City of Dunedin (New Zealand electorate)

City of Dunedin, during the first two parliaments called Town of Dunedin, was a parliamentary electorate in Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand. It was one of the original electorates created in 1853 and existed, with two breaks, until 1905. The first break, from 1862 to 1866, was caused by an influx of people through the Otago Gold Rush, when many new electorates were formed in Otago. The second break occurred from 1881 to 1890. It was the only New Zealand electorate that was created as a single-member, two-member and three member electorate.

Population centres

In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Dunedin was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election.[1]

History

From 1853 to 1860, the electorate was known as the Town of Dunedin. From 1860 to 1905, it was the City of Dunedin.[2]

James Macandrew was the first elected member. He resigned on 2 November 1858 and was re-elected in a 14 January 1859 by-election.[3][4]

Elections for the first two-member electorate were held on 24 December 1860. Three people contested the poll, with Thomas Dick and Edward McGlashan returned.[5]

In 1863, the electorate was abolished and replaced with Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South. It was recreated for the 1866 general election.

James Gordon Stuart Grant was a local eccentric and a frequent candidate from 1867 to 1884.

The 1875 election was contested by eight candidates. The three candidates on the anti-centralist ticket, James Macandrew, William Larnach and Robert Stout, were all successful. They beat William Reynolds, James Macassey[6] Henry Fish, James Grant and John Armstrong.[7]

Larnach resigned on 31 May 1878.[8]

The 1893 election was contested by eight candidates, who contested three available positions. William Hutchison and David Pinkerton were incumbents who were successful, William Earnshaw was the third successful candidate (he had represented the Peninsula electorate in the previous Parliament), the previous representative Henry Fish came fourth, Hugh Gourley was fifth, with other unsuccessful candidates being James Gore, Charles Haynes, and David Nicol.[9]

Dunedin will be recreated for the 2020 general election as a single-member electorate, as Dunedin no longer has a population large enough to support two electorates. The electorate, however, will not include South Dunedin, as that will be part of a recreated Taieri electorate.[10]

Members of Parliament

The multi-member electorate was represented by 23 Members of Parliament:

Single-member electorate

From 1853 to 1860, Town of Dunedin was a single-member electorate.

Two-member electorate

From 1860 to 1863, and 1866 to 1875 City of Dunedin was a two-member electorate. Under the Representation Act 1862[11] the City of Dunedin electorate was abolished, with two new electorates, Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South replacing it, with elections being held on 28 March to 6 April 1863 respectively. All electorates before and after changes returned two members, with each of the previous incumbents in City of Dunedin being assigned an incumbency in one of the Dunedin Suburbs electorates, although Thomas Dick resigned before taking up his entitlement in Dunedin and Suburbs North, forcing the 1863 by-election.

Three-member electorate

From 1875 to 1881, and 1890 to 1905 City of Dunedin was a three-member electorate.

Key:

ā€ƒ Independent   ā€ƒ Liberal   ā€ƒ Conservative   ā€ƒ Liberalā€“Labour   ā€ƒ Independent Liberal  

Election results

1899 election

1899 general election: Dunedin [16] [17]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Liberalā€“Labour John A. Millar 9,045 61.70 +14.78
Liberalā€“Labour James Arnold 8,290 56.55
Liberal Alfred Richard Barclay 7,363 50.23
Conservative Scobie Mackenzie 6,726 45.88 -12.96
Conservative Alexander Sligo 6,415 43.76
Conservative Charles Haynes 4,919 33.55
Liberal Charles Robert Chapman 1,222 8.34
Majority 637 4.35 +1.50
Turnout 14,660 72.99 +1.99
Registered electors 20,084

1897 by-election

1897 City of Dunedin by-election [18]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Conservative Alexander Sligo 5,045 45.29
Liberal Hugh Gourley 4,065 36.49
Independent Liberal William Hutchison 2,030 18.22
Informal votes 55
Majority 980
Turnout 11,140 75.59
Registered electors 14,811

1896 election

1896 general election: Dunedin [19] [20]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Conservative Scobie Mackenzie 7,821 58.84
Liberalā€“Labour John A. Millar 6,236 46.92
Conservative Henry Fish 6,067 45.64 -1.87
Liberal David Pinkerton 5,689 42.80 -15.94
Liberal William Hutchison 4,983 37.49 -12.57
Conservative Alexander Campbell Begg[21] 4,409 33.17
Liberalā€“Labour William Earnshaw 2,421 18.21 -34.41
Conservative James Gore 1,299 9.77 -22.57
Independent Alfred Henry Burton 274 2.06
Conservative Murray Aston 272 2.05
Independent Frederick Marler Lester 209 1.57
Independent David Nicol 196 1.47 -2.06
Majority 378[nb 1] 2.84 0.29
Turnout 13,292 71.01 2.94
Registered electors 18,719[22]

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fish - 6,067) and highest losing poll (Pinkerton - 5,689)

1893 election

1893 general election: Dunedin [23] [24]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Liberalā€“Labour David Pinkerton 6,771 58.74 -4.88
Liberalā€“Labour William Earnshaw 6,066 52.62
Liberal William Hutchison 5,771 50.06 -6.10
Conservative Henry Fish 5,477 47.51 -10.65
Liberal Hugh Gourley 4,081 35.40
Conservative James Gore 3,728 32.34
Conservative Charles Haynes[25] 2,283 19.80
Independent David Nicol 407 3.53
Majority 294 2.55 -2.90
Turnout 11,528 68.07 +12.79
Registered electors 16,936

1890 election

1890 general election: City of Dunedin [26]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Liberalā€“Labour David Pinkerton 3,209 63.61
Liberal Henry Fish 2,934 58.16
Liberal William Hutchison 2,833 56.16
Conservative James Allen[27] 2,485 49.26
Conservative Richard Henry Leary[27] 1,838 36.43
Liberal Alfred Lee Smith[27] 1,835 36.38
Majority 348 6.90
Turnout 5,045 55.28
Registered electors 9,126

1875 election

1875 general election: Dunedin [28] [6]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Independent James Macandrew 891 71.22
Independent Robert Stout 865 69.14
Independent William Larnach 843 67.38
Independent William Reynolds 476 38.04
Independent James Macassey 409 32.69
Independent Henry Fish 238 19.02
Independent James Grant 29 2.31
Turnout 1,251

1879 City of Dunedin by-election

1878 City of Dunedin by-election

1878 City of Dunedin by-election [31] [32]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Independent Richard Oliver 769 53.89
Independent Charles Stephen Reeves 658 46.11
Majority 111 7.78
Turnout 1427

1874 City of Dunedin by-election

1869 City of Dunedin by-election

1869 City of Dunedin by-election [34]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Independent Thomas Birch 578 76.35
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant 179 23.65
Turnout 757
Majority 399 52.71

1867 City of Dunedin by-election

1867 City of Dunedin by-election [35]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Independent William Reynolds 333 86.49
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant 52 13.51
Turnout 385
Majority 281 72.99

May 1862 City of Dunedin by-election

May 1862 City of Dunedin by-election [36]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Independent John Richardson 45 54.88
Independent James Paterson 37 45.12
Turnout 82
Majority 8 9.76

1860 election

1859 by-election

1859 Town of Dunedin by-election [4]
Party Candidate Votes % Ā±%
Independent James Macandrew 40 93.02 -
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant[38] 3 6.98 -
Majority 37 86.05 -
Total votes 43 - -

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