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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
|Close-mid central unrounded vowel|
The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ⟨ə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ë⟩ (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩.
Conversely, ⟨ə⟩, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a raising diacritic ⟨ə̝⟩ to denote the close-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ⟨ə̝͑⟩ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ⟨ə⟩ is undefined for rounding).
- Its vowel height is close-mid, also known as high-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel (a high vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Azerbaijani||Tabriz||qız / قیز||[ɡɘz]||'girl'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɯ⟩.|
|Cotabato Manobo||[example needed]||May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.|
|Dinka||Luanyjang||ŋeŋ||[ŋɘ́ŋ]||'jawbone'||Short allophone of /e/.|
|English||Australian||bird||[bɘːd]||'bird'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. See Australian English phonology|
|Southern Michigan||[bɚ̝ːd]||Rhotacized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.|
|Cardiff||foot||[fɘt]||'foot'||Less often rounded [ɵ]; corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology|
|New Zealand||bit||[bɘt]||'bit'||Merger of /ə/ and /ɪ/ found in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology|
|Southern American||nut||[nɘt]||'nut'||Some dialects. Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology|
|Estonian||kõrv||[kɘrv]||'ear'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩; can be close-mid back [ɤ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker. See Estonian phonology|
|Irish||Munster||sáile||[ˈsˠɰaːlʲə̝]||'salt water'||Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants. See Irish phonology|
|Kaingang||me||[ˈᵐbɘ]||'tail'||Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].|
|Kalagan Kaagan||[miˈwə̝ːʔ]||'lost'||Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.|
|Kensiu||[ɟɚ̝h]||'to trim'||Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.|
|Kera||[t͡ʃə̝̄wā̠a̠]||'fire'||Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.|
|Korean||어른/ŏŏleun||[ə̝ːɾɯ̽n]||'adult'||May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨əː⟩. See Korean phonology|
|Lizu||[Fkə̝][clarification needed]||'eagle'||Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.|
|Mapudungun||elün||[ë̝ˈlɘn]||'to leave (something)'|
|Mono||dœ||[də̝]||'be (equative)'||May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.|
|Polish||mysz||[mɘ̟ʂ] (help·info)||'mouse'||Somewhat fronted; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See Polish phonology|
|Romanian||Moldavian dialect||casă||[ˈkäsɘ]||'house'||Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Temne||pər||[pə̝́r]||'incite'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.|
|Vietnamese||vợ||[vɘ˨˩ˀ]||'wife'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Vietnamese phonology|
|Xumi||Upper||[LPmɘ̃dɐ]||'upstairs'||Nasalized; occurs only in this word. It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.|
|Zapotec||Tilquiapan||ne||[nɘ]||'and'||Most common realization of /e/.|
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