1945

1945 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1945
MCMXLV
Ab urbe condita 2698
Armenian calendar 1394
ԹՎ ՌՅՂԴ
Assyrian calendar 6695
Bahá'í calendar 101–102
Balinese saka calendar 1866–1867
Bengali calendar 1352
Berber calendar 2895
British Regnal year Geo. 6 – 10 Geo. 6
Buddhist calendar 2489
Burmese calendar 1307
Byzantine calendar 7453–7454
Chinese calendar 甲申(Wood Monkey)
4641 or 4581
    — to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
4642 or 4582
Coptic calendar 1661–1662
Discordian calendar 3111
Ethiopian calendar 1937–1938
Hebrew calendar 5705–5706
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2001–2002
 - Shaka Samvat 1866–1867
 - Kali Yuga 5045–5046
Holocene calendar 11945
Igbo calendar 945–946
Iranian calendar 1323–1324
Islamic calendar 1364–1365
Japanese calendar Shōwa 20
(昭和20年)
Javanese calendar 1875–1876
Juche calendar 34
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4278
Minguo calendar ROC 34
民國34年
Nanakshahi calendar 477
Thai solar calendar 2488
Tibetan calendar 阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
2071 or 1690 or 918
    — to —
阴木鸡年
(female Wood-Rooster)
2072 or 1691 or 919

1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1945th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 945th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1940s decade.

It marked the end of World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany. It is also the only year in which nuclear weapons have been used in combat.

Events

Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.

January

January 27 – The Soviet Red Army liberates Auschwitz.

February

February 19 – During the Battle of Iwo Jima, U.S. Marines land on the island.

March

April

April 7Japanese battleship Yamato explodes after persistent attacks from U.S. aircraft during the Battle of Okinawa.
April 30Adolf Hitler, along with his wife Eva Braun, committed suicide.

May

May – Prague is liberated by the Red Army.
a black and white image of two Marines in their combat uniforms. One Marine is providing cover fire with his M1 Thompson submachinegun as the other with a Browning Automatic Rifle, prepares to break cover to move to a different position. There are bare sticks and rocks on the ground.
May – Marines of 1st Marine Division fighting on Okinawa.
May 8 – American soldiers fighting in the Pacific theater listen to radio reports of Victory in Europe Day.

June

July

July 16Trinity test at night in New Mexico.

August

August 9 – The mushroom cloud from the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air.
August 18 – Surrender of the Japanese Army in Central China (Memorial in Wuhan).

September

September 2 – Japan signs the Instrument of Surrender aboard the USS Missouri.

October

October 18Nuremberg trials begin, after Buchenwald closes.
October 24United Nations formed. This is its flag (the modern version is slightly retouched).

November

December

Date unknown

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Deaths

January

Blessed Nikolaus Gross

February

March

Blessed Marcel Callo

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

References

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  2. ^ "Penicillin Pills May Replace Injection". The Milwaukee Sentinel. February 16, 1945. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  3. ^ "SS General von Steuben [+1945]". WreckSite. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
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  5. ^ Guinness Book of World Records. 2008. p. 137.
  6. ^ Year by Year – 1945. History International.
  7. ^ Nohlen, Dieter; Stöver, Philip, eds. (2010). Elections in Europe: A data handbook. Baden-Baden: Nomos. p. 1678. ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7.
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  12. ^ "Central Europe Campaign – 522nd Field Artillery Battalion". Retrieved January 12, 2015. Jewish prisoners from the outer Dachau camps were marched to Dachau, and then 70 miles south. Many of the Jewish marchers weighed less than 80 pounds. Shivering in their tattered striped uniforms, the "skeletons" marched 10 to 15 hours a day, passing more than a dozen Bavarian towns. If they stopped or fell behind, the SS guards shot them and left their corpses along the road.
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  20. ^ Bethell, Nicholas (1974). The Last Secret. London.
  21. ^ Palaich, Michael (1991). "Bleiburg Tragedy". Retrieved August 15, 2013.
  22. ^ a b c d e f "1945 – The Decision to Drop the Bomb". NuclearFiles. Archived from the original on April 6, 2010.
  23. ^ "Brief History (timeline)", AI Topics, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, retrieved August 24, 2016
  24. ^ "1945: Labour landslide buries Churchill". BBC News. April 5, 2005.
  25. ^ Pike, John. "The Soviet Army Offensive: Manchuria, 1945". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  26. ^ Angier, R. B.; Boothe, J. H.; Hutchings, B. L.; Mowat, J. H.; Semb, J.; Stokstad, E. L. R.; Subbarow, Y.; Waller, C. W.; Cosulich, D. B.; Fahrenbach, M. J.; Hultquist, M. E.; Kuh, E.; Northey, E. H.; Seeger, D. R.; Sickels, J. P.; Smith Jr, J. M. (1945). "Synthesis of a Compound Identical with the L. Casei Factor Isolated from Liver". Science. 102 (2644): 227–28. Bibcode:1945Sci...102..227A. doi:10.1126/science.102.2644.227. PMID 17778509.
  27. ^ Hoffbrand, A. V.; Weir, D. G. (2001). "The history of folic acid". British Journal of Haematology. 113 (3): 579–589. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.02822.x. PMID 11380441. S2CID 22925228.
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  29. ^ "Discovery of Promethium". Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review. 36 (1). 2003. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
  30. ^ William D. Rubinstein; Michael Jolles; Hilary L. Rubinstein (February 22, 2011). The Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo-Jewish History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 868. ISBN 978-1-4039-3910-4.
  31. ^ Chase's ... Calendar of Events. Contemporary Books. 2003. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-07-139098-9.
  32. ^ Geoff Nicholson (1991). Big Noises: Rock Guitar in the 1990s. Quartet. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-7043-0145-0.
  33. ^ David J. Goldman (2014). Jewish Sports Stars; Athletic Heroes Past and Present
  34. ^ Ernst Otto Bräunche (2006). Sport in Karlsruhe; von den Anfängen bis heute
  35. ^ Wallace, Sam (January 25, 2020). "The imperishable story of Julius Hirsch: the great goalscorer murdered at Auschwitz who adorns Stamford Bridge mural" – via The Telegraph.
  36. ^ Fildes, P. (February 13, 1956). "Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, 1858-1945". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 2: 237–247. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1956.0016. S2CID 73380545 – via Semantic Scholar.
  37. ^ "Plutarco Elías Calles" (in Spanish). Biografias y Vidas. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  38. ^ Siegman, Joseph (2020). Jewish Sports Legends: The International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9781496222121.

Further reading

  • Ian Buruma. Year Zero: A History of 1945 (Penguin Press; 2013) 368 pages; covers liberation, revenge, decolonization, and the rise of the United Nations. excerpt
  • International News Service, It Happened In 1945 The Essential Year Book (1946)
  • Keith Lowe. Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II (2012) excerpt and text search
  • McDannald, A. H. ed. The Americana Annual 1946 (1946) events of 1945 online; encyclopedia yearbook global coverage in 950pp
  • Walter Yust, ed. 10 Eventful Years, 1937 – 1946 Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1947, 4 vol., encyclopedia yearbook online

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