 – José de Alencar, Brazilian novelist (b. 1829)
- December 17 – Louis d'Aurelle de Paladines, French general (b. 1804)
- December 29 – Angelica Singleton Van Buren, Acting First Lady of the United States (b. 1818)
- December 30 – William Cormick, physician in Qajar Iran of British origin (b. 1822)
- December 31 – Gustave Courbet, French painter (b. 1819)
- Mounsey, Augustus H. (1879). The Satsuma Rebellion: An Episode of Modern Japanese History. London: John Murray.
- Pierre Crabitès, Gordon: The Sudan and Slavery (Routledge, 2016)
- The Guinness Book of Records.
- Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1877". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale. Archived from the original on May 27, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
- Stenbock-Fermor, Elizabeth (1975). The Architecture of Anna Karenina. B.R. Grüner. ISBN 1588116751.
- Bruce, Robert V. (1959). 1877: Year of Violence. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
- Hanssen, Jens-Morten (August 10, 2001). "Facts about Pillars of Society". Ibsen.net. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
- "Pascual Ortiz Rubio" (in Spanish). Busca Biografias. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- "Plutarco Elías Calles" (in Spanish). Busca Biografias. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- Momen, Moojan (1993). "CORMICK, WILLIAM". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc 3. pp. 275–276.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- 1877 Annual Cyclopedia (1878) highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" for year 1877; massive compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage; 827 pp
- Bellesiles, Michael A. (2010). 1877: America's Year of Living Violently. New York: New Press. ISBN 9781595584410.
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