Corruption Perceptions Index

Corruption Perceptions Index, 2018

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Transparency International since 1995 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector[1] corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[2] The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".[3]

The CPI currently ranks 176 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)". Denmark and New Zealand are perceived as the least corrupt countries in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most perceived corrupt country in the world is Somalia, ranking at 9–10 out of 100 since 2017.[4]

Methods

Transparency International commissioned the University of Passau's Johann Graf Lambsdorff to produce the CPI.[5] The 2012 CPI takes into account 16 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.[6] The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[3] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.[7] The institutions are:

Countries need to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[7] The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[9]

Validity

A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: black market activity and overabundance of regulation.[10]

All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.[10] (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Economic implications

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[11] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[12] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Rankings

Legend:

Scores Perceived as less corrupt Perceived as more corrupt
100–090 089–080 079–070 069–060 059–050 049–040 039-030 029–020 019–010 009–000

2012–2018

2012–2018 Corruption Perceptions Index table [13] [14]
Rank Country
or
Territory
2018[15] 2017[16] 2016[17] 2015[18] 2014[19] 2013[20] 2012[21]
Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score
1  Denmark
88
Steady 0
88
Decrease βˆ’2
90
Decrease βˆ’1
91
Decrease βˆ’1
92
Increase +1
91
Increase +1
90
2  New Zealand
87
Decrease βˆ’2
89
Decrease βˆ’1
90
Decrease βˆ’1
91
Steady 0
91
Steady 0
91
Increase +1
90
3  Finland
85
Steady 0
85
Decrease βˆ’4
89
Decrease βˆ’1
90
Increase +1
89
Steady 0
89
Decrease βˆ’1
90
3  Sweden
85
Increase +1
84
Decrease βˆ’4
88
Decrease βˆ’1
89
Increase +2
87
Decrease βˆ’2
89
Increase +1
88
3   Switzerland
85
Steady 0
85
Decrease βˆ’1
86
Steady 0
86
Steady 0
86
Increase +1
85
Decrease βˆ’1
86
3  Singapore
85
Increase +1
84
Steady 0
84
Decrease βˆ’1
85
Increase +1
84
Decrease βˆ’2
86
Decrease βˆ’1
87
7  Norway
84
Decrease βˆ’1
85
Steady 0
85
Decrease βˆ’2
87
Increase +1
86
Steady 0
86
Increase +1
85
8  Netherlands
82
Steady 0
82
Decrease βˆ’1
83
Decrease βˆ’4
87
Increase +4
83
Steady 0
83
Decrease βˆ’1
84
9  Canada
81
Decrease βˆ’1
82
Steady 0
82
Decrease βˆ’1
83
Increase +2
81
Steady 0
81
Decrease βˆ’3
84
9  Luxembourg
81
Decrease βˆ’1
82
Increase +1
81
Steady 0
81
Decrease βˆ’1
82
Increase +2
80
Steady 0
80
11  Germany
80
Decrease βˆ’1
81
Steady 0
81
Steady 0
81
Increase +2
79
Increase +1
78
Decrease βˆ’1
79
11  United Kingdom
80
Decrease -2
82
Increase +1
81
Steady 0
81
Increase +3
78
Increase +2
76
Increase +2
74
13  Australia
77
Steady 0
77
Decrease -2
79
Steady 0
79
Decrease βˆ’1
80
Decrease βˆ’1
81
Decrease βˆ’4
85
14  Iceland
76
Decrease -1
77
Decrease -1
78
Decrease βˆ’1
79
Steady 0
79
Increase +1
78
Decrease βˆ’4
82
14  Hong Kong
76
Decrease -1
77
Steady 0
77
Increase +2
75
Increase +1
74
Decrease βˆ’1
75
Decrease βˆ’2
77
14  Austria
76
Increase +1
75
Steady 0
75
Decrease βˆ’1
76
Increase +4
72
Increase +3
69
Steady 0
69
17  Belgium
75
Steady 0
75
Decrease -2
77
Steady 0
77
Increase +1
76
Increase +1
75
Steady 0
75
18  Ireland
73
Decrease -1
74
Increase +1
73
Decrease βˆ’2
75
Increase +1
74
Increase +2
72
Increase +3
69
18  Japan
73
Steady 0
73
Increase +1
72
Decrease βˆ’3
75
Decrease βˆ’1
76
Increase +2
74
Steady 0
74
18  Estonia
73
Increase +2
71
Increase +1
70
Steady 0
70
Increase +1
69
Increase +1
68
Increase +4
64
21  France
72
Increase +2
70
Increase +2
69
Decrease βˆ’1
70
Increase +1
69
Decrease βˆ’2
71
Steady 0
71
22  United States
71
Decrease -4
75
Increase +1
74
Decrease βˆ’2
76
Increase +2
74
Increase +1
73
Steady 0
73
23  Uruguay
70
Steady 0
70
Decrease -1
71
Decrease βˆ’3
74
Increase +1
73
Steady 0
73
Increase +1
72
23  United Arab Emirates
70
Decrease -1
71
Increase +5
66
Decrease βˆ’4
70
Steady 0
70
Increase +1
69
Increase +1
68
25  Bhutan
68
Increase +1
67
Increase +2
65
Steady 0
65
Steady 0
65
Increase +2
63
Steady 0
63
25  Barbados
68
Steady 0
68
Increase +7
61
Steady 0 Steady 0
74
Decrease βˆ’1
75
Decrease βˆ’1
76
27  Chile
67
Steady 0
67
Increase +1
66
Decrease βˆ’4
70
Decrease βˆ’3
73
Increase +2
71
Decrease βˆ’1
72
29  Bahamas
65
Steady 0
65
Decrease -1
66
Steady 0 Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
30  Portugal
64
Increase +1
63
Increase +1
62
Decrease βˆ’1
63
Steady 0
63
Increase +1
62
Decrease βˆ’1
63
31  Taiwan
63
Steady 0
63
Increase +2
61
Decrease βˆ’1
62
Increase +1
61
Steady 0
61
Steady 0
61
31  Brunei
63
Increase +1
62
Increase +4
58
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
60
Increase +5
55
33  Qatar
62
Decrease -1
63
Increase +2
61
Decrease βˆ’10
71
Increase +2
69
Increase +1
68
Steady 0
68
34  Israel
61
Decrease -1
62
Decrease -2
64
Increase +3
61
Increase +1
60
Decrease βˆ’1
61
Increase +1
60
34  Botswana
61
Steady 0
61
Increase +1
60
Decrease βˆ’3
63
Steady 0
63
Decrease βˆ’1
64
Decrease βˆ’1
65
36  Poland
60
Steady 0
60
Decrease -2
62
Steady 0
62
Increase +1
61
Increase +1
60
Increase +2
58
36  Slovenia
60
Decrease -1
61
Steady 0
61
Increase +1
60
Increase +2
58
Increase +1
57
Decrease βˆ’4
61
38  Lithuania
59
Steady 0
59
Steady 0
59
Decrease βˆ’2
61
Increase +3
58
Increase +1
57
Increase +3
54
38  Cyprus
59
Increase +2
57
Increase +2
55
Decrease βˆ’6
61
Decrease βˆ’2
63
Steady 0
63
Decrease βˆ’3
66
38  Czech Republic
59
Increase +2
57
Increase +2
55
Decrease βˆ’1
56
Increase +5
51
Increase +3
48
Decrease βˆ’1
49
41  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
58
Steady 0
58
Decrease -2
60
Steady 0 Steady 0
67
Increase +5
62
Steady 0
62
41  Spain
58
Increase +1
57
Decrease -1
58
Steady 0
58
Decrease βˆ’2
60
Increase +1
59
Decrease βˆ’6
65
41  Georgia
58
Increase +2
56
Decrease -1
57
Increase +5
52
Steady 0
52
Increase +3
49
Decrease βˆ’3
52
41  Latvia
58
Steady 0
58
Increase +1
57
Increase +2
55
Steady 0
55
Increase +2
53
Increase +4
49
45  Cape Verde
57
Increase +2
55
Decrease -4
59
Increase +4
55
Decrease βˆ’2
57
Decrease βˆ’1
58
Decrease βˆ’2
60
45  Dominica
57
Steady 0
57
Decrease -2
59
Steady 0 Steady 0
58
Steady 0
58
Steady 0
58
45  South Korea
57
Increase +3
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease βˆ’3
56
Increase +1
55
Steady 0
55
Decrease βˆ’1
56
48  Costa Rica
56
Decrease -3
59
Increase +1
58
Increase +3
55
Increase +1
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease βˆ’1
54
48  Rwanda
56
Increase +1
55
Increase +1
54
Steady 0
54
Increase +5
49
Decrease βˆ’4
53
Steady 0
53
50  Saint Lucia
55
Steady 0
55
Decrease -5
60
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
51  Malta
54
Decrease -2
56
Increase +1
55
Decrease βˆ’1
56
Increase +1
55
Decrease βˆ’1
56
Decrease βˆ’1
57
52  Namibia
53
Increase +2
51
Decrease -1
52
Decrease βˆ’1
53
Increase +4
49
Increase +1
48
Steady 0
48
53  Grenada
52
Steady 0
52
Decrease -4
56
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
53  Italy
52
Increase +2
50
Increase +3
47
Increase +3
44
Increase +1
43
Steady 0
43
Increase +1
42
53  Oman
52
Increase +8
44
Decrease -1
45
Steady 0
45
Steady 0
45
Decrease βˆ’2
47
Steady 0
47
56  Mauritius
51
Increase +1
50
Decrease -4
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease βˆ’1
54
Increase +2
52
Decrease βˆ’5
57
57  Slovakia
50
Steady 0
50
Decrease -1
51
Steady 0
51
Increase +1
50
Increase +3
47
Increase +1
46
58  Jordan
49
Increase +1
48
Steady 0
48
Decrease βˆ’5
53
Increase +4
49
Increase +4
45
Decrease βˆ’3
48
58  Saudi Arabia
49
Steady 0
49
Increase +3
46
Decrease βˆ’6
52
Increase +3
49
Increase +3
46
Increase +2
44
60  Croatia
48
Decrease -1
49
Steady 0
49
Decrease βˆ’2
51
Increase +3
48
Steady 0
48
Increase +2
46
61  Malaysia
47
Steady 0
47
Decrease -2
49
Decrease βˆ’1
50
Decrease βˆ’2
52
Increase +2
50
Increase +1
49
61  Romania
47
Decrease -1
48
Steady 0
48
Increase +2
46
Increase +3
43
Steady 0
43
Decrease βˆ’1
44
61  Cuba
47
Steady 0
47
Steady 0
47
Steady 0
47
Increase +1
46
Steady 0
46
Decrease βˆ’2
48
64  Hungary
46
Increase +1
45
Decrease -3
48
Decrease βˆ’3
51
Decrease βˆ’3
54
Steady 0
54
Decrease βˆ’1
55
64  SΓ£o TomΓ© and PrΓ­ncipe
46
Steady 0
46
Steady 0
46
Increase +4
42
Steady 0
42
Steady 0
42
Steady 0
42
67  Montenegro
45
Decrease -1
46
Increase +1
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +2
42
Decrease βˆ’2
44
Increase +3
41
67  Senegal
45
Steady 0
45
Steady 0
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +1
43
Increase +2
41
Increase +5
36
67  Greece
45
Decrease -3
48
Increase +4
44
Decrease βˆ’2
46
Increase +3
43
Increase +3
40
Increase +4
36
70  Solomon Islands
44
Increase +5
39
Decrease -3
42
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
70  Belarus
44
Steady 0
44
Increase +4
40
Increase +8
32
Increase +1
31
Increase +2
29
Decrease βˆ’2
31
70  Jamaica
44
Steady 0
44
Increase +5
39
Decrease βˆ’2
41
Increase +3
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
73  South Africa
43
Steady 0
43
Decrease -2
45
Increase +1
44
Steady 0
44
Increase +2
42
Decrease βˆ’1
43
73  Suriname
43
Increase +2
41
Decrease -4
45
Increase +9
36
Steady 0
36
Steady 0
36
Decrease βˆ’1
37
73  Tunisia
43
Increase +1
42
Increase +1
41
Increase +3
38
Decrease βˆ’2
40
Decrease βˆ’1
41
Steady 0
41
73  Morocco
43
Increase +3
40
Increase +3
37
Increase +1
36
Decrease βˆ’3
39
Increase +2
37
Steady 0
37
77  Bulgaria
42
Decrease -1
43
Increase +2
41
Steady 0
41
Decrease βˆ’2
43
Increase +2
41
Steady 0
41
78  Ghana
41
Increase +1
40
Decrease -3
43
Decrease βˆ’4
47
Decrease βˆ’1
48
Increase +2
46
Increase +1
45
78  Burkina Faso
41
Decrease -1
42
Steady 0
42
Increase +4
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
78  Kuwait
41
Increase +2
39
Decrease -2
41
Decrease βˆ’8
49
Increase +5
44
Increase +1
43
Decrease βˆ’1
44
78  Turkey
41
Increase +1
40
Decrease -1
41
Decrease βˆ’1
42
Decrease βˆ’3
45
Decrease βˆ’5
50
Increase +1
49
78  India
41
Increase +1
40
Steady 0
40
Increase +2
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +2
36
Steady 0
36
78  Lesotho
41
Decrease -1
42
Increase +3
39
Decrease βˆ’5
44
Decrease βˆ’5
49
Steady 0
49
Increase +4
45
78  Trinidad and Tobago
41
Steady 0
41
Increase +6
35
Decrease βˆ’4
39
Increase +1
38
Steady 0
38
Decrease βˆ’1
39
85  Argentina
40
Increase +1
39
Increase +3
36
Increase +4
32
Decrease βˆ’2
34
Steady 0
34
Decrease βˆ’1
35
85  Benin
40
Increase +1
39
Increase +3
36
Decrease βˆ’1
37
Decrease βˆ’2
39
Increase +3
36
Steady 0
36
87  Serbia
39
Decrease -2
41
Decrease -1
42
Increase +2
40
Decrease βˆ’1
41
Decrease βˆ’1
42
Increase +3
39
87  China
39
Decrease -2
41
Increase +1
40
Increase +3
37
Increase +1
36
Decrease βˆ’4
40
Increase +1
39
88  Bosnia and Herzegovina
38
Steady 0
38
Decrease -1
39
Increase +1
38
Decrease βˆ’1
39
Decrease βˆ’3
42
Steady 0
42
89  Indonesia
38
Increase +1
37
Steady 0
37
Increase +1
36
Increase +2
34
Increase +2
32
Steady 0
32
89  Sri Lanka
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +2
36
Decrease βˆ’1
37
Decrease βˆ’1
38
Increase +1
37
Decrease βˆ’3
40
93  Mongolia
37
Increase +1
36
Decrease -2
38
Decrease βˆ’1
39
Steady 0
39
Increase +1
38
Increase +2
36
93  Panama
37
Steady 0
37
Decrease -1
38
Decrease βˆ’1
39
Increase +2
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease βˆ’3
38
93  North Macedonia
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease -2
37
Decrease βˆ’5
42
Decrease βˆ’3
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +1
43
93  Kosovo
37
Decrease -2
39
Increase +3
36
Increase +3
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
Decrease βˆ’1
34
93  Guyana
37
Decrease -1
38
Increase +4
34
Increase +5
29
Decrease βˆ’1
30
Increase +3
27
Decrease βˆ’1
28
93  Gambia
37
Increase +7
30
Increase +4
26
Decrease βˆ’2
28
Decrease βˆ’1
29
Increase +1
28
Decrease βˆ’6
34
99  Bahrain
36
Steady 0
36
Decrease -7
43
Decrease βˆ’8
51
Increase +2
49
Increase +1
48
Decrease βˆ’3
51
99  Albania
36
Decrease -2
38
Decrease -1
39
Increase +3
36
Increase +3
33
Increase +2
31
Decrease βˆ’2
33
99  Colombia
36
Decrease -1
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Increase +1
36
Steady 0
36
99  Philippines
36
Increase +2
34
Decrease -1
35
Steady 0
35
Decrease βˆ’3
38
Increase +2
36
Increase +2
34
99  Thailand
36
Decrease -1
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease βˆ’3
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +3
35
Decrease βˆ’2
37
99  Tanzania
36
Steady 0
36
Increase +4
32
Increase +2
30
Decrease βˆ’1
31
Decrease βˆ’2
33
Decrease βˆ’2
35
105  Brazil
35
Decrease -2
37
Decrease -3
40
Increase +2
38
Decrease βˆ’5
43
Increase +1
42
Decrease βˆ’1
43
105  Zambia
35
Decrease -2
37
Decrease -1
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +1
37
105  El Salvador
35
Increase +2
33
Decrease -3
36
Decrease βˆ’3
39
Steady 0
39
Increase +1
38
Steady 0
38
105  Peru
35
Decrease -2
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease βˆ’1
36
Decrease βˆ’2
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
105  East Timor
35
Decrease -3
38
Increase +3
35
Increase +7
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease βˆ’2
30
Decrease βˆ’3
33
105  Algeria
35
Increase +2
33
Decrease -1
34
Decrease βˆ’2
36
Steady 0
36
Steady 0
36
Increase +2
34
105  Egypt
35
Increase +3
32
Decrease -2
34
Decrease βˆ’2
36
Decrease βˆ’1
37
Increase +5
32
Steady 0
32
105  Ivory Coast
35
Decrease -1
36
Increase +2
34
Increase +2
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +5
27
Decrease βˆ’2
29
105  Armenia
35
Steady 0
35
Increase +2
33
Decrease βˆ’2
35
Decrease βˆ’2
37
Increase +1
36
Increase +2
34
114  Niger
34
Increase +1
33
Decrease -2
35
Increase +1
34
Decrease βˆ’1
35
Increase +1
34
Increase +1
33
114  Ethiopia
34
Decrease -1
35
Increase +1
34
Increase +1
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
114  Ecuador
34
Increase +2
32
Increase +1
31
Decrease βˆ’1
32
Decrease βˆ’1
33
Decrease βˆ’2
35
Increase +3
32
117  Vietnam
33
Decrease -2
35
Increase +2
33
Increase +2
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
117  Pakistan
33
Increase +1
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +2
30
Increase +1
29
Increase +1
28
Increase +1
27
117  Moldova
33
Increase +2
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease βˆ’3
33
Decrease βˆ’2
35
Steady 0
35
Decrease βˆ’1
36
120  Liberia
32
Increase +1
31
Decrease -6
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Decrease βˆ’1
38
Decrease βˆ’3
41
120  Mali
32
Increase +1
31
Decrease -1
32
Decrease βˆ’3
35
Increase +3
32
Increase +4
28
Decrease βˆ’6
34
120  Malawi
32
Increase +1
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
Decrease βˆ’2
33
Decrease βˆ’4
37
Steady 0
37
120  Ukraine
32
Increase +2
30
Increase +1
29
Increase +2
27
Increase +1
26
Increase +1
25
Decrease βˆ’1
26
124  Maldives
31
Decrease -2
33
Decrease -3
36
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
124  Gabon
31
Decrease -1
32
Decrease -3
35
Increase +1
34
Decrease βˆ’3
37
Increase +3
34
Decrease βˆ’1
35
124  Djibouti
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease βˆ’4
34
Steady 0
34
Decrease βˆ’2
36
Steady 0
36
124  Kazakhstan
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +2
29
Increase +1
28
Decrease βˆ’1
29
Increase +3
26
Decrease βˆ’2
28
124    Nepal
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +2
29
Increase +2
27
Decrease βˆ’2
29
Decrease βˆ’2
31
Increase +4
27
129  Togo
30
Decrease -2
32
Steady 0
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +3
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease βˆ’1
30
129  Dominican Republic
30
Increase +1
29
Decrease -2
31
Decrease βˆ’2
33
Increase +1
32
Increase +3
29
Decrease βˆ’3
32
129  Sierra Leone
30
Steady 0
30
Steady 0
30
Increase +1
29
Decrease βˆ’2
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease βˆ’1
31
132  Bolivia
29
Decrease -4
33
Steady 0
33
Decrease βˆ’1
34
Decrease βˆ’1
35
Increase +1
34
Steady 0
34
132  Honduras
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease -1
30
Decrease βˆ’1
31
Increase +2
29
Increase +3
26
Decrease βˆ’2
28
132  Laos
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease -1
30
Increase +5
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease βˆ’1
26
Increase +5
21
132  Paraguay
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease -1
30
Increase +3
27
Increase +3
24
Steady 0
24
Decrease βˆ’1
25
132  Kyrgyzstan
29
Steady 0
29
Increase +1
28
Steady 0
28
Increase +1
27
Increase +3
24
Steady 0
24
132  Myanmar
29
Decrease -1
30
Increase +2
28
Increase +6
22
Increase +1
21
Steady 0
21
Increase +6
15
138  Mexico
28
Decrease -1
29
Decrease -1
30
Decrease βˆ’5
35
Steady 0
35
Increase +1
34
Steady 0
34
138  Iran
28
Decrease -2
30
Increase +1
29
Increase +2
27
Steady 0
27
Increase +2
25
Decrease βˆ’3
28
138  Russia
28
Decrease -1
29
Steady 0
29
Steady 0
29
Increase +2
27
Decrease βˆ’1
28
Steady 0
28
138  Lebanon
28
Steady 0
28