Common Security and Defence Policy

European Defence Union
Insignia of the European External Action Service.svg European Defence Agency logo.svg
Emblems of the External Action Service (EEAS; left) and Defence Agency (EDA; right)
Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg Coat of arms of Europe.svg Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Arms of the Military Committee (EUMC; left) and its chairman (CEUMC; middle), as well as the Military Staff (EUMS, part of the EEAS; right)

Founded 1999 (as the European Security and Defence Policy)
Current form 2009 (Treaty of Lisbon)
Headquarters External Action Service military and civilian planning and conduct capabilities (Kortenberg building), Brussels, Belgium
High Representative Josep Borrell
Director General EU Military Staff Lt. Gen Esa Pulkkinen
Chairman EU Military Committee General Claudio Graziano
Active personnel 1,410,626 (2016)[2]
Budget €223.4 billion ($249.3 billion) (2018)[3]
Percent of GDP 1.4% (2018)[4]

The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is the European Union's (EU) course of action in the fields of defence and crisis management, and a main component of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

The CSDP involves military or civilian missions being deployed to preserve peace, prevent conflict and strengthen international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with secondments from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states[c] as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 27 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The CSDP structure — headed by the Union's High Representative (HR/VP), Josep Borrell, and sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union (EDU) in relation to its prospective development as the EU's defence arm[5][6][7][d] — comprises:

The EU command & control structures are much smaller than the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Command Structure (NCS), which has been established for territorial defence. It has been agreed that NATO's Allied Command Operations (ACO) may be used for the conduct of the EU's missions. The MPCC, established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, is the EU's first permanent military OHQ. In parallel, the newly established European Defence Fund (EDF) marks the first time the EU budget is used to finance multinational defence projects.

Decisions relating to the CSDP are proposed by the HR/VP, adopted by the FAC, generally requiring unanimity, and then implemented by the HR/VP.


Commands of the Western Union's service branches, situated in the Palace of Fontainebleau 1948–1951
Organisational chart of the European Defence Community, which was proposed by French prime minister René Pleven but failed to acquire ratification by the French parliament in 1954

The post-war period saw several short-lived or ill-fated initiatives for European defence integration intended to protect against potential Soviet or German aggression: The Western Union (WU, also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organisation, BTO) and the proposed European Defence Community were respectively cannibalised by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and rejected by the French Parliament. The largely dormant Western European Union (WEU) succeeded the WU's remainder in 1955.

In 1970 the European Political Cooperation (EPC) brought about the European Communities' (EC) initial foreign policy coordination. Opposition to the addition of security and defence matters to the EPC led to the reactivation of the WEU in 1984 by its member states, which were also EC member states.

European defence integration gained momentum soon after the end of the Cold War, partly as a result of the EC's failure to prevent the Yugoslav Wars. In 1992, the WEU was given new tasks, and the following year the Treaty of Maastricht founded the EU and replaced the EPC with the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) pillar. In 1996 NATO agreed to let the WEU develop a so-called European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI).[8] The 1998 St. Malo declaration signalled that the traditionally hesitant United Kingdom was prepared to provide the EU with autonomous defence structures.[9] This facilitated the transformation of the ESDI into the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999, when it was transferred to the EU. In 2003 the EU deployed its first CSDP missions, and adopted the European Security Strategy identifying common threats and objectives. In 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon introduced the present name, CSDP, while establishing the EEAS, the mutual defence clause and enabling a subset of member states to pursue defence integration within PESCO. In 2011 the WEU, whose tasks had been transferred to the EU, was dissolved. In 2016 a new security strategy was introduced, which along with the Russian annexation of Crimea, the British withdrawal from the EU and the election of Trump as US President have given the CSDP a new impetus.


Since 2002, the European Union has intervened abroad thirty-five times in three different continents.

The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP, following the 1999 declaration of intent, was in March 2003 in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM, today: North Macedonia). Operation Concordia used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission, EUPOL Proxima, later that year. Since then, there have been other small police, justice and monitoring missions. As well as in the FYROM, the EU has maintained its deployment of peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as part of Operation Althea.[10]

Between May and September 2003 EU troops were deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during "Operation Artemis" under a mandate given by UN Security Council Resolution 1484 which aimed to prevent further atrocities and violence in the Ituri Conflict and put the DRC's peace process back on track. This laid out the "framework nation" system to be used in future deployments. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with EUFOR RD Congo, which supported the UN mission there during the country's elections.

Geographically, EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in Georgia, Indonesia, Sudan, Palestine, and UkraineMoldova. There is also a judicial mission in Iraq (EUJUST Lex). On 28 January 2008, the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa, EUFOR Tchad/RCA.[11] The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008, and handed over security duties to the UN (MINURCAT mission) in mid-March 2009.[12]

The EU launched its first maritime CSDP operation on 12 December 2008 (Operation Atalanta). The concept of the European Union Naval Force (EU NAVFOR) was created on the back of this operation, which is still successfully combatting piracy off the coast of Somalia almost a decade later. A second such intervention was launched in 2015 to tackle migration problems in the southern Mediterranean (EUNAVFOR Med), working under the name Operation SOPHIA.

Most of the CSDP missions deployed so far are mandated to support Security Sector Reforms (SSR) in host-states. One of the core principles of CSDP support to SSR is local ownership. The EU Council defines ownership as "the appropriation by the local authorities of the commonly agreed objectives and principles".[13] Despite EU's strong rhetorical attachment to the local ownership principle, research shows that CSDP missions continue to be an externally driven, top-down and supply-driven endeavour, resulting often in the low degree of local participation.[14]


The CSDP involves military or civilian missions being deployed to preserve peace, prevent conflict and strengthen international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states[e] as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 27 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The CSDP structure, headed by the Union's High Representative (HR/VP), Josep Borrell, comprises:

While the EU has a command and control (C2) structure, it has no standing permanent military structure along the lines of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Allied Command Operations (ACO), although it has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions. The MPCC, established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, does however represent the EU's first step in developing a permanent military headquarters. In parallel, the newly established European Defence Fund (EDF) marks the first time the EU budget is used to finance multinational defence projects. The CSDP structure is sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union (EDU), especially in relation to its prospective development as the EU's defence arm.[15][16][17][f]

Decisions relating to the CSDP are proposed by the HR/VP, adopted by the FAC, generally requiring unanimity, and then implemented by the HR/VP.

The EU command and control (C2) structure, as directed by political bodies which are composed of member states's representatives and generally require unanimous decisions, as of April 2019:[18]

Liaison:          Advice and recommendations          Support and monitoring          Preparatory work      
Political strategic level:
ISS EUCO Pres. (EUCO) Chain of command
INTCEN HR/VP (PMG) HR/VP (PSC) (******) Coat of arms of Europe.svg Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
CMPD Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
Military/civilian strategic level:
Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
Dir MPCC (***) (MPCC)
JSCC Civ OpCdr CPCC(*)
Operational level:
MFCdr (****) (MFHQ) HoM (*)
Tactical level:
CC(**) Land CC(**) Air CC(**) Mar Other CCs(**)
Forces Forces Forces Forces


The European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) is the updated doctrine of the EU to improve the effectiveness of the CSDP, including the defence and security of the members states, the protection of civilians, cooperation between the member states' armed forces, management of immigration, crises etc. Adopted on 28 June 2016,[19] it replaces the European Security Strategy of 2003. The EUGS is complemented by a document titled "Implementation Plan on Security and Defense" (IPSD).[20]



National armed forces' personnel combined (2016) [21]

The CSDP is implemented using civilian and military contributions from member states' armed forces, which also are obliged to collective self-defence based on Treaty on European Union (TEU).

Five EU states host nuclear weapons: France has its own nuclear programmes, while Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands host US nuclear weapons as part of NATO's nuclear sharing policy. Combined, the EU possesses 300 warheads, and hosts between 90 and 130 US warheads. Italy hosts 70-90 B61 nuclear bombs, while Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands 10-20 each one.[22] The EU has the third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons, after the United States and Russia.

The following table presents the military expenditures of the members of the European Union in euros (€). The combined military expenditure of the member states amounted to €223.4 billion in 2018.[3] This represents 1.4% of European Union GDP. European military expenditure includes spending on joint projects such as the Eurofighter Typhoon and joint procurement of equipment. The European Union's combined active military forces in 2016 totaled 1,410,626 personnel.[2]

In a speech in 2012, Swedish General Håkan Syrén criticised the spending levels of European Union countries, saying that in the future those countries' military capability will decrease, creating "critical shortfalls".[23]

Guide to table:

  • All figure entries in the table below are provided by the European Defence Agency for the year 2017, except for Germany's personnel figure, which is for 2016. Figures from other sources are not included.
  • The "operations & maintenance expenditure" category may in some circumstances also include finances on-top of the nations defence budget.
  • The categories "troops prepared for deployed operations" and "troops prepared for deployed and sustained operation" only include land force personnel.
Member state Expenditure (€ mn.) Per capita (€) % of GDP Operations & maintenance expenditure (€ mn.) Active military personnel Land troops prepared for deployed and sustained operations
Austria Austria[2] 2,647 301 0.72 574 24,190 1,100
Belgium Belgium[2] 3,965 349 0.90 680 27,789 1,293
Bulgaria Bulgaria[2] 771 109 1.53 118 30,218 1,168
Croatia Croatia[2] 615 149 1.26 154 14,862 796
Cyprus Cyprus[2] 352 409 1.83 63 20,000 0
Czech Republic Czech Republic[2] 1,944 184 1.01 474 23,036 672
Estonia Estonia[2] 478 363 2.08 158 6,178 100
Finland Finland[2] 2,879 523 1.29 919 7,515 1,738
France France[2] 40,852 609 1.79 10,201 208,251 17,000
Germany Germany[2] 40,447 489 1.24 177,608
Greece Greece[2] 4,213 393 2.37 504 106,624 2,432
Hungary Hungary[2] 1,197 122 0.97 492 23,846 1,000
Republic of Ireland Ireland[2] 915 191 0.31 103 9,500 850
Italy Italy[2] 20,534 339 1.20 1,583 181,116
Latvia Latvia[2] 470 243 1.75 132 5,686 75
Lithuania Lithuania[2] 724 256 1.73 145 14,350
Luxembourg Luxembourg[2] 289 484 0.52 30 824 57
Malta Malta[2] 57 122 0.51 8 1,808 30
Netherlands Netherlands[2] 8,686 507 1.18 2,144 40,196 1,500
Poland Poland[2] 8,683 226 1.86 1,918 106,500 60
Portugal Portugal[2] 2,422 235 1.25 142 32,726 1,698
Romania Romania[2] 3,627 185 1.93 277 69,542 2,961
Slovakia Slovakia[2] 993 183 1.17 198 13,152 846
Slovenia Slovenia[2] 422 204 0.98 72 6,342 707
Spain Spain[2] 10,739 231 0.92 1,891 120,812 7,410
Sweden Sweden[2] 4,638 460 0.97 1,973 14,500 750
European Union EU[2] 226,152 443 1.42 1,430,072
Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier is one of the largest commissioned warships in the European Union.

The combined component strength of the naval forces of member states is some 513 commissioned warships. Of those in service, 4 are fleet carriers. The EU also has 4 amphibious assault ships and 20 amphibious support ships in service. Of the EU's 49 submarines, 10 are nuclear-powered submarines while 39 are conventional attack submarines.

Operation Atalanta (formally European Union Naval Force Somalia) is the first ever (and still ongoing) naval operation of the European Union. It is part of a larger global action by the EU in the Horn of Africa to deal with the Somali crisis. As of January 2011 twenty-three EU nations participate in the operation.

France and Italy have blue-water navies.[24]

Guide to table:

  • Ceremonial vessels, research vessels, supply vessels, training vessels, and icebreakers are not included.
  • The table only counts warships that are commissioned (or equivalent) and active.
  • Surface vessels displacing less than 200 tonnes are not included, regardless of other characteristics.
  • The "amphibious support ship" category includes amphibious transport docks and dock landing ships, and tank landing ships.
  • Frigates over 6,000 tonnes are classified as destroyers.
  • The "patrol vessel" category includes missile boats.
  • The "anti-mine ship" category includes mine countermeasures vessels, minesweepers and minehunters.
  • Generally, total tonnage of ships is more important than total number of ships, as it gives a better indication of capability.
Member state Fleet carrier Amphibious assault ship Amphibious support ship Destroyer Frigate Corvette Patrol vessel Anti‑mine ship Missile sub. Attack sub. Total Tonnage
Austria Austria 0 0
Belgium Belgium[25] 2 2 5 9 10,009
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1 4 3 1 10 18 15,160
Croatia Croatia 5 2 7 2,869
Cyprus Cyprus 5 5 0
Czech Republic Czech Republic 0 0
Denmark Denmark[26] 5 4 9 18 51,235
Estonia Estonia 3 3 2,000
Finland Finland 4 4 12 20 5,429
France France[27] 1 3 2 13 11 20 18 4 6 76 319,195
Germany Germany[28] 3 7 5 8 15 6 44 82,790
Greece Greece[29] 9 13 33[30] 4 11[30] 70 138,565
Hungary Hungary 0 0
Republic of Ireland Ireland[31] 8 8 11,219
Italy Italy[32] 2 3 4 14 5 11 10 8 57 303,411
Latvia Latvia 5 5 3,025
Lithuania Lithuania[33] 4 4 8 5,678
Luxembourg Luxembourg 0 0
Malta Malta[34] 15 15 400
Netherlands Netherlands[35] 2 4 2 4 6 4 22 116,308
Poland Poland[36] 5 2 1 3 19 3 28 19,724
Portugal Portugal[37] 5 7 7 2 23 34,686
Romania Romania[38] 3 7 6 5 21 23,090
Slovakia Slovakia 0 0
Slovenia Slovenia[39] 1 1 2 435
Spain Spain[40] 1[g] (1)[g] 2 5[h] 6[i] 23 6 3 46 148,607
Sweden Sweden[41] 6 11 5 22 14,256
European Union EU 4 4 20 29 73 32 169 136 4 48 513 ~513 1,200,000 ~1,200,000
The Leopard 2 main battle tank

Combined, the member states of the European Union maintain large numbers of various land-based military vehicles and weaponry.

Guide to table:

  • The table is not exhaustive and primarily includes vehicles and EU-NATO member countries under the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE treaty). Unless otherwise specified.
  • The CFE treaty only includes vehicles stationed within Europe, vehicles overseas on operations are not counted.
  • The "main battle tank" category also includes tank destroyers (such as the Italian B1 Centauro) or any self-propelled armoured fighting vehicle, capable of heavy firepower. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "armoured fighting vehicle" category includes any armoured vehicle primarily designed to transport infantry and equipped with an automatic cannon of at least 20 mm calibre. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "artillery" category includes self-propelled or towed howitzers and mortars of 100 mm calibre and above. Other types of artillery are not included regardless of characteristics. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "attack helicopter" category includes any rotary wing aircraft armed and equipped to engage targets or equipped to perform other military functions (such as the Apache or the Wildcat). According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "military logistics vehicle" category includes logistics trucks of 4-tonne, 8-tonne, 14-tonne or larger, purposely designed for military tasking. Not under CFE treaty.
Member state Main battle tank Armoured fighting vehicle Artillery Attack helicopter Military logistics vehicle
Austria Austria 54 364 73
Belgium Belgium[42] 0 226 133 27
Bulgaria Bulgaria[42] 362 681 1,035 12
Croatia Croatia[43] 75 283 127 10
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic[42] 123 501 182 24
Denmark Denmark[42] 46 229 56 12
Estonia Estonia[44] 74
Finland Finland 180 1,080 722 25
France France[42] 450 6,256 349 283 10,746
Germany Germany[42] 815 1,774 401 158
Greece Greece[42] 1,622 2,187 1,920 29
Hungary Hungary[42] 30 400 12 8
Republic of Ireland Ireland[45] 107 36
Italy Italy[42] 1,176 3,145 1,446 107 10,921
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania[46] 88 96
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands[42] 16 634 135 21
Poland Poland[47] 1,675 3,110 1,580 83
Portugal Portugal[42] 220 425 377
Romania Romania[42] 857 1,272 1,273 23
Slovakia Slovakia[42] 30 327 68
Slovenia Slovenia 76 52 63
Spain Spain[42] 484 1,007 811 27
Sweden Sweden 120 978 268
European Union EU[42] 7,268 13,541 9,159 773

The air forces of EU member states operate a wide range of military systems and hardware. This is primarily due to the independent requirements of each member state and also the national defence industries of some member states. However such programmes like the Eurofighter Typhoon and Eurocopter Tiger have seen many European nations design, build and operate a single weapons platform. 60% of overall combat fleet was developed and manufactured by member states, 32% are US-origin, but some of these were assembled in Europe, while remaining 8% are soviet-made aircraft. As of 2014, it is estimated that the European Union had around 2,000 serviceable combat aircraft (fighter aircraft and ground-attack aircraft).[48]

The EUs air-lift capabilities are evolving with the future introduction of the Airbus A400M (another example of EU defence cooperation). The A400M is a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities.[49] Around 140 are initially expected to be operated by 5 member states (Luxembourg, France, Germany, Spain and Belgium).

Guide to tables:

  • The tables are sourced from figures provided by Flight International for the year 2014.
  • Aircraft are grouped into three main types (indicated by colours): red for combat aircraft, green for aerial refueling aircraft, and grey for strategic and tactical transport aircraft.
  • The two "other" columns include additional aircraft according to their type sorted by colour (i.e. the "other" category in red includes combat aircraft, while the "other" category in grey includes both aerial refueling and transport aircraft). This was done because it was not feasible allocate every aircraft type its own column.
  • Other aircraft such as trainers, helicopters, UAVs and reconnaissance or surveillance aircraft are not included in the below tables or figures.
Fighter and ground-attack
Member state Typhoon Rafale Mirage 2000 Gripen F-16 F/A-18 F-35 Tornado MiG-29 Other Total
Austria Austria[48] 15 15
Belgium Belgium[48] 59 59
Bulgaria Bulgaria[48] 15 15
Croatia Croatia[48] 12 MiG-21 12
Cyprus Cyprus[48]
Czech Republic Czech Republic[48] 14 19 L-159 33
Denmark Denmark[48] 60 60
Estonia Estonia[48]
Finland Finland[48] 62 62
France France[48] 137 152 289
Germany Germany[48] 117 116 233
Greece Greece[48] 43 154 34 F-4 231
Hungary Hungary[48] 14 14
Republic of Ireland Ireland[48]
Italy Italy[48] 95 10 75 55 AMX, 17 Harrier II 252
Latvia Latvia[48]
Lithuania Lithuania[48] L-39 3
Luxembourg Luxembourg[48]
Malta Malta[48]
Netherlands Netherlands[48] 87 2 89
Poland Poland[48] 48 31 36 Su-22 115
Portugal Portugal[48] 31 31
Romania Romania[48] 12 36 MiG-21 48
Slovakia Slovakia[48] 12 L-39 19
Slovenia Slovenia[48] Pilatus PC-9 9
Spain Spain[48] 45 86 17 Harrier II 148
Sweden Sweden[48] 95 95
European Union EU[48] 279 131 137 122 463 148 12 235 58 229 1,821
Aerial refueling and transport


Irish Army personnel from the Nordic Battle Group at an exercise in 2010

The Helsinki Headline Goal Catalogue is a listing of rapid reaction forces composed of 60,000 troops managed by the European Union, but under control of the countries who deliver troops for it.

Forces introduced at Union level include:

  • The battle groups (BG) adhere to the CSDP, and are based on contributions from a coalition of member states. Each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force (1,500 troops) reinforced with combat support elements.[50][51] The groups rotate actively, so that two are ready for deployment at all times. The forces are under the direct control of the Council of the European Union. The Battlegroups reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, although, as of January 2013 they are yet to see any military action.[52] They are based on existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) has undertaken and has been described by some as a new "standing army" for Europe.[51] The troops and equipment are drawn from the EU member states under a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[53]
  • The Medical Command (EMC) is a planned medical command centre in support of EU missions, formed as part of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO).[54] The EMC will provide the EU with a permanent medical capability to support operations abroad, including medical resources and a rapidly deployable medical task force. The EMC will also provide medical evacuation facilities, triage and resuscitation, treatment and holding of patients until they can be returned to duty, and emergency dental treatment. It will also contribute to harmonising medical standards, certification and legal (civil) framework conditions.[55]
  • The Force Crisis Response Operation Core (EUFOR CROC) is a flagship defence project under development as part of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO). EURFOR CROC will contribute to the creation of a "full spectrum force package" to speed up provision of military forces and the EU's crisis management capabilities.[56] Rather than creating a standing force, the project involves creating a concrete catalogue of military force elements that would speed up the establishment of a force when the EU decides to launch an operation. It is land-focused and aims to generate a force of 60,000 troops from the contributing states alone. While it does not establish any form of "European army", it foresees an deployable, interoperable force under a single command.[57] Germany is the lead country for the project, but the French are heavily involved and it is tied to President Emmanuel Macron's proposal to create a standing intervention force. The French see it as an example of what PESCO is about.[58]
Personnel of the European Corps in Strasbourg, France, during a change of command ceremony in 2013

This section presents an incomplete list of forces and bodies established intergovernmentally amongst a subset of member states. These organisations will deploy forces based on the collective agreement of their member states. They are typically technically listed as being able to be deployed under the auspices of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union (EU) through Article 42.3 of TEU, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or any other international entity.

However, with the exception of the Eurocorps, very few have actually been deployed for any real military operation, and none under the CSDP at any point in its history.

Land Forces:


  • The European Air Transport Command exercises operational control of the majority of the aerial refueling capabilities and military transport fleets of its participating nations. Located at Eindhoven Airbase in the Netherlands, the command also bears a limited responsibility for exercises, aircrew training and the harmonisation of relevant national air transport regulations.[61][62] The command was established in 2010 to provide a more efficient management of the participating nations' assets and resources in this field.


Participation, relationship with NATO

Out of the 27 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another three NATO members are EU applicants—Albania, Montenegro and Turkey. Two others—Iceland and Norway—have opted to remain outside of the EU, however participate in the EU's single market. The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are traditionally neutral on defence issues. Several EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact. Denmark has an opt-out from the CSDP.[2]

National participation in the principal European and trans-Atlantic defence arrangements [citation needed]
 European Union  NATO Organisation for
Joint Armament
Membership Common Security and Defence Policy
Permanent Structured
 Albania No No No 2009 No
 Austria 1995 Founder Founder No No
 Belgium Founder Founder Founder Founder 2003
 Bulgaria 2007 2007 Founder 2004 No
 Canada No No No Founder No
 Cyprus 2004 2007 Founder No No
 Croatia 2013 2013 Founder 2009 No
 Czech Republic 2004 2004 Founder 1999 No
 Denmark 1973 No No Founder No
 Estonia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Finland 1995 Founder Founder No Partial
 France Founder Founder Founder Founder Founder
 Germany Founder Founder Founder 1955 Founder
 Greece 1981 Founder Founder 1952 No
 Hungary 2004 2004 Founder 1999 No
 Iceland No No No Founder No
 Ireland 1973 Founder Founder No No
 Italy Founder Founder Founder Founder Founder
 Latvia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Lithuania 2004 2004 Founder 2004 Partial
 Luxembourg Founder Founder Founder Founder Partial
 Malta 2004 2004 No No No
 Montenegro No No No 2017 No
 Netherlands Founder Founder Founder Founder Partial
 North Macedonia No No No 2020 No
 Norway No EDA partnership No Founder No
 Poland 2004 2004 Founder 1999 Partial
 Portugal 1986 Founder Founder Founder No
 Romania 2007 2007 Founder 2004 No
 Serbia No EDA partnership No No No
 Slovakia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Slovenia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Spain 1986 Founder Founder 1982 Founder
 Sweden 1995 Founder Founder No Partial
  Switzerland No EDA partnership No No No
 Turkey No No No 1952 Partial
 Ukraine No EDA partnership No No No
 United Kingdom No No No Founder Founder
 United States No No No Founder No

The Berlin Plus agreement is the short title of a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU on 16 December 2002.[66] These agreements were based on conclusions of NATO's 1999 Washington summit, sometimes referred to as the CJTF mechanism,[67] and allowed the EU to draw on some of NATO's military assets in its own peacekeeping operations.

See also

Other defence-related EU initiatives:

Other Pan-European defence organisations (intergovernmental):

Regional, integorvernmental defence organisations in Europe:

Atlanticist intergovernmental defence organisations: