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Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia
|Crown Prince of Yugoslavia|
Crown Prince Alexander receiving the rank of Commander of the Légion d’Honneur, 15 May 2015
|Head of the House of Karađorđević|
|Tenure||3 November 1970 – present|
|Heir apparent||Peter, Hereditary Prince of Serbia|
|Born|| (1945-07-17) 17 July 1945
Claridge's, Mayfair, London, England
|Father||Peter II of Yugoslavia|
|Mother||Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark|
|Years of service||1966–1972|
|Unit||16th/5th The Queen's Royal Lancers|
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia, also claiming the crowned royal title of Alexander II Karađorđević (Serbian Cyrillic: Александар II Карађорђевић / Aleksandar II Karađorđević; born 17 July 1945), is the heir to the defunct throne of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and currently claimant to the abolished throne of the precursor Kingdom of Serbia. He is the head of the House of Karađorđević. Alexander is the only child of former King Peter II and his wife, Alexandra of Greece and Denmark. He held the position of crown prince in the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia for the first four-and-a-half months of his life, from his birth until the declaration of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia later in 1945.
Born and raised in the United Kingdom, he enjoys close relationships with his relatives in the British royal family. His godparents were King George VI of the United Kingdom and his daughter, the then-Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II). Alexander is a direct descendant of Queen Victoria, through his great-great-grandfather Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Victoria's second eldest son. Alexander is known for his support of monarchism and his humanitarian work.
Status at birth
As with many other European monarchs during World War II, King Peter II left his country to establish a government-in-exile. He left Yugoslavia in April 1941 and arrived in London in June 1941. The Royal Yugoslav Armed Forces capitulated April 18.
After the Tehran Conference, the Allies shifted support from royalist Chetniks to communist-led Partisans. Commenting on the event and what happened to his father, Crown Prince Alexander said, “He [Peter II] was too straight. He could not believe that his allies –- the mighty American democracy and his relatives and friends in London –- could do him in. But that's precisely what happened.” In June 1944 Ivan Šubašić, the Royalist prime minister, and Josip Broz Tito, the Communist Partisan leader, signed an agreement that was an attempt to merge the royal government and communist movement.
On 29 November 1943, AVNOJ (formed by the Partisans) declared themselves the sovereign communist government of Yugoslavia and announced that they would take away all legal rights from the Royal government. On 10 August 1945, less than a month after Alexander's birth, AVNOJ named the country Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. On 29 November 1945, the country was declared a communist republic and changed its name to People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
As of 8 July 2015 the High Court in Belgrade found that decree 392, issued by the Presidency of the Presidium of the National Assembly on 3 August 1947, which deprived King Peter II and other members of the House of Karađorđević of their citizenship, was null and void from the moment of its adoption, in the parts pertaining to Crown Prince Alexander, and that all of its legal consequences are thus null and void.
Birth and childhood
Alexander was born in Suite 212 of Claridge's Hotel in Brook Street, Mayfair, London. The British Government is said to have temporarily ceded sovereignty over the suite in which the birth occurred to Yugoslavia so that the crown prince would be born on Yugoslav territory, though the story may be apocryphal, as there exists no documentary record of this. Another part of the story says that a box of dirt from the homeland was placed under the bed, so the Prince could be born on Yugoslav soil.
He was the only child of King Peter II and Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia. He was christened at Westminster Abbey. His godparents were members of the British royal family, King George VI and Princess Elizabeth, now Queen Elizabeth II.
His parents were relatively unable to take care of him, due to their various health and financial problems, so Alexander was raised by his maternal grandmother, Aspasia Manos. He was educated at Trinity School, Institut Le Rosey, Culver Military Academy, Gordonstoun, Millfield and Mons Officer Cadet School, Aldershot, and pursued a career in the British military.
Alexander graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1966 and was commissioned as an officer into the British Army's 16th/5th The Queen's Royal Lancers regiment, rising to the rank of captain. His tours of duty included West Germany, Italy, the Middle East, and Northern Ireland. After leaving the army in 1972, Alexander, who speaks several languages, pursued a career in international business.
On 1 July 1972 at Villamanrique de la Condesa, near Seville, Spain, he married Princess Maria da Gloria of Orléans-Braganza, from the Brazilian imperial family. They had three sons: Peter (born 5 February 1980), and fraternal twins: Philip and Alexander (both born 15 January 1982).
By marrying a Roman Catholic, Alexander lost his place in line of succession to the British throne, which he had held as a descendant of Queen Victoria through her second son Alfred, although forfeiture of succession rights on the basis of marriage to a Roman Catholic was retroactively rescinded in 2015. Alexander is also descended from Queen Victoria's eldest daughter Victoria. His sons remain in the line of succession to the British throne.
Alexander and Maria da Gloria divorced in 1985. Crown Prince Alexander married for the second time, Katherine Clairy Batis, the daughter of Robert Batis and his wife, Anna Dosti, civilly on 20 September 1985, and religiously the following day, at St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Church, Notting Hill, London. Since their marriage, she is known as Princess Katherine, as per the royal family's website.
Return to Yugoslavia
On 27 February 2001, the parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) passed legislation conferring citizenship on members of the Karađorđević family. The legislation may also have effectively annulled a decree stripping the family of its citizenship of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in 1947.
The annulment was the topic of some debate. Notably, the FRY was not the successor of the SFRY; rather the FRY was a new state (and was admitted to the United Nations as a new state on that basis). Therefore, the jurisdiction of a new state to annul an action of a different former state was questioned. In effect, the Karađorđević family had FRY citizenship conferred upon them, not "restored" as such.
The FRY legislation also addresses restoration of property to the Karađorđević family. In March 2001, the property seized from his family, including royal palaces, was returned for residential purposes with property ownership to be decided by parliament at some later date.
He currently lives in the Royal Palace (Kraljevski Dvor) in Dedinje which he has lived there since July 17, 2001 which is an exclusive area of Belgrade. The Palace, which was completed in 1929, is one of two royal residences in the Royal Compound; the other is the White Palace, which was completed in 1936.
Belief in constitutional monarchy
A number of political parties and organizations support a constitutional parliamentary monarchy in Serbia. The Serbian Orthodox Church has openly supported the restoration of the monarchy. The assassinated former Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić was often seen in the company of the prince and his family, supporting their campaigns and projects, although his Democratic Party never publicly embraced monarchy.
Crown Prince Alexander has vowed to stay out of politics. He and Princess Katherine spend considerable time engaging in humanitarian work.
The Crown Prince has, however, increasingly participated in public functions alongside the leaders of Serbia, the former Yugoslav republics and members of the diplomatic corps. On 11 May 2006, he hosted a reception at the Royal Palace for delegates attending a summit on Serbia and Montenegro. The reception was attended by the Governor of the National Bank of Serbia, as well as ambassadors and diplomats from Slovenia, Poland, Brazil, Japan, United States, and Austria. He later delivered a keynote speech in front of prime ministers Vojislav Koštunica and Milo Đukanović. In the speech he spoke of prospective Serbian membership of the European Union. He told delegates:
In addition, we in Serbia and Montenegro must take into account that whatever form we take within the European Union, we have only but one choice and that is to work for the common good of all member nations. It is also central to take into account that stability in our region will be enhanced when Serbia is fully at peace with itself.
Following Montenegro's successful independence referendum on 21 May 2006, the re-creation of the Serbian monarchy found its way into daily political debate. A monarchist proposal for the new Serbian constitution has been published alongside other proposals. The document approved in October 2006 is a republican one. The Serbian people have not had a chance to vote on the system of government.
The Crown Prince raised the issue of a royal restoration in the immediate aftermath of the vote. In a press release issued on 24 May 2006 he stated:
It has been officially confirmed that the people of Montenegro voted for independence. I am sad, but I wish our Montenegrin brothers peace, democracy and happiness. The people of Montenegro are our brothers and sisters no matter what if we live in one or in two countries, that is how it was and that is how it will be forever.
I strongly believe in a Constitutional Parliamentary Kingdom of Serbia. Again, we need to be proud, a strong Serbia that is at peace with itself and with its neighbors. We were a proud, respected and happy country in the days of my great grandfather King Peter I. So, we can do it! Only if we have a form of governance close to the Serbian soul: the Kingdom of Serbia.
Simply, the King is above daily politics, he is the guardian of national unity, political stability and continuity of the state. In Constitutional Parliamentary Monarchies the King is the protector of public interest: there is no personal or party interest. What is most important is the interest of Serbia.
I am ready to meet all our politicians; we have to work together for the common good of Serbia, and to be friends in the name of the future of our country. I appeal for the end of the continuous political wrangling, division and arguments. I appeal for mature democratic debate in the interest of Serbia. Serbia must have clear and realistic objectives.
In 2011 an online open access poll by Serbian middle-market tabloid newspaper Blic showed that 64% of Serbians support restoring the monarchy. Another poll in May 2013 had 39% of Serbians supporting the monarchy, with 32% against it. The public also had reservations with Alexander's apparent lack of knowledge of the Serbian language. On 27 July 2015, newspaper Blic published a poll "Da li Srbija treba da bude monarhija?" ("Should Serbia be a monarchy?"); 49.8% respondents expressed support in a reconstitution of monarchy, 44.6% were opposed and 5.5% were indifferent.
On 16 December 2017, Alexander attended with his wife the state funeral of his first cousin once removed, King Michael of Romania in Bucharest, along with other heads of European royal families and invited guests.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 17 July 1945 – 29 November 1945: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Yugoslavia
- 29 November 1945 – Present: His Royal Highness Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia
- officially in Serbia: 17 July 2001 – present: Aleksandar Karađorđević
- known in Serbia: 17 July 2001 – present: Crown Prince Alexander Karađorđević
- in pretence: 3 Nov 1970 – 4 February 2003: His Majesty The King of Yugoslavia
- in pretence: 4 February 2003 – present: His Majesty The King of Serbia
- House of Karađorđević: Sovereign of the Royal Order of Saint Prince Lazarus
- House of Karađorđević: Sovereign of the Royal Order of the Star of Karađorđe
- House of Karađorđević: Sovereign of the Royal Order of the White Eagle
- House of Karađorđević: Sovereign of the Royal Order of the Crown
- House of Karađorđević: Sovereign of the Royal Order of Saint Sava
- Brazilian Imperial Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of the Southern Cross
- Italian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- Two Sicilian Royal Family: Knight of the Illustrious Royal Order of Saint Januarius
- Two Sicilian Royal Family: Bailiff Knight Grand Cross of Justice with Collar of the Two Sicilian Royal Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
- France: Commander of the Order of the Legion of Honour
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Collar of the Order of Merit
- Sweden: Recipient of the 50th Birthday Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf
- Sweden: Recipient of the 70th Birthday Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf
- United Kingdom: Recipient of the General Service Medal
- Order of Tsar Constantine (Serbian Orthodox Church)
- Order of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel (Greek Orthodox Church)
- Order of Saint Tsar Nicholas (Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia)
- Order of Saint Sava (First Grade) (Serbian Orthodox Church)
- Order of St. Prince Lazar (Eparchy of Raška and Prizren, Serbian Orthodox Church)
- Louda; Maclagan (1981), p. 296
- Fenyvesi (1981), p. 211
- Fenyvesi (1981), p. 212
- Fenyvesi (1981), p. 215
- "The decree on stripping the Karađorđević family of citizenship (translation)". The Royal Family of Serbia.
- "The royal family was stripped of their property (translation)". The Royal Family of Serbia.
- Rehabilitation of Crown Prince Alexander
- Tomlinson, Richard (2 February 1993). "Obituary: Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia". The Independent.
- "Did a London hotel room become part of Yugoslavia? - BBC News". Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- The Royal Family of Serbia
- Louda; Maclagan (1981), p. 286 Table 144
- News Report of B92 as reproduced on Royal Family website Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- McKinsey, Kitty (27 June 1997). "Kings Try for Comeback". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007.
- Letter from Patriarch Pavle to HRH Crown Prince Alexander II, 29 November 2003
- Luxmoore, Jonathan (8 December 2003). "Serbian Orthodox Leader Calls For Monarchy To Be Reintroduced". Ecumenical News International. Archived from the original on 10 October 2006.
- "Reception at the White Palace for the sixth summit state union of Serbia and Montenegro" (Press release). The Chancellery of H.R.H. Crown Prince Alexander II of Yugoslavia. 11 May 2006. Archived from the original on 10 October 2006.
- "Statement of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Alexander II following the announcement of the Montenegro referendum results" (Press release). The Chancellery of H.R.H. Crown Prince Alexander II of Yugoslavia. 24 May 2006. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012.
- Roberts, Michael (5 September 2011). "64% of Serbians polled vote Monarchy over Republic". Balkans.com Business News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011.
- 39 percent of Serbians in favor of monarchy, poll shows Archived 2 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- ANKETA Da li Srbija treba da bude monarhija?. Blic. (in Serbian). July 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
Books, letters and articles
- Fenyvesi, Charles (1981). Royalty In Exile. London: Robson Books Ltd. ISBN 0-86051-131-6.
- Louda, Jiri; Maclagan, Michael (1981). Lines of Succession. London: Orbis Publishing. ISBN 0-85613-276-4.
- Pavle, Patriarch (29 November 1981). Letter to HRH Crown Prince Alexander II. Belgrade.
- Luxmoore, Jonathon (8 December 1981). Serbian Orthodox Leader Calls For Monarchy To Be Reintroduced. Belgrade: Ecumenical News Daily Service.
- Official Royal Family website
- Royal Mausoleum Oplenac
- Crown Prince Alexander II Foundation for Education
Alexander, Crown Prince of YugoslaviaBorn: 17 July 1945
|Titles in pretence|
Title last held byPeter I of Serbia
as King of Serbia
|— TITULAR —
King of Serbia
4 February 2003 – present
Reason for succession failure:
Title abolished, merger of Kingdom of Serbia into Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Crown Prince Peter
Peter II of Yugoslavia
as King of Yugoslavia
|— TITULAR —
King of Yugoslavia
3 November 1970 – 4 February 2003
Reason for succession failure:
Kingdom abolished in 1945
|Breakup of Yugoslavia|
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