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Close back unrounded vowel
|Close back unrounded vowel|
The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɯ⟩. Typographically a turned letter ⟨m⟩, given its relation to the sound represented by the letter ⟨u⟩ it can be considered a ⟨u⟩ with an extra "bowl".
- Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned close to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Acehnese||eu||[ɯ]||'see'||Also described as closer to [ɨ].|
|Chinese||Hokkien Quanzhou dialect||豬/tu||[tɯ]||'pig'||Allophone of [ɨ]. Written 'tir' in Pe̍h-ōe-jī.|
|Some Wu dialects||父/vu||[vɯ]||'father'|
|English||African-American||hook||[hɯ̞k]||'hook'||Near-close; possible realization of /ʊ/.|
|Tidewater||Near-close; may be rounded [ʊ] instead.|
|California||goose||[ɡɯˑs]||'goose'||Corresponds to [uː] in other dialects.|
|New Zealand||treacle||[ˈtɹ̝̊iːkɯ]||'treacle'||Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid. Corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. Develops from dark L; See New Zealand English phonology|
|Some Philadelphia speakers||plus||[pɫ̥ɯs]||'plus'||Used by some speakers; the exact height and backness is variable. It corresponds to [ʌ] in other accents. See English phonology|
|South African||pill||[pʰɯ̞ɫ]||'pill'||Near-close; possible allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/. See South African English phonology|
|Estonian||kõrv||[kɯrv]||'ear'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩; can be close-mid central [ɘ] or close-mid back [ɤ] instead, depending on the speaker. See Estonian phonology|
|Irish||Ulster||caol||[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]||'narrow'||See Irish phonology|
|Japanese||空気 / kūki||[kɯːki]||'air'||May be compressed [ɯᵝ]. See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||음식 飮食 eumsik||[ɯːmɕik̚]||'food'||See Korean phonology|
|Kurdish||Kurmanji (Northern)||tirş||[tˤɯɾʃ]||'sour'||See Kurdish phonology. The "i" after "t" always uses this sound if the "t" is "tˤ". However, it can also appear at other places.|
|Kyrgyz||кыз/qyz||[qɯz]||'girl'||See Kyrgyz phonology|
|Portuguese||European||pegar||[pɯ̞ˈɣäɾ]||'to hold'||Reduced vowel. Near-close. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See Portuguese phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic||caol||[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]||'thin'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Thai||Standard||ขึ้น/khuen||[kʰɯn˥˩]||'to go up'|
|Turkish||sığ||[sɯː]||'shallow'||Described variously as close back [ɯ], near-close near-back [ɯ̞] and close central [ɨ]. See Turkish phonology|
|Uyghur||تىلىم/tulum||[tɯlɯm]||'my language'||In complementary distribution with /ɪ/. See Uyghur phonology|
|Vietnamese||tư||[tɯ]||'fourth'||See Vietnamese phonology|
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