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1960 Tour de France
|Dates||26 June – 17 July|
|Stages||21, including one split stages|
|Distance||4,173 km (2,593 mi)|
|Winning time||112h 08' 42"|
The 1960 Tour de France was the 47th edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It took place between 26 June and 17 July, with 21 stages covering a distance of 4,173 km (2,593 mi). The race featured 128 riders, of which 81 finished.
Because Jacques Anquetil was absent after winning the 1960 Giro d'Italia, Roger Rivière became the main favourite. Halfway the race, Rivière was in second place behind Nencini, and with his specialty the time trial remaining, he was still favourite for the victory. When Rivière had a career-ending crash in the fourteenth stage, this changed, and Nencini won the Tour easily.
The 1960 Tour de France was run in the national team format. The four most important cycling nations of the time, Spain, Belgium, France and Italy, each sent a national team with fourteen cyclists. There were also five smaller national teams: a combined Luxembourg/Swiss team, a Dutch team, a West German team, a British team, and a team of Internationals cyclists, all with eight cyclists. Finally, there were five regional teams, also of eight cyclists each. Altogether, 128 cyclists started the race. The West German team, that had been away from the Tour since 1938, was allowed to join again.
The teams entering the race were:
- West Germany
- Great Britain
Jacques Anquetil, the winner of the 1957 Tour de France, had won the 1960 Giro d'Italia earlier that year. Anquetil was tired, and skipped the Tour. This made Roger Rivière the French team leader, and the big favourite for the Tour victory.
Route and stages
The 1960 Tour de France started on 26 June in Mulhouse, and had one rest day, in Millau. In previous years, the location of the stage finish and the next stage start had always been close together. In 1960, this changed, when cyclists had to take the train to get from Bordeaux to Mont de Marsan after the ninth stage. The highest point of elevation in the race was 2,360 m (7,740 ft) at the summit of the Col d'Izoard mountain pass on stage 16.
|1a||26 June||Lille to Brussels (Belgium)||108 km (67 mi)||Plain stage||Julien Schepens (BEL)|
|1b||Brussels (Belgium)||27.8 km (17.3 mi)||Individual time trial||Roger Rivière (FRA)|
|2||27 June||Brussels (Belgium) to Dunkirk||206 km (128 mi)||Plain stage||René Privat (FRA)|
|3||28 June||Dunkirk to Dieppe||209 km (130 mi)||Plain stage||Nino Defilippis (ITA)|
|4||29 June||Dieppe to Caen||211 km (131 mi)||Plain stage||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|5||30 June||Caen to Saint-Malo||189 km (117 mi)||Plain stage||André Darrigade (FRA)|
|6||1 July||Saint-Malo to Lorient||191 km (119 mi)||Plain stage||Roger Rivière (FRA)|
|7||2 July||Lorient to Angers||244 km (152 mi)||Plain stage||Graziano Battistini (ITA)|
|8||3 July||Angers to Limoges||240 km (150 mi)||Plain stage||Nino Defilippis (ITA)|
|9||4 July||Limoges to Bordeaux||225 km (140 mi)||Plain stage||Martin van Geneugden (BEL)|
|10||5 July||Mont-de-Marsan to Pau||228 km (142 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Roger Rivière (FRA)|
|11||6 July||Pau to Luchon||161 km (100 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Kurt Gimmi (SUI)|
|12||7 July||Luchon to Toulouse||176 km (109 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|13||8 July||Toulouse to Millau||224 km (139 mi)||Plain stage||Louis Proost (FRA)|
|9 July||Millau||Rest day|
|14||10 July||Millau to Avignon||217 km (135 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Martin van Geneugden (BEL)|
|15||11 July||Avignon to Gap||187 km (116 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Michel Van Aerde (BEL)|
|16||12 July||Gap to Briançon||172 km (107 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Graziano Battistini (ITA)|
|17||13 July||Briançon to Aix-les-Bains||229 km (142 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|18||14 July||Aix-les-Bains to Thonon-les-Bains||215 km (134 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Fernando Manzaneque (ESP)|
|19||15 July||Pontarlier to Besançon||83 km (52 mi)||Individual time trial||Rolf Graf (SUI)|
|20||16 July||Besançon to Troyes||229 km (142 mi)||Plain stage||Pierre Beuffeuil (FRA)|
|21||17 July||Troyes to Paris||200 km (120 mi)||Plain stage||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|Total||4,173 km (2,593 mi)|
The first stage was split in two parts. In the first part, a group of fourteen cyclists cleared from the rest, and won with a margin of over two minutes. In the second part, an individual time trial, Roger Rivière won. The lead in the general classification transferred to Nencini, who had been part of the group of fourteen cyclists. Federico Bahamontes, winner of the 1959 Tour, became ill and left the race in the second stage.
Nencini lost the lead in the third stage to Joseph Groussard. In the fourth stage, a group including Henri Anglade escaped, and Anglade became the new leader. Anglade had already finished in second placed in 1959, and expected to be the team leader now.
In the sixth stage, Rivière attacked. Only Nencini, Hans Junkermann and Jan Adriaensens could follow. Anglade asked his team manager Marcel Bidot to instruct Rivière to stop his attack, because Nencini and Adriaensens were dangerous opponents. Rivière ignored this, and continued. They beat the rest by almost fifteen minutes, and Adriaensens took over the lead in the general classification. After the stage, Anglade said that the French team lost the Tour in that stage. Anglade knew that Rivière would try to stay close to Nencini in the mountains, and warned that Rivière would regret staying close to Nencini downhill.
The first mountains were climbed in the tenth stage. Nencini won time in the descent from the Col d'Aubisque, where Adriaensens could not follow. After the Aubisque, Adriaensens worked together with his teammate Jef Planckaert to win back time, but Nencini was able to stay away from them, and became the new leader, with Rivière in second place, only 32 seconds behind. Nencini gained one minute on Rivière in the eleventh stage, but Rivière knew he had the stronger team. Moreover, Rivière was at that moment the holder of the hour record, and knew he would win back enough time in the time trial in stage 19.
In the fourteenth stage, descending the Col de Perjuret, Rivière followed Nencini, considered one of the best descenders in the peloton  but misjudged a turn and went off a cliff. Rivière broke his back in the fall, and never raced again.
Because of this, Jan Adriaensens climbed to the second place in the general classification, and he now was the main competitor for Nencini. Adriaensens lost time in the Pyrenees, and the Italians were able to put Graziano Battistini in second place. In the last stages, there was no competition for the overall victory, because it was clear that Nencini's advantage was too large. Therefore, all cyclists put their energy to win the remaining stages. For the points classification, Jean Graczyk had built a large lead, but the mountains classification was only clinched by Imerio Massignan in the final mountain stage.
In the twentieth stage, news came that Charles de Gaulle, the president, would be by the route at Colombey-les-deux-Églises, where he lived. The organisers, Jacques Goddet and Félix Lévitan asked the French national champion, Henry Anglade, if the riders would be willing to stop. Anglade agreed and the news was spread through the race. One rider, Pierre Beuffeuil had stopped to repair a tyre and knew nothing of the plan, being three minutes behind the race. When he reached Colombey, he found the race halted in front of him. He decided to pass all the waiting cyclists and continued alone, and won the stage alone on the boulevard Jules-Guesde by 49 seconds. "I voted for de Gaulle", he said.
Classification leadership and minor prizes
There were several classifications in the 1960 Tour de France, two of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification; it was calculated by adding for each cyclist he times that he required to finish each stage. If a cyclist had received a time bonus, it was subtracted from this total; all time penalties were added to this total. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey.
The points classification was calculated differently than in the years before. The top six cyclists of each stage received points; the winner 10 points, down to 1 point for the 6th cyclist. Because only a few cyclists received points, in the first stages of the Tour de lead was shared by up to 5 cyclists. In stage 4, when Jean Graczyk won the stage, he took the leading, having finished second in the stage 2. Graczyk remained leader for the rest of the race. The leader of the points classification was identified by the green jersey.
Finally, the team classification was calculated as the sum of the daily team classifications, and the daily team classification was calculated by adding the times in the stage result of the best three cyclists per team. It was won by the French team. For the smaller teams (made of 8 cyclists), a separate classification was made, here the Dutch team won. The Great Britain team and the Internationals did not finish with three cyclists, so were not included in the team classification.
In addition, there was a combativity award, in which a jury composed of journalists gave points after each stage to the cyclist they considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner. At the conclusion of the Tour, Jean Graczyk won the overall super-combativity award, also decided by journalists. The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given in honour of Tour founder Henri Desgrange to the first rider to pass the summit of the Col du Lautaret on stage 17. This prize was won by Graczyk.
- Gastone Nencini, Roger Rivière and Julien Schepens had equal points.
- René Privat, Gastone Nencini, Roger Rivière and Julien Schepens had equal points.
- Nino Defilippis, René Privat, Gastone Nencini, Roger Rivière and Julien Schepens had equal points.
|1||Gastone Nencini (ITA)||Italy||112h 08' 42"|
|2||Graziano Battistini (ITA)||Italy||+ 5' 02"|
|3||Jan Adriaensens (BEL)||Belgium||+ 10' 24"|
|4||Hans Junkermann (FRG)||Germany||+ 11' 21"|
|5||Jozef Planckaert (BEL)||Belgium||+ 13' 02"|
|6||Raymond Mastrotto (FRA)||France||+ 16' 12"|
|7||Arnaldo Pambianco (ITA)||Italy||+ 17' 58"|
|8||Henry Anglade (FRA)||France||+ 19' 17"|
|9||Marcel Rohrbach (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+ 20' 02"|
|10||Imerio Massignan (ITA)||Italy||+ 23' 28"|
|Final general classification (11–81)|
|11||Fernando Manzaneque (ESP)||Spain||+ 25' 59"|
|12||Albert Geldermans (NED)||Netherlands||+ 26' 33"|
|13||Jean Graczyk (FRA)||France||+ 26' 55"|
|14||François Mahe (FRA)||France||+ 32' 36"|
|15||Louis Rostollan (FRA)||France||+ 34' 18"|
|16||André Darrigade (FRA)||France||+ 34' 23"|
|17||Antonio Suarez (ESP)||Spain||+ 39' 15"|
|18||Edouard Delberghe (FRA)||France||+ 44' 25"|
|19||René Pavard (FRA)||France||+ 48' 13"|
|20||Carmelo Morales (ESP)||Spain||+ 50' 44"|
|21||Jesus Lorono (ESP)||Spain||+ 52' 10"|
|22||Kurt Gimmi (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+ 54' 40"|
|23||Stéphan Lach (FRA)||Paris/North||+ 55' 02"|
|24||Michel Van Aerde (BEL)||Belgium||+ 56' 51"|
|25||Eddy Pauwels (BEL)||Belgium||+ 59' 05"|
|26||Brian Robinson (GBR)||Great Britain||+ 59' 52"|
|27||Piet Damen (NED)||Netherlands||+ 1h 00' 21"|
|28||Piet van Est (NED)||Netherlands||+ 1h 02' 48"|
|29||Tom Simpson (GBR)||Great Britain||+ 1h 09' 01"|
|30||Michel Vermeulin (FRA)||Paris/North||+ 1h 11' 42"|
|31||Pierre Beuffeuil (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+ 1h 12' 02"|
|32||Pierre Everaert (FRA)||France||+ 1h 17' 13"|
|33||Ercole Baldini (ITA)||Italy||+ 1h 21' 06"|
|34||Martin van den Borgh (NED)||Netherlands||+ 1h 25' 18"|
|35||Jean Dotto (FRA)||France||+ 1h 25' 28"|
|36||Jean Gainche (FRA)||West||+ 1h 30' 31"|
|37||René Strehler (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+ 1h 32' 09"|
|38||Joseph Wasko (FRA)||Paris/North||+ 1h 33' 34"|
|39||Wim van Est (NED)||Netherlands||+ 1h 40' 10"|
|40||Félix Lebuhotel (FRA)||West||+ 1h 46' 58"|
|41||Alfredo Sabbadin (ITA)||Italy||+ 1h 48' 47"|
|42||Luis Otano (ESP)||Spain||+ 1h 49' 55"|
|43||André Messelis (BEL)||Belgium||+ 1h 53' 10"|
|44||Bernard Viot (FRA)||Paris/North||+ 1h 53' 37"|
|45||Jaap Kersten (NED)||Netherlands||+ 1h 54' 16"|
|46||Fernand Picot (FRA)||West||+ 1h 55' 56"|
|47||André Le Dissez (FRA)||Paris/North||+ 1h 57' 13"|
|48||Raymond Hoorelbeke (FRA)||Paris/North||+ 1h 58' 22"|
|49||Roberto Falaschi (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 00' 07"|
|50||Marcel Queheille (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+ 2h 00' 37"|
|51||Lothar Friedrich (FRG)||West Germany||+ 2h 01' 45"|
|52||Joseph Groussard (FRA)||West||+ 2h 01' 49"|
|53||Armand Desmet (BEL)||Belgium||+ 2h 02' 05"|
|54||Aldo Bolzan (ITA)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+ 2h 02' 09"|
|55||Jean Milesi (FRA)||East/South-East||+ 2h 02' 40"|
|56||Emil Reinecke (FRG)||West Germany||+ 2h 04' 36"|
|57||Vittorio Casatti (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 05' 38"|
|58||Max Bleneau (FRA)||West||+ 2h 18' 57"|
|59||Antonin Rolland (FRA)||East/South-East||+ 2h 21' 09"|
|60||Tino Sabbadini (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+ 2h 24' 46"|
|61||Edouard Bihouee (FRA)||West||+ 2h 31' 13"|
|62||René Marigil (ESP)||Spain||+ 2h 35' 51"|
|63||Pierre Ruby (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+ 2h 37' 09"|
|64||Ivo Molenaers (BEL)||Belgium||+ 2h 39' 31"|
|65||Alves Barbosa (POR)||Internationals||+ 2h 39' 55"|
|66||Camille Le Menn (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+ 2h 40' 52"|
|67||Nino Defilippis (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 42' 10"|
|68||Pierino Baffi (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 44' 39"|
|69||Miguel Pacheco (ESP)||Spain||+ 2h 46' 29"|
|70||Rolf Graf (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+ 2h 49' 58"|
|71||Gianni Ferlenghi (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 51' 46"|
|72||Dino Bruni (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 52' 51"|
|73||Francis Pipelin (FRA)||West||+ 2h 54' 08"|
|74||Louis Bisilliat (FRA)||East/South-East||+ 3h 02' 47"|
|75||Manuel Busto (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+ 3h 04' 34"|
|76||Nello Fabbri (ITA)||Italy||+ 3h 06' 57"|
|77||Pierre Morel (FRA)||East/South-East||+ 3h 10' 25"|
|78||Fernando Brandolini (ITA)||Italy||+ 3h 12' 59"|
|79||Bernard Gauthier (FRA)||East/South-East||+ 3h 36' 05"|
|80||Hans Schleuniger (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+ 4h 48' 02"|
|81||José Berrendero (ESP)||Spain||+ 4h 58' 59"|
Rivière survived the crash, but his career as a professional cyclist was over. The drug palfium was found in his pockets, and it was thought that it had so numbed Riviere's fingers so that he couldn't feel the brake levers. Nencini had his bouquet of flowers given to Rivière.
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