Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Latin: Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione
Coat of arms Holy See.svg
Coat of arms of the Holy See
Palazzo di Propaganda Fide Rome.jpg
Palazzo di Propaganda Fide, seat of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Congregation overview
Formed June 22, 1622; 399 years ago (1622-06-22)
Preceding Congregation
  • Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith
Type Congregation
Headquarters Palazzo di Propaganda Fide, Rome, Italy
Congregation executives

The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Latin: Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione) is a congregation of the Roman Curia of the Catholic Church in Rome, responsible for missionary work and related activities. It is also known by its former title, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Latin: Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide), or simply the Propaganda Fide.

In principle it is responsible for pre-diocesan missionary jurisdictions (of the Latin rite): Mission sui iuris, Apostolic prefecture (neither entitled to a titular bishop) Apostolic vicariate; equivalents of other rites (e.g. Apostolic exarchate) are in the sway of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. However many former missionary jurisdictions - mainly in the Third World - remain, after promotion to diocese of (Metropolitan) Archdiocese, under the Propaganda Fide instead of the normally competent Congregation for Bishops, notably in countries/regions where the Catholic church is too poor/small (as in most African countries) to aspire self-sufficiency and/or local authorities hostile to Catholic/Christian/any (organized) faith.

It was founded by Pope Gregory XV in 1622 to arrange missionary work on behalf of the various religious institutions, and in 1627 Pope Urban VIII established within it a training college for missionaries, the Pontificio Collegio Urbano de Propaganda Fide. When Pope Paul VI reorganized and adjusted the tasks of the Roman Curia with the publication of Regimini Ecclesiae Universae 15 August 1967, the name of the congregation was changed to the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.[1][2]

The early congregation was established in the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by Juan Bautista Vives, to the south of the Piazza di Spagna. Two of the foremost artistic figures of Baroque Rome were involved in the development of the architectural complex; the sculptor and architect Gianlorenzo Bernini and the architect Francesco Borromini.

The current Prefect of the Congregation is Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle since December 2019. The current Secretary is Archbishop Protase Rugambwa.[3] The current Adjunct Secretary (and President of the Pontifical Mission Societies)[4] is Archbishop Giampietro Del Toso[5] The Under-Secretary is Father Ryszard Szmydki, O.M.I.[6] The Archivist of the Archives of the Congregation is Monsignor Luis Manuel Cuña Ramos. Monsignors Lorenzo Piva and Camillus Nimalan Johnpillai assist as Office Heads of the Congregation.[7]

History

Alexandre de Rhodes' Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, published by the Propaganda Fide in 1651.

Founded in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV with the bull Inscrutabili Divinae, the body was charged with fostering the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of Catholic ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries. The intrinsic importance of its duties and the extraordinary extent of its authority and of the territory under its jurisdiction caused the Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda to be known as the "red pope".

When the body was created, the administration of colonial territories was increasingly controlled by the Dutch and English, both intent on spreading Protestantism. Rome perceived the very real threat of Protestantism spreading in the wake of commercial empire. By 1648, with the end of the Thirty Years' War, the official Catholic-Protestant balance in Europe appeared settled, but vast regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas remained both undeveloped and contested.

There had already been a less formally instituted committee of cardinals concerned with propaganda fide since the time of Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585). They were especially charged with promoting the union with Rome of the long-established eastern Christian communities: Slavs, Greeks, Syrians, Egyptians, and Abyssinians. This was the traditional direction for the evangelization efforts of the Catholic Church. Catechisms were printed in many languages and seminarians sent to places as far as Malabar. The most concrete result was the union with Rome of the Ruthenian Catholic communion, most concentrated in modern-day Ukraine and Belarus; the union was formalized at Brest in 1596.

The death of Pope Gregory XV the following year did not interrupt the organization, because Cardinal Barberini, one of the original thirteen members of the congregation, became the next pope as Urban VIII (1623–1644). Under Urban VIII, a central seminary, the Collegium Urbanum, was established to train missionaries. The Congregation also operated a polyglot printing press in Rome, printing catechisms in many languages. Their procurators were especially active in China from 1705, moving between Macau and Canton before finally settling in Hong Kong in 1842.

In strongly Protestant areas, the Congregation's activities were considered subversive: the first missionary to be killed was in Grisons, Switzerland, in April 1622, before the papal bull authorizing its creation had been disseminated. In Ireland after Catholic emancipation (1829) while the established church was still the Protestant Church of Ireland, the Irish Catholic church came under the control of the Congregation in 1833, and soon reformed itself with a devotional revolution under Cardinal Cullen.

The Holy See removed the United States from the jurisdiction of Propaganda Fide as mission territory in 1908, along with England, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Canada.

These "Cardinals in General Congregation" met weekly, keeping their records in Latin until 1657, then in Italian. The minutes are available in microfilm (filling 84 reels) at large libraries. In the course of their work, the Propaganda fide missionaries accumulated the objects now in the Vatican Museum's Ethnological Missionary Museum.

In 2014 Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, the first woman to be appointed a member of a Roman curial congregation.[8]

Purposes

The Congregation for the Propagation of the Sacred Faith was established in 1622 due to the realization that the governmental structure of the episcopal structure and the decretal law was not possible. Episcopal structure and the Decretal law was government as described in the New Testament. In this new structure, missionaries would be given orders from Rome, and administrative power would be traded over to those who were titled bishops. The Congregation for the Propagation of the Sacred Faith was left in charge to give faculties to the aforementioned bishops in addition to perfects, who were similar to bishops without the notoriety.[9]

A congregation of cardinals for the propagations of the faith.

The congregation made special use of cardinals and their role in the church to unify Christianities in different countries with Rome in an effort to evangelize individuals who were similar in faith. The goal of this was to historically regulate missionary work through structural accountability. According to Fernando Cardinal Filioni, “The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples has jurisdiction over 186 archdioceses, 785 dioceses, 82 vicariates apostolic, 39 prefectures apostolic, 4 apostolic administrations, 6 missiones sui iuris, 1 territorial abbacy, and 6 military ordinariates,” in today’s modern organization.[10] The Congregation has even further jurisdiction over countries in almost every continent including Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and North America. The church overall has many statues and regulations in place for the overseen congregations so that they may determine the appropriate way to hold mass, perform the sacraments and spread the gospel in difficult or challenging settings.

Procurement of financial support

During Clement VIII’s reign, in the sixteenth century, the second purpose for the Congregation for the Propagation of the Sacred Faith (CPF) was for the organization to procure financial support for their missions – both in domestic and international territory. Each territory would have procurators, where these individuals would ensure that mail, funds, and merchandise could be sent via any route, and Swedish, Danish, and English ships were preferred for their reliability. Most of CPF missions were run and funded by religious orders which were affiliated with this organization, but they were financially independent, like the French MEP and Italian Barnabites; and on the other hand, other income came from land properties, real estate, and commercial rentals in Rome and the Pontifical States, and also inheritance and donations from benefactors – from within in Italy and abroad. Currently, these efforts are the ways in which CPF obtains funds for the mission, however, the World Mission Sunday is the main resource of collection for financial support for this organization.

The establishment of a seminary for the training of missionaries.

The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples was set out on missionary work to the world. One way of advocating for their Christian beliefs was the creation of a collegiate institution for their beliefs. Originally called the Collegium Urbanium Propaganda de fide, it is currently called Pontifical Urban University or Urbania after its names both in Latin and Italian. The collegiate seminary was named after the reigning Pope at the time, Pope Urban VIII. It was established on August 1, 1627, with the Pope’s papal bull, Immortalis Dei Filius in Rome at the Piazza di Spagna, most specifically the Palazzo di Propaganda Fide. It was created for the preparation of priests, religious men and or women, as well as prep missionaries for their ongoing missions henceforth, its supreme academic authority, is the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation. According to Urbania .org “The University provides for research and teaching within the framework of the Holy See’s educational system regulated by the Congregation for Catholic Education” ( Pontificia Università Urbaniana[11]). Its academic focuses are in the studies of philosophy, theology, canon law, as well as missiology.( For more see Pontifical Urban University )

The establishment of a printing press to provide literature for missions. The congregation needed to mass-produce literature for their missions so they established their own printing press four years after their founding in 1626 (New Catholic Encyclopedia 11, 751). The press contributed it literature to the Collegium Urbanum as well as to missionaries traveling cross-country to territories that the Vatican entrusted them. The press was originally called Polyglotta, and was intended to print Catholic literature in the various native languages that CPF missionaries would encounter.[12] The press faced significant challenges when most of the equipment and machinery they used to print books was stolen and destroyed during the invasion of Rome in the Napoleonic Wars, 1809 (New Catholic Encyclopedia 11, 751). Later in 1926, the Polyglotta Press was absorbed by the Vatican Printing Press under the leadership of Pope Pius X.

Palazzo di Propaganda Fide

The Southwest facade by Borromini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761. [13]
The North facade at Piazza di Spagna by Bernini; behind the Column of the Immaculate Conception.
Credit: Lalupa

The Congregation was originally housed in a small palace, the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by the Spanish priest Vives, at the southern end of the Piazza di Spagna. The architectural complex of the Propoaganda Fide was developed in the triangular urban block between the Via Due Macelli and the Via del Collegio di Propaganda Fide, two streets which diverged from the piazza.

In 1634 a small oval chapel was built according to designs by Bernini. In 1642, Father Valerio, with Bernini, redesigned the façade to the Piazza di Spagna, and the development was continued along the Via Due Macelli by Gaspare de’Vecchio from 1639–1645.[14]

In 1648, Borromini took over and made various proposals that included demolishing Bernini’s chapel, which must have been particularly galling for the latter as he could see the building from his house on Via Mercede.[15] Initially Borromini designed an elongated oval chapel plan but this was superseded by a rectilinear design, with the greater length parallel to the street, and with curved corners on the interior. Construction of the chapel commenced in 1660 and although the main part was built by 1665, some of the decoration was carried out after his death.[16] The Re Magi chapel, dedicated to the Three Kings, has a plan with four side chapels and galleries above. On the interior, the wall and the vault are differentiated horizontally by a cornice line but there is a vertical continuity of wall and vault which allows for windows at the base of the vault. The wall pilasters are continued in the vault as ribs that criss-cross and unite the space, unlike his design at the Oratory of Philip Neri Oratorio dei Filippini where the ribs are interrupted by the oval fresco at the centre of the vault. The criss-cross arrangement in the Re Magi Chapel is such that an octagon is formed at the centre, embellished with a Dove of the Holy Spirit bathed in golden rays.

His first designs for the façade onto the Via di Propaganda Fide had five bays but he expanded this to seven. The façade is dominated by the giant pilasters that originally supported a balustrade above the narrow entablature but later extensions obliterated the balustrade. The central bay of the façade is a concave curve with angled pies at its edges, perhaps in recognition that this façade would always be seen at an oblique angle because of the narrowness of the street. The central door leads into the courtyard where Borromini intended a curved arcade but this was not built.[17] Only the left hand side of the façade relates to the chapel and the right to the stair and entrance to the College.

Other parts of the College have further minor works by Borromini.

Officials

Prefects

Prefect of Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Coat of arms of the Vatican City.svg
Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle Sambuhay 2019.jpg
Incumbent
Luis Antonio Tagle

since 8 December 2019
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Style His Eminence
Member of Roman Curia
Reports to The Pope
Appointer The Pope
Term length Five years, renewable
Constituting instrument Inscrutabili Divinae
Pastor Bonus
Formation 22 June 1622
First holder Antonio Maria Sauli
Unofficial names The Red Pope

The prefect is ex officio President of the Interdicasterial Commission for Consecrated Religious and Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical Urbaniana University.

No. Name From Until Appointer
1 Antonmaria Sauli.JPG Antonio Maria Sauli 1622 1622 Gregory XV
2 Portrait of Ludovico Ludovisi.jpg Ludovico Ludovisi 1622 1632 Gregory XV
3 Antonio Barberini.jpg Antonio Barberini 1632 1645 Urban VIII
4 Luigi Capponi (1582-1659).jpg Luigi Capponi
(while Barberini was in exile)
1645 1649 Innocent X
5 Antonio Barberini.jpg Antonio Barberini 1649 1671 Innocent X
6 Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni.jpg Paluzzo Paluzzi
Altieri degli Albertoni
1671 1698 Clement X
7 CardCarloBarberini.jpg Carlo Barberini 1698 1704 Innocent XII
8 Cardinal galero with fiocchi.svg Giuseppe Sacripanti 1704 1727 Clement XI
9 Vincenzo Petra.jpg Vincenzo Petra 1727 1747 Benedict XIII
10 Subleyras cardinal Silvio Valenti Gonzaga.jpg Silvio Valenti Gonzaga 1747 1756 Benedict XIV
11 Cardinal-Giuseppe-Spinelli.jpg Giuseppe Spinelli 1756 1763 Benedict XIV
12 Giuseppe Maria Castelli.jpg Giuseppe Maria Castelli 1763 1780 Clement XIII
13 Cardinale Leonardo Antonelli.jpg Leonardo Antonelli 1780 1795 Pius VI
14 Hyacinthe-Sigismond Gerdil.jpg Giacinto Sigismondo Gerdil 1795 1802 Pius VI
15 Stefano Borgia.jpg Stefano Borgia
(Pro-Prefect until 1800)
1798 1800 Pius VI
1802 1804 Pius VII
16 Antonio Dugnani.jpg Antonio Dugnani 1804 1805 Pius VII
17 Cardinal galero with fiocchi.svg Michele di Pietro 1805 1814 Pius VII
18 Lorenzo Litta Visconti Arese.jpg Lorenzo Litta 1814 1818 Pius VII
19 Cardinal galero with fiocchi.svg Francesco Luigi Fontana 1818 1822 Pius VII
20 Cardinal Consalvi.jpg Ercole Consalvi 1822 1824 Pius VII
21 Giulio Maria della Somaglia.JPG Giulio Maria della Somaglia
Pro-Prefect
1824 1826 Leo XII
22 Gregory XVI.jpg Mauro Capellari
(elected as Pope Gregory XVI)
1826 1831 Leo XII
23 Kardinal Pedicini 2.jpg Carlo Maria Pedicini 1831 1834 Gregory XVI
24 Kardinal Giacomo Filippo Fransoni.jpg Giacomo Filippo Fransoni 1834 1856 Gregory XVI
25 Alessandro Barnabó.jpg Alessandro Barnabò 1856 1874 Pius IX
26 Alessandro Franchi 1878.png Alessandro Franchi 1874 1878 Pius IX
27 Kardinal Giovanni Simeoni, 1878.jpg Giovanni Simeoni 1878 1892 Leo XIII
28 Mieczysław Ledóchowski.PNG Mieczysław Halka
Ledóchowski
1892 1902 Leo XIII
29 Girolamo Maria Gotti.jpg Girolamo Maria Gotti 1902 1916 Leo XIII
30 Cardinal galero with fiocchi.svg Domenico Serafini 1916 1918 Benedict XV
31 Van rossum.jpg Willem van Rossum 1918 1932 Pius XI
32 Fumasoni-Biondi.JPG Pietro Fumasoni Biondi 1933 1960 Pius XI
33 Cardinal Samuel Stritch.jpg Samuel Stritch
Pro-Prefect
1958 1958 Pius XII
34 Agagianian 1958 (crop).jpg Gregorio Pietro Agagianian
(Pro-Prefect until 1960)
1958 1960 Pius XII
1960 1970 John XXIII
35 Dom Agnelo Rossi (1967).tif Agnelo Rossi 1970 1984 Paul VI
36 The Archbishop and the crowd.jpg Dermot J. Ryan
Pro-Prefect
1984 1985 John Paul II
37 J.Em. Jozef kardinál Tomko.jpg Jozef Tomko 1985 2001 John Paul II
38 Crescenzio Sepe.jpg Crescenzio Sepe 2001 2006 John Paul II
39 Coat of arms of Ivan Dias.svg Ivan Dias 2006 2011 Benedict XVI
40 Card. Fernando Filoni in Taiwan.jpg Fernando Filoni 2011 2019 Benedict XVI
41 Luis Antonio Tagle in 2016.png Luis Antonio Tagle 2019[18] Incumbent Francis

Secretaries

The secretary assists the cardinal-prefect in the day-to-day running of the congregation and is always an archbishop. They usually go on to hold a position in the Roman Curia that brings them membership to the College of Cardinals.

  • Ingoli, Franciscus (1622–1649).
  • Massari, Dyonisius (1649–1657).
  • Alberici, Marius(1657–1668).
  • Ubaldi, Fridericus, Arch. Caesarien. (1668–1673).
  • Ravizza, Franciscus, Arch. Laodicen. (1673–1675).
  • Cerri, Urbanus, (1675–1679).
  • Cibo, Eduardus, Patr. Constantinop. (1680–1695).
  • Fabroni, Carolus (1695–1706).
  • BIiancheri, Antonius (1706–1707).
  • De Cavalieri, Silvius, Arch. Athenarum. (1707–1717).
  • Carafa, Aloisius, Arch. Larissen. (1717–1724).
  • Ruspoli, Bartholamaeus (1724–1730).
  • Forteguerra, Nicolaus (1730–1735).
  • Monti, Philippus (1735–1743).
  • Lercari, Nicolaus (1743–1757).
  • Antonelli, Nicolaus (1757–1759).
  • Marefoschi, Marius (1759–1770).
  • Borgia, Stephanus (1770–1789).
  • Sandodari, Antonius, Arch. Adanen. (1789–1795).
  • Brancadoro, Caesar, Arch. Niaiben. (1796–1801).
  • Coppola, Dominicus, Arch. Myren. (1801–1808).
  • Quarantotti, Joannes B. (1808–1816).
  • Pedicini, Carolus Maria (1816–1822).
  • Caprano, Patrus, Arch. Iconien. (1823–1828).
  • Castracane degli Antelminelli, Castruccius (1829–1833).
  • Mai, Angelus (1833–1838).
  • Cadolini, Ignatius, Arch. Spoletanus. (1838–1843).
  • Brutnelli, Joannes (1843–1847).
  • Barnabo, Alexander (1848–1856).
  • Bedini, Cajetanus, Arch. Thebarum. (1856–1861).
  • Capalti, Hannibal (1861–1868).
  • Simeoni, Joannes (1868–1875).
  • Agnozzi, Joannes B. (1877–1879).
  • Masotti, Ignatius (1879–1882).
  • Jacobini, Dominicus, Arch. Tyrem. (1882–1891).
  • Persico, Ignatius, Arch. Tamiathen. (1891–1893).
  • Ciasca, Augustinus, Arch. Larissen. (1893–1899).
  • Veccia, Aloisius (1899–1911).
  • Laurenti, Camillus (1911 –
  • Celso Costantini (1935–1953)
  • Pietro Sigismondi (27 September 1954 – 25 May 1967)
  • Bernardin Gantin (26 February 1973 – 19 December 1975)
  • Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy (19 December 1975 – 30 October 1985)
  • José Tomás Sánchez (30 October 1985 – 21 June 1991)
  • Giuseppe Uhac (21 June 1991 – 18 January 1998)
  • Marcello Zago, O.M.I. (28 March 1998 – 1 March 2001)
  • Robert Sarah (1 October 2001 – 7 October 2010)
  • Savio Hon Tai-Fai (29 December 2010 – 28 September 2017)
  • Protase Rugambwa (9 November 2017 – )

Adjunct Secretaries

The adjunct secretary, when one is appointed, is concurrently President of the Pontifical Mission Societies.

Undersecretary

Delegate of the Administration

  • Msgr. Angelo Mottola (Italy; later Archbishop) (1986 – 1999.07.16)

See also

References

External links


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