Amangkurat III of Mataram

Amangkurat III (Amangkurat Mas; died in Dutch Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), 1734) was a short-lived ruler of Susuhunan of Mataram, reigned 1703–1705.

His father Amangkurat II of Mataram died, and he soon lost to his half-uncle Prince Puger in the First Javanese War of Succession, which lasted on for five years until the Dutch managed to install Prince Puger as Pakubuwono I.

Amangkurat was deposed, but not caught until 1707. He was subsequently exiled to Ceylon, where he later died.

Origin

Born as Raden Mas Sutikna, according to Babad Tanah Jawi, he was the only child of Amangkurat II, because his mother had used magic on another wives of Amangkurat II until they were barren. RM. Sutikna was also nicknamed Pangeran Kencet (Prince Heel), due to deformity in his heel.

It is said that RM. Sutikna was bad-tempered, temperamental, and jealous man, especially if he knew another more handsome man. When acting as adipati anom (crown prince), he married his cousin, Raden Ayu Lembah, daughter of Prince Puger (future Pakubuwono I). Nevertheless, he divorced his wife due to her infidelity with Raden Sukra, son of Patih Sindureja.

Raden Sukra was then murdered by Sutikna's henchman, and Prince Puger was forced to put capital punishment on her daughter, RAy. Lembah. RM. Sutikna then married Raden Ayu Himpun, sister of RAy. Lembah.

Conflict with Prince Puger

Amangkurat III ascended to throne in Kartasura, succeeding his father Amangkurat II who died in 1703. According to Babad Tanah Jawi, wahyu keprabon (heavenly mandate) actually fell on Prince Puger.

Prince Puger was supported by numerous officials who disliked the new king, which made Amangkurat III felt disturbed. He divorced RAy. Himpun and made a wive from Onje village (now in Mrebet, Purbalingga Regency) as his new queen consort.

Pressure on his family caused Raden Suryokusumo (son of Prince Puger) rebelled. The feared Amangkurat III immediately put Prince Puger with his family on captivity. They were released after persuasion made by Patih Sumabrata.

Support on Prince Puger to seize power flew again. Amangkurat III ultimately sent his follower to assassinate Prince Puger and his family in 1704, but the target had escaped to Semarang.

Leaving Kartasura

Prince Puger in Semarang was supported by Dutch East India Company (VOC) with condition beneficial to them. He designated himself as sultan, styled Pakubuwono I. His troops moved in 1705 to seize Kartasura. Amangkurat III built fortification in Ungaran, led by his uncle, Prince Arya Mataram, who secretly supported Pakubuwono I.

Arya Mataram was successful to persuade Amangkurat III to leave Kartasura. He himself eventually joined Pakubuwono I, his own older brother.

This short-lived Amangkurat III's reign was a result of Amangkurat I's curse on Amangkurat II who had poisoned his beverage when escaping from Mataram due to Trunojoyo invasion in 1677.

According to Babad Tanah Jawi, Amangkurat II was cursed that his descendants never became a king but his short-term son (Amangkurat III). Babad Tanah Jawi was however written in the era of Pakubuwono I's descendants, thus its proof is difficult to prove.

First Javanese War of Succession

The group of Amangkurat III escaped to Ponorogo bringing all royal heirlooms. There, he tortured Duke Martowongso due to misunderstanding. All Ponorogo people rebelled after their regent was tortured. Amangkurat III then escaped to Madiun, after which he escaped to Kediri.

Untung Suropati, an anti-Dutch Regent of Pasuruan immediately sent troops to protect Amangkurat III. The group of Kartasura, Dutch, Madurese, and Surabaya troops moved to invade Pasuruan in 1706. During a battle in Bangil, Untung Suropati was killed in action. His sons then joined with Amangkurat III in Malang.

Amangkurat III had suffered much in 1707 because he was chased by Pakubuwono I's troops. Amangkurat III subsequently moved to Blitar, then to Kediri, ultimately decided to surrender in Surabaya in 1708.

Exiled to Ceylon

Prince Blitar, son of Pakubuwono I, arrived to Surabaya persuading Amangkurat III to give all of royal heirlooms, but he refused. Amangkurat III was just willing to give it directly to Pakubuwono I.

Dutch East India Company then moved Amangkurat III to Batavia (now Jakarta), after which he was banished to Ceylon. Amangkurat III died there 26 years later.

It is said that Mataram royal heirlooms had been brought to Ceylon. But, Pakubuwono I tried to be resolute by announcing that the actual Javanese heirlooms were Demak Great Mosque and the tomb of Sunan Kalijaga in Kadilangu, Demak.

References

  • Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2
  • Moeis A. 1999. Surapati. cet. 11. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka
  • Babad Tanah Jawi, Mulai dari Nabi Adam Sampai Tahun 1647. (transl.). 2007. Yogyakarta: Narasi
  • Ricklefs MC. 2001. A History of Modern Indonesia: 3rd Edition. Palgrave and Stanford University Press.
  • Moedjianto. 1987. Konsep Kekuasaan Jawa: Penerapannya oleh Raja-raja Mataram. Yogyakarta: Kanisius
  • Purwadi. 2007. Sejarah Raja-Raja Jawa. Yogyakarta: Media Ilmu.


Preceded by Susuhunan of Mataram
1703 – 1705
Succeeded by

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