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Constitution of Chile
The current Constitution of Chile was approved by Chilean voters in a controversial plebiscite on 11 September 1980, under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. It was partially enacted on 11 March 1981, fully effective as of 11 March 1990. It was amended considerably on 17 August 1989 (via referendum) and on 22 September 2005 (legislatively), and also in 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. It replaced the earlier constitution of 1925. It is Chile's eighth constitution.
According to law professor Camel Cazor Aliste, the Constitution of 1980 has problems of legitimacy stemming from two facts. First, the writing commission was not representative of the political spectrum of Chile—its members were hand-picked by the Pinochet dictatorship and opponents of the regime were deliberately excluded. Second, the constitution's approval was achieved through a controversial and tightly government-controlled referendum in 1980.
Despite controversy about its conception, it has been frequently modified—nearly 20 times—since democracy was reinstated, with corresponding Parliamentary approval.
Timeline of Constitutions
- Reglamento para el arreglo de la Autoridad Ejecutiva Provisoria de Chile 1811
- Reglamento Constitucional 1812
- Reglamento para el gobierno Provisorio 1814
- Constitución de 1818
- Constitución de 1822
- Constitución de 1823
- Ensayo Federal de 1826
- Constitución de 1828
- Constitución de 1833 - Written among others by Mariano Egaña and Manuel José Gandarillas
- Constitución de 1925 - Written among others by Arturo Alessandri Palma and José Maza
- Constitución de 1980 - Written among others by Jaime Guzmán
- Has been amended in 1989, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 & 2017.
- Brief review of Chile's constitutional history - Chile's Library of Congress (in Spanish) at Archive.today (archived 2013-01-01)
- 2005 recasting of the 1980 Constitution (PDF version) (Spanish original) at the Wayback Machine (archived 2006-12-07)
- Official translation of the original 1980 Constitution (PDF file)
- Text of Chilean constitutions - Library of Congress of Chile (Spanish original) at Archive.today (archived 2005-12-10)
- Untying the knot (The Economist, Oct 21st 2004)
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