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1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1929th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 929th year of the 2nd millennium, the 29th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1920s decade.
This year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression. In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end the Cristero War, a Catholic counter-revolution in Mexico. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, a British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General) case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, while the Museum of Modern Art opened in New York City. The Peruvian Air Force was created.
In Asia, the Republic of China and the Soviet Union engaged in a minor conflict after the Chinese seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway, which ended with a resumption of joint administration. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin expelled Leon Trotsky and adopted a policy of collectivization. The Grand Trunk Express began service in India. Rioting between Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem over access to the Western Wall took place in the Middle East. The centenary of Western Australia was celebrated. The Afghan Civil War, which started in November in the preceding year, continued until October.
The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, went into effect. In Europe, the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greece to outlaw political dissent. Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from Latin American countries. The German airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin flew around the world in 21 days.
Middle East, Asia, and Pacific Isles
On August 1 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out between Palestinians and Jews over control of the Western Wall. The rioting, initiated in part when British police tore down a screen the Jews had constructed in front of the Wall, continued until the end of the month. In total, 133 Jews and 116 Palestinians were killed. Two of the more famous incidents occurring during these riots were the August 23–24 1929 Hebron massacre, in which almost 70 Jews were killed by Palestinians and the remaining Jews are forced to stay at Hebron. The Palestinians had been told that Jews were killing Palestinians. Jews would not return to Hebron until after the Six-Day War in 1967. The other major clash was the 1929 Safed massacre, in which 18–20 Jews were killed by Palestinians in Safed in similar fashion. Elsewhere in the Middle East, Iraq took a big step toward gaining independence from the British. The Iraqi government had, since the end of World War I and the beginning of the British Mandate in the Middle East, consistently resisted British hegemony. In September, Great Britain announced it would support Iraq's inclusion in the League of Nations, signaling the beginning of the end of their direct control of the region.
Early in 1929, the Afghan Civil War saw the Afghan leader King Amanullah lose power to the Saqqawists under Habibullāh Kalakāni. Kalakani's rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years. In India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, something it had threatened to do if Britain did not grant India dominion status. China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar and Manchouli after issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated. The Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, leading to their taking control of Manchuria. The Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports (spice, rubber, and other commodities) were more sensitive to economic problems. In the Pacific, on December 28 – "Black Saturday" in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa.
In 1929, the Fascist Party in Italy tightened its control. National education policy took a major step towards being completely taken over by the agenda of indoctrination. In that year, the Fascist government took control of the authorization of all textbooks, all secondary school teachers were required to take an oath of loyalty to Fascism, and children began to be taught that they owed the same loyalty to Fascism as they did to God.
On February 11, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty, making Vatican City a sovereign state. On July 25, Pope Pius XI emerged from the Vatican and entered St. Peter's Square in a huge procession witnessed by about 250,000 persons, thus ending nearly 60 years of papal self-imprisonment within the Vatican. Italy used the diplomatic prestige associated with this successful agreement to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy. Germany experienced a major turning point in this year due to the economic crash. The country had experienced prosperity under the government of the Weimar Republic until foreign investors withdrew their German interests. This began the crumbling of the Republican government in favor of Nazism. In 1929, the number of unemployed reached three million. On July 27, the Geneva Convention, held in Switzerland, addressed the treatment of prisoners of war in response to problems encountered during World War I.
On May 31, the British general election returned a hung parliament yet again, with the Liberals in position to determine who would have power. These elections were known as the "Flapper" elections due to the fact that it was the first British election in which women under 30 could vote. A week after the vote, on June 7 the Conservatives conceded power rather than ally with the Liberals. Ramsay MacDonald founded a new Labour government the next day.
1929 is regarded as a turning point by French historians, who point out that it was last year in which prosperity was felt before the effects of the Great Depression. The Third Republic had been in power since before World War I. On July 24, French prime minister Raymond Poincaré resigned for medical reasons; he was succeeded by Aristide Briand. Briand adopted a foreign policy of both peace and defensive fortification. The Kellogg–Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, went into effect in this year (it was first signed in Paris in 1928 by most leading world powers). The French began work on the Maginot Line in this year, as a defense against a possible German attack, and on September 5 Briand presented a plan for the United States of Europe. On October 22, Briand was replaced as Prime Minister by André Tardieu. Primo de Rivera's dictatorship in Spain experienced growing dissatisfaction among students and academics, as well as businessmen who blamed the government for recent economic woes. Many called for a fascist regime, like that in Italy.
In May, Joseph Stalin consolidated his power in the Soviet Union by sending Leon Trotsky into exile. The only country that would grant Trotsky asylum was Turkey, in return for his help during Turkey's civil war. He and his family left the USSR aboard ship on February 12. Stalin turned on his former political ally, Nikolai Bukharin, who was the last real threat to his power. By the end of the year Bukharin had been defeated.[clarification needed] Once Stalin was in power, he turned his former support for Lenin's New Economic Policy into opposition. In November, Stalin declared that it "The Year of the Great Breakthrough" and stated that the country would focus on industrial programs as well as on collectivizing the grain supply. He hoped to surpass the West not only in agriculture, but in industry. Millions of Soviet farmers were removed from their private farms, their property was collected, and they were moved to state-owned farms. Stalin emphasized in 1929 a campaign demonizing kulaks as a plague on society. Kulak property was taken and they were deported by cattle train to areas of frozen tundra.
The timber market in Finland began to decline in 1929 due to the Great Depression, as well as the Soviet Union's entrance into the market. Financial and political problems culminated in the birth of the fascist Lapua Movement on November 23 in a demonstration in Lapua. The movement's stated aim was Finnish democracy and anti-communism. The Finnish legislature received heavy pressure to remove basic rights from Communist groups. Politics in Lithuania was heated, as President Voldemaras was unpopular in some quarters, and survived an assassination attempt in Kaunas. Later, while attending a meeting of the League of Nations, he was ousted in a coup by President Smetona, who made himself dictator. Upon Voldemaras' removal from office, Geležinis Vilkas went underground and received aid and encouragement in its activities from Germany. Yugoslavia was renamed the "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" as King Alexander sought to unite the Balkans under his rule. The state's new Monarchy replaced the old parliament, which had been dominated by Serbs.
In October 1929, the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council overturned a ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada that women could not be members of the legislature. This case, which came to be known as the Persons Case, had important ramifications not just for the rights of women but because in overturning the case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council engendered a radical change in the Canadian judicial approach to the Canadian constitution, an approach that has come to be known as the "living tree doctrine". The five women who initiated the case are known in Canada as the Famous Five. In November, the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake occurred off the south coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean. It registered as a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake centered on Grand Banks, broke 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggered a tsunami that destroyed many south coast communities in the Burin Peninsula area, killing 28 (as of 1997, Canada's most lethal earthquake). Ross-Loos Medical Group is established in downtown Los Angeles by two physicians, Donald E. Ross and H. Clifford Loos - the first HMO in the United States.
The Mexican Cristero War continued in 1929 as clerical forces attempted an assassination of the provisional president in a train bombing in February. The attempt failed. Plutarco Calles, at the center of power for the anti-clerics, continued to gather power in Mexico City. His government was considered an enemy to more conservative Mexicans who held to traditional forms of government and more religious control. Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party early in the year to increase his power; a party which was, ironically, seen by foreigners as fascist and which was in opposition to the Mexican Right. A special election was held in this year, which Jose Vasconselos lost to Ortiz Rubio. By this time, the war had ended. The last group of rebels was defeated on June 4, and in the same month US Ambassador Dwight Morrow initiated talks between parties. On June 21 an agreement was brokered ending the Cristero War. On June 27, church bells rang and mass was held publicly for the first time in three years. The agreement heavily favored the government, as priests were required to register with the government and religion was banned from schools.
The major event of the year for the United States was the stock market crash on Wall Street, which was to have international effects. On September 3, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) peaked at 381.17, a height it would not reach again until November 1954. Then, from October 24–October 29, stock prices suffered three multi-digit percentage drops, wiping out more than $30 billion from the New York Stock Exchange (10 times greater than the annual budget of the federal government). On December 3 U.S. President Herbert Hoover announced to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash were behind the nation, and that the American people had regained faith in the economy.
Literature, arts, and entertainment
Literature of the time reflected the memories many harbored of the horrors of World War I. A major seller was All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque. Remarque was a German who had fought in the war at age eighteen and been wounded in the Third Battle of Ypres. He stated that he intended the book to tell the story "of a generation of men who, even though they may have escaped its shells, were destroyed by the war." Another 1929 book reflecting on World War I was Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms, as well as Good-Bye to All That by Robert Graves. In lighter media, a few stars of the comic industry made their debut, including Tintin, a comic book character created by Hergé, who would appear in over 200 million comic books in 60 languages. Popeye, another comic strip character created by Elzie Crisler Segar, also appeared in this year.
Within the film industry, on May 16 the 1st Academy Awards were presented at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, with Wings winning Best Picture. Also, Hallelujah! became the first Hollywood film to contain an entirely black cast, and Atlantic, a film about the Titanic, is an early sound-on-film movie. The arts were in the midst of the Modernist movement, as Pablo Picasso painted two cubist works, Woman in a Garden and Nude in an Armchair, during this year. The surrealist painters Salvador Dalí and René Magritte completed several works, including The First Days of Spring and The Treachery of Images. On November 7 in New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opened to the public. The latest in modern architecture was also represented by the Barcelona Pavilion in Spain, and the Royal York Hotel in Toronto, at its completion the tallest building in the British Empire.
Science and technology
The year saw several advances in technology and exploration. On June 27 the first public demonstration of color TV was held by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images were a bouquet of roses and an American flag. A mechanical system was used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington. The BBC broadcast a television transmission for the first time. By November, Vladimir Zworykin had taken out the first patent for color television. On November 29, Bernt Balchen, U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd, Captain Ashley McKinley, and Harold June, became the first to fly over the South Pole. Within the year, Britain, Australia and New Zealand began a joint Antarctic Research Expedition, and the German airship Graf Zeppelin began a round-the-world flight (ended August 29). This year Ernst Schwarz describes Bonobo (Pan paniscus) as a different species from common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), both closely related phylogenetically to human beings.
During the year 1929, there were two solar eclipses and two penumbral lunar eclipses:
- 1929 May 9 = Total Solar Eclipse
- 1929 May 23 = Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
- 1929 November 1 = Annular Solar Eclipse
- 1929 November 17 = Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
- January 1
- January 6
- January 10 – The first appearance of Hergé's Belgian comic book hero Tintin, as Tintin in the Land of the Soviets (Les Aventures de Tintin, reporter..., au pays des Soviets), begins serialization in the children's newspaper supplement, Le Petit Vingtième.
- January 15 – Annales d'histoire économique et sociale begins publication in France.
- January 17 – The comic strip hero Popeye first appears in Thimble Theatre.
- January 17 – Kabul falls to Habibullāh Kalakāni's forces, beginning a 9-month period of Saqqawist rule in Afghanistan while the Afghan Civil War continues.
- January 29 – All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues), by Erich Maria Remarque, is published in book form.
- February 9 – "Litvinov's Pact" is signed in Moscow by the Soviet Union, Poland, Estonia, Romania and Latvia, who agree not to use force to settle disputes between themselves.
- February 10 – Liga Espanola, a professional football league of Spain, is founded.
- February 11 – The Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See of the Catholic Church sign the Lateran Treaty, to establish the Vatican City as an independent sovereign enclave within Rome, resolving the "Roman Question".
- February 14 – "Saint Valentine's Day Massacre": Five gangster (rivals of Al Capone), plus a civilian, are shot dead in Chicago.
- February 26 – Grand Teton National Park is established by the United States Congress.
- March 2 – The longest bridge in the world at this time, the San Francisco Bay Toll-Bridge, opens.
- March 3 – A revolt by Generals José Gonzalo Escobar and Jesús María Aguirre fails in Mexico.
- March 4
- Herbert Hoover is sworn in, as the 31st President of the United States.
- The National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario) is established in Mexico, by ex-President Plutarco Elías Calles. Under a succession of names, it will hold power in the country continuously for the next 71 years.
- March 17 – Second of the Davos University Conferences opens in Switzerland; this includes the Cassirer–Heidegger debate in philosophy.
- March 28 – Japanese forces withdraw from Shandong province to their garrison in Tsingtao, bringing an end to the Jinan Incident.
- March 30 – Imperial Airways begins operating the first commercial flights between London and Karachi.
- April 3 – Persia signs the Litvinov Protocol.
- April 14 – The inaugural Monaco Grand Prix is won by William Grover-Williams, driving a Bugatti.
- May 1 – The 7.2 Mw Kopet Dag earthquake shakes the Iran-Turkmenistan border region, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), killing up to 3,800 and injuring 1,121.
- May 7 – "The Battle Of Blood Alley" is fought by a razor gang in Sydney, Australia.
- May 16 – The 1st Academy Awards are presented in a 15-minute ceremony at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, honoring the best movies of 1927 and 1928, Wings (1927) winning Best Picture. Gerald Duffy (died 1928) receives the only Academy Award for Best Title Writing ever awarded (for his intertitles to the silent film The Private Life of Helen of Troy (1927)).
- May 20 – The Wickersham Commission begins its investigation of organized crime, following alcohol Prohibition in the United States.
- May 31 – The United Kingdom general election again returns a hung parliament; the Liberals in Parliament determine which party will govern.
- June 1 – The 1st Conference of the Communist Parties of Latin America is held in Buenos Aires.
- June 3 – The Treaty of Lima settles a border dispute between Peru and Chile.
- June 7 – The Lateran Treaty, making Vatican City a sovereign state, is ratified.
- June 8 – Ramsay MacDonald forms the United Kingdom's second Labour government.
- June 21 – An agreement brokered by U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow helps end the Cristero War in Mexico.
- June 27 – The first public demonstration of color TV is held, by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images are a bouquet of roses and an American flag. A mechanical system is used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington.
- July 11 – In the Soviet Union, a secret decree of the Sovnarkom creates the backbone of the Gulag system.
- July 24
- July 25 – Pope Pius XI emerges from the Apostolic Palace, and enters St. Peter's Square in a huge procession witnessed by about 250,000 persons, thus ending nearly 60 years of self-imposed status by the papacy as Prisoner in the Vatican.
- July 27
- July 29 - the French prime minister Raymond Poincaré resigns, and is succeeded by Aristide Briand.
- August 8–29 – German rigid airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin makes a circumnavigation of the Northern Hemisphere eastabout out of Lakehurst, New Jersey, including the first nonstop flight of any kind across the Pacific Ocean (Tokyo–Los Angeles).
- August 16 – The 1929 Palestine riots break out between Palestinians and Jews in Mandatory Palestine, and continue until the end of the month. In total, 133 Jews and 116 Palestinians are killed.
- August 20 – John Logie Baird's experimental 30-line television system is first transmitted, by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
- August 23–24 – The 1929 Hebron massacre: 65–68 Jews are killed by Palestinians and the remaining Jews are forced to leave Hebron.
- August 29
- August 31 – The Young Plan, which sets the total World War I reparations owed by Germany at US$26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years, is finalized.
- September 3 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average peaks at 381.17, a height it will not reach again until November 1954.
- September 5 – Aristide Briand presents his plan for the United States of Europe.
- September 17 – A coup ousts Augustinas Voldemaras from his Prime Minister position in Lithuania; he is replaced by the brother-in-law of President Antanas Smetona, Juozas Tūbelis.
- September 30 – Fritz von Opel pilots the first rocket-powered aircraft, the Opel RAK.1, in front of a large crowd in Frankfurt am Main.
- October 3 – The country officially known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes changes its name to Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
- October 6 – Serie A, the top-class professional football league of Italy, replaces the Divisione Nazionale.
- October 12 – 1929 Australian federal election: The Labor Party, led by James Scullin, defeats the Nationalist/Country Coalition Government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Bruce. Scullin will be sworn in on October 22nd. Notably, this is the first occasion in Australian political history where a sitting Prime Minister loses his own seat (the second being John Howard in 2007).
- October 13 – Afghan Civil War ends
- October 14 – The Philadelphia Athletics win the World Series four games to one over the Chicago Cubs, taking Game Five by a 3–2 score at Shibe Park.
- October 18 – On appeal from the Supreme Court of Canada on behalf of "The Famous Five" Canadian women in the landmark case of Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General), the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom announces that women are "persons" under the British North America Acts, and thus eligible for appointment to the Senate of Canada.
- October 22 – The government of Aristide Briand falls in France.
- October 24–29 – Wall Street Crash of 1929: Three multi-digit percentage drops wipe out more than $30 billion from the New York Stock Exchange (10 times greater than the annual budget of the federal government).
- October 25 – Former U.S. Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall is convicted of bribery for his role in the Teapot Dome scandal, becoming the first Presidential cabinet member to go to prison for actions in office.
- October 29 – Wall Street Crash of 1929
- October 30 – The Stuttgart Cable Car is constructed in Stuttgart, Germany.
- November – Vladimir Zworykin takes out the first patent for color television.
- November 1
- November 7 – In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) opens to the public. The first exhibition Cézanne, Gauguin, van Gogh and Seurat (November 7 – December 7) is seen by 47.000 visitors; the curator is Alfred H. Barr.
- November 15 – Atlantic, a film about the sinking of the RMS Titanic, is released in the U.K., the first British sound-on-film movies and, in its simultaneously-shot German-language version, the first to be released in Germany.
- November 18 – The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake occurs.
- November 29 – Bernt Balchen, U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd, Captain Ashley McKinley and Harold June become the first to fly over the South Pole.
- December – New York toy salesman Edwin S. Lowe popularizes Bingo after coming across the game of "Beano" in Atlanta, Georgia. After someone accidentally yelled "bingo" instead of "beano" with a group of friends in Brooklyn, New York, he began production of the game, going on to develop more than 6,000 card combinations under E. S. Lowe company, as the popularity of the game grew to become a national pastime.
- December 27 – Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin orders the "liquidation of the kulaks as a class".
- December 28 – "Black Saturday" in Samoa: New Zealand colonial police kill 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which leads the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa.
- December 29 – The All India Congress in Lahore demands Indian independence.[clarification needed]
- January 1
- January 2 – Tellervo Koivisto, Finnish politician and First Lady of Finland
- January 3
- January 4 – Günter Schabowski, official of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (d. 2015)
- January 5
- January 7 – Terry Moore, American actress
- January 8
- January 9 – Brian Friel, Irish dramatist (d. 2015)
- January 10 – Tony Soper, English naturalist, author and broadcaster
- January 11
- January 12
- January 14 – Alex Treves, Italian-American Olympic fencer
- January 15 – Martin Luther King Jr., African-American civil rights leader, Nobel laureate (d. 1968)
- January 17
- January 20
- January 23
- January 25
- January 26
- January 27
- January 28
- January 29
- January 30 – Isamu Akasaki, Japanese physicist and Nobel laureate
- January 31
- February 1 – Basilio Lami Dozo, Argentine dictator (d. 2017)
- February 2
- February 4 – Jerry Adler, American actor
- February 5
- February 6
- February 10
- February 14
- February 15
- February 16 – Kazimierz Kutz, Polish film director and politician (d. 2018)
- February 17
- February 18
- February 21 – Chespirito (Roberto Gómez Bolaños), Mexican actor, comedian (d. 2014)
- February 22
- February 23 – Patriarch Alexy II of Russia (d. 2008)
- February 24
- February 25 – Issa J. Boullata, Palestinian scholar and writer (d. 2019)
- February 26
- February 27 – Rube Bjorkman, American ice hockey player and coach
- February 28
- March 1 – Georgi Markov, Bulgarian dissident (d. 1978)
- March 4
- March 6
- March 7 – Marion Marlowe, American singer and actress (d. 2012)
- March 8
- March 9
- March 10 – Lolita Rodrigues, Brazilian actress and presenter
- March 13
- March 14
- March 15 – Cecil Taylor, African-American jazz pianist, composer, and poet (d. 2018)
- March 16
- March 17 – Howie Winter, American mob boss
- March 18 – Christa Wolf, German literary critic, novelist, and essayist (d. 2011)
- March 20 – Germán Robles, Spanish-Mexican film, theater, television, and voice actor (d. 2015)
- March 22
- March 23 – Sir Roger Bannister, British athlete (d. 2018)
- March 25
- March 26 – Edward Sorel, American illustrator and caricaturist
- March 29
- March 31 – Bert Fields, American lawyer
- April 1
- April 3 – Poul Schlüter, Danish politician
- April 4 – William F. Clinger Jr., American politician
- April 5
- April 6
- April 7 – Madavoor Vasudevan Nair, Indian Kathakali dancer (d. 2018)
- April 8
- April 9 – Fred Hollows, New Zealand-Australian ophthalmologist (d. 1993)
- April 10
- April 11 – Jack Betts, American actor and playwright
- April 13 – Yvonne Clark, American engineer (d. 2019)
- April 14
- April 14 – Chadli Bendjedid, 3rd President of Algeria (d. 2012)
- April 17
- April 18 – Peter Hordern, English politician
- April 21
- April 22
- April 23 – George Steiner, French-American literary critic and essayist (d. 2020)
- April 24
- April 25 – Abderrahmane Mahjoub, French and Moroccan international football (soccer) midfielder (d. 2011)
- April 26
- April 27 – Michael Harner, American anthropologist, author (d. 2018)
- April 28 – Evangelina Elizondo, Mexican actress (d. 2017)
- April 30 – Klausjürgen Wussow, German theatre, television actor (d. 2007)
- May 1
- May 2
- May 3 – Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Swedish physician, "father of modern dental implantology" (d. 2014)
- May 4
- May 5 – Ilene Woods, American singer, actress (d. 2010)
- May 6
- May 8
- May 10
- May 11 – Margaret Kerry, American actress
- May 12
- May 13 – Ângela Maria, Brazilian singer and actress (d. 2018)
- May 15 – Otar Patsatsia, Georgian politician
- May 16
- May 20
- May 25 – Beverly Sills, American operatic soprano, director of the New York City Opera (d. 2007)
- May 26
- May 28 – Patrick McNair-Wilson, English politician
- May 29
- May 30
- May 31
- June 1 – James H. Billington, American academic and author (d. 2018)
- June 3 – Werner Arber, Swiss microbiologist and Nobel laureate
- June 4
- June 6
- June 7 – John Turner, 17th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 2020)
- June 8
- June 9 – Johnny Ace, African-American rhythm and blues singer (d. 1954)
- June 10
- June 12 – Anne Frank, German-born diarist, Holocaust victim (d. 1945)
- June 16
- June 18 – Jürgen Habermas, German sociologist, philosopher
- June 20
- June 21 – Ramón Luis Rivera, Puerto Rican politician
- June 23
- June 24
- June 25
- June 26 – Milton Glaser, American graphic designer, illustrator and teacher (d. 2020)
- June 27
- June 28 – Alfred Miodowicz, Polish politician
- June 29
- June 30
- July 1
- July 2
- July 3
- July 4
- July 5
- July 6
- July 7
- July 8
- July 9
- July 10
- July 11
- July 12 – Brian Woodward, English footballer
- July 13
- July 14
- July 17
- July 18
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 22 – Midhat J. Gazalé, French international telecommunications, space consultant
- July 24
- July 25
- July 27
- July 28 – Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, First Lady of the United States (d. 1994)
- July 31 – Don Murray, American actor
- August 1
- August 2 – Irwin Fridovich, American biochemist (d. 2019)
- August 4
- August 5
- August 7
- August 8
- August 10 – Daisy Lúcidi, Brazilian actress, radio broadcaster, and politician (d. 2020)
- August 12 – Buck Owens, American singer-songwriter (d. 2006)
- August 14 – Louise Slaughter, American politician (d. 2018)
- August 15
- August 16 – Fritz Von Erich, American professional wrestler (d. 1997)
- August 17 – Francis Gary Powers, American U-2 spy plane pilot (d. 1977)
- August 20 – Carlos Ancira, Mexican film actor (d. 1987)
- August 21
- August 23
- August 24
- August 25 – Dominique Fernandez, French writer
- September 1
- September 2 – Rex Hartwig, Australian tennis player
- September 3
- September 4 – Thomas Eagleton, United States Senator for Missouri (1969–87) (d. 2007)
- September 5 – Bob Newhart, American comedian, actor
- September 7 – Clyde Lovellette, American basketball player (d. 2016)
- September 9 – Stu Phillips, American composer
- September 10 – Arnold Palmer, American golfer (d. 2016)
- September 11
- September 14 – Hans Clarin, German actor (d. 2005)
- September 15
- September 16
- September 17 – Stirling Moss, British Formula One racing driver (d. 2020)
- September 18 – Armando, Dutch artist (d. 2018)
- September 19 – Luigi Taveri, Swiss motorcycle road racer (d. 2018)
- September 20 – Anne Meara, American actress, comedian (d. 2015)
- September 21
- September 22
- September 23 – Johan Claassen, South African rugby player (d. 2019)
- September 24 – Tunku Abdul Malik, Raja Muda of Kedah (d. 2015)
- September 25
- September 28
- September 29 – Giorgio Bàrberi Squarotti, Italian academic, poet (d. 2017)
- September 30
- October 1 – Maitama Sule, Nigerian politician (d. 2017)
- October 2
- October 4 – Leroy Van Dyke, American country music singer and guitarist
- October 5
- October 8 – Arthur Bisguier, American chess Grandmaster, chess promoter, and writer (d. 2017)
- October 9 – Ana Luisa Peluffo, Mexican actress
- October 11 – Liselotte Pulver, Swiss actress
- October 15
- October 16 – Fernanda Montenegro, Brazilian actress
- October 17 - Jack Mundey, Australian rugby league footballer and trade union official (d. 2020)
- October 18 – Violeta Chamorro, President of Nicaragua
- October 20 – Colin Jeavons, English actor
- October 21
- October 22
- October 24
- October 25
- October 28 – Joan Plowright, English actress
- October 29 – Yevgeny Primakov, Russian politician, diplomat (d. 2015)
- October 30 – Jean Chapman, English author
- October 31
- November 2
- November 5 – Lennart Johansson, Swedish sports official and 5th president of UEFA (d. 2019)
- November 6 – June Squibb, American actress
- November 7
- November 8
- November 9 – Imre Kertész, Hungarian writer, Nobel laureate (d. 2016)
- November 10 – Ninón Sevilla, Cuban-born Mexican film actress, dancer (d. 2015)
- November 11
- November 12
- November 13 – Fred Phelps, American pastor, activist (Westboro Baptist Church) (d. 2014)
- November 15
- November 17 – Gorō Naya, Japanese actor, voice actor, narrator and theatre director, older brother of Rokurō Naya (d. 2013)
- November 18
- November 20 – Raymond Lefèvre, French conductor, arranger, composer (d. 2008)
- November 23 – Hal Lindsey, American evangelist and Christian writer
- November 24
- November 26 – Betta St. John, American actress, singer and dancer
- November 28
- November 30
- December 1
- December 2 – Leon Litwack, American historian
- December 6
- December 7 – Don McDermott, American speed skater (d. 2020)
- December 9
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- December 13 – Christopher Plummer, Canadian actor
- December 14 – Fernando Sebastián Aguilar, Spanish cardinal (d. 2019)
- December 15 – Dina bint Abdul-Hamid, former Queen of Jordan (d. 2019)
- December 16
- December 17 – William Safire, American author, columnist, journalist, and presidential speechwriter (d. 2009)
- December 18 – Yeoh Tiong Lay, Malaysian businessman (d. 2017)
- December 19 – David Douglas, 12th Marquess of Queensberry, Scottish potter and aristocrat
- December 20
- December 22 – Wazir Mohammad Indian-Pakistani cricketer
- December 23
- December 24 – Philip Ziegler, English biographer and historian
- December 26
- December 27 – Tommy Rall, American actor and dancer (d. 2020)
- December 28 – Efraín Goldenberg, Peruvian politician, finance minister and foreign relations minister
- December 29
- December 30 – Lucien Xavier Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Malagasy writer, politician (d. 1997)
- December 31 – Mies Bouwman, Dutch television presenter (d. 2018)
- January 5
- January 13 – Wyatt Earp, American gunfighter (b. 1848)
- January 15 – Sir William Dawkins, British geologist and archaeologist (b. 1837)
- January 24 – Wilfred Baddeley, English tennis player (b. 1872)
- January 30
- February 3 – José Gutiérrez Guerra, Bolivian economist and statesman, 34th President of Bolivia (b. 1869)
- February 6 – Maria Christina of Austria, Queen Regent of Spain (b. 1858)
- February 7 – Édouard Hugon, French philosopher, theologian (b. 1867)
- February 11 – Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein (b. 1840)
- February 12 – Lillie Langtry, British singer, actress (b. 1853)
- February 14 – Thomas Burke, American Olympic athlete (b. 1875)
- February 18 – William Russell, American actor (b. 1884)
- February 20 - Edward L. Atkinson, Royal Navy surgeon and Antarctic explorer (b. 1881)
- February 24 – Frank Keenan, American actor (b. 1858)
- February 27 – Briton Hadden, co-founder of Time Magazine (b. 1898)
- March 1 – Royal Hurlburt Weller, American politician (b. 1881)
- March 2 – Sir Edward Seymour, British admiral (b. 1840)
- March 5 – David Dunbar Buick, Scottish-American inventor (b. 1854)
- March 12 – Asa Griggs Candler, American businessman, politician (b. 1851)
- March 15 – Pinetop Smith, African-American blues pianist (b. 1904)
- March 18 – William P. Cronan, American Naval Governor of Guam (b. 1879)
- March 20 – Ferdinand Foch, French commander of Allied forces in World War I (b. 1851)
- March 25 – Robert Ridgway, American ornithologist (b. 1850)
- March 29 – Sir Hugh John Macdonald, 8th premier of Manitoba (b. 1850)
- April 4
- April 12 – Enrico Ferri, Italian criminologist (b. 1856)
- April 22 – Henry Lerolle, French painter (b. 1848)
- April 24 – Caroline Rémy de Guebhard, French feminist (b. 1855)
- May 2
- May 12 – Charles Swickard, German-American film director (b. 1861)
- May 13 – Arthur Scherbius, German electrical engineer, mathematician, cryptanalyst and inventor (b. 1878)
- May 21 – Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1847)
- May 23 – John G. Jacobson, American businessman and politician (b. 1869)
- May 25 – Ernest Monis, 56th Prime Minister of France (b. 1846)
- May 27 - Georges Lecointe, Belgian explorer, scientist, and naval officer (b. 1869)
- June 5 – Sir Cecil Burney, British admiral of the fleet (b. 1858)
- June 8 – Bliss Carman, Canadian poet (b. 1861)
- June 11 – William Dickson Boyce, American entrepreneur, founder of the Boy Scouts of America (b. 1858)
- June 16 – Bramwell Booth, General of The Salvation Army (b. 1856)
- June 21 – Leonard Hobhouse, British political theorist, sociologist (b. 1864)
- June 24 – Queenie Newall, British Olympic archer (b. 1854)
- June 26 – Amandus Adamson, Estonian sculptor (b. 1855)
- June 28 – Edward Carpenter, English poet (b. 1844)
- July 2 – Gladys Brockwell, American actress (b. 1893)
- July 3 – Dustin Farnum, American actor (b. 1874)
- July 11 – Ali Ahmad Khan, Afghan politician, emir (b. 1883)
- July 12 – Robert Henri, American painter (b. 1865)
- July 15 – Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Austrian writer (b. 1874)
- August – Mary MacLane, Canadian feminist writer (b. 1881)
- August 3
- August 5 – Dame Millicent Fawcett, British suffragist, feminist (b. 1847)
- August 10 – Aletta Jacobs, Dutch physician and women's suffrage activist (b. 1854)
- August 13 – Sir Ray Lankester, British zoologist (b. 1847)
- August 14 – Henry Horne, 1st Baron Horne, British general (b. 1861)
- August 19 – Sergei Diaghilev, Russian ballet impresario (b. 1872)
- August 22 – Otto Liman von Sanders, German general (b. 1855)
- August 26 – Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat, scholar (b. 1843)
- August 27 – Herman Potočnik Noordung, Slovenian rocket engineer (b. 1892)
- September 2 – Paul Leni, German filmmaker (b. 1885)
- September 12 – Rainis, Latvian poet, playwright (b. 1865)
- September 23 – Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865)
- September 24 – Mahidol Adulyadej, Thai doctor, father of King Rama IX (b. 1892)
- September 25 – Miller Huggins, American baseball manager, MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1879)
- September 27 – Johnny Hill, British, European, and World flyweight boxing champion (b. 1905)
- September 29 – Tanaka Giichi, 26th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1864)
- October 1 – Antoine Bourdelle, French sculptor (b. 1861)
- October 3
- October 5 – Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly, Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic priest and venerable (b. 1876)
- October 20 – José Batlle y Ordóñez, 3-time President of Uruguay (b. 1856)
- October 21 – Vasil Radoslavov, 7th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1854)
- October 26 – Aby Warburg, German historian, cultural theorist (b. 1866)
- October 27
- October 28 – Bernhard von Bülow, German count and statesman, 8th Chancellor of Germany (b. 1849)
- October 29 – Emily Robin, English Madame (b. 1874)
- October 31 – António José de Almeida, Portuguese political figure, 64th Prime Minister of Portugal and 6th President of Portugal (b. 1866)
- November 1 – Habibullāh Kalakāni, deposed Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1891)
- November 6 – Prince Maximilian of Baden, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1867)
- November 14 – Joe McGinnity, American baseball player, MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1871)
- November 15 – Léon Delacroix, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1867)
- November 17 – Herman Hollerith, American businessman, inventor (b. 1860)
- November 24
- November 26 – Chandra Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana, 13th Prime Minister of Nepal (b. 1863)
- December 10
- December 14 – Henry B. Jackson, British admiral (b. 1855)
- December 17
- December 20 – Émile Loubet, French politician, 8th President of France (b. 1838)
- December 21 – I. L. Patterson, American politician, 18th Governor of Oregon (b. 1859)
- December 26 – Albert Giraud, Belgian poet (b. 1860)
- December 29 – Wilhelm Maybach, German automobile designer (b. 1846)
- Physics – Louis de Broglie
- Chemistry – Arthur Harden, Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
- Physiology or Medicine – Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
- Literature – Thomas Mann
- Peace – Frank Billings Kellogg
- Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 295–313. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0.
- Stannard, Matthew B. (August 9, 2005). "A Time of Change; Israelis, Palestinians and the Disengagement". San Francisco Chronicle.
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- Segev, Tom (2000). One Palestine, Complete; Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate. Translated by Haim Watzman of Metropolitan Books, Little, Brown and company. pp. 318–319; ISBN 0-8050-4848-0 and ISBN 0-316-64859-0.
- Kaplan, Neil (1983). Early Arab-Zionist Negotiation Attempts, 1913-1931. London: Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 0-7146-3214-7.
- Silverfarb, Daniel; Majid Khadduri (1986). Britain's Informal Empire in the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–20. ISBN 0-19-503997-1.
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- Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. Imperial Power and Popular Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 170–178 ISBN 0-521-59692-0
- Vohra, Ranbir. The Making of India. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2001. pp. 147–148 ISBN 0-7656-0712-3
- Elleman, Bruce. Diplomacy and Deception. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. pp. 282–283 ISBN 0-7656-0143-5
- Tarling, Nicholas. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 182–184 ISBN 0-521-66371-7
- Meleisea, Malama (1987). Lagaga: A Short History of Western Samoa. University of the South Pacific. pp. 137–8. ISBN 982-02-0029-6.
- Pauley, Bruce F. (2003). Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century. Wheeling: Harlan Davidson. p. 117.
- Scala, DI; M. Spencer; D.I. Scala (2004). Italy from Revolution to Republic. Boulder: Westview Press. pp. 262–263. ISBN 0-8133-4176-0.
- Kertzer, David (2004). Prisoner of the Vatican. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 292–293. ISBN 0-618-22442-4.
- Pollard, John (2005). The Vatican and Italian Fascism, 1929-32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 74–76. ISBN 0-521-02366-1.
- Lee, Stephen (1996). Weimar and Nazi Germany. London: Heinemann. pp. 38–39. ISBN 0-435-30920-X.
- Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century. New York: Avon books, 1998. ISBN 0-380-71393-4
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- Bingham, Adrian (2004). Gender, Modernity, and the Popular Press in Inter-War Britain. Oxford: Clarendon. p. 125. ISBN 0-19-927247-6.
- Rubinstein, William (2003). Twentieth-Century Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 165–169. ISBN 0-333-77224-5.
- Louria, Margot (2001). Triumph and Downfall. Westport: Greenwood Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 0-313-31272-9.
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- Brackman, Roman. The Secret File of Joseph Stalin. London: Frank Cass, 2001. pp. 202–203 ISBN 0-7146-5050-1
- Alexander, Robert. International Trotskyism, 1929-1985. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. p. 3 ISBN 0-8223-1066-X
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