Dynasty

Charles I of England and his son, the future James II of England, from the House of Stuart.
The Qing dynasty was the final imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ended in 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917.
The Topkapı Palace served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the sultans of the Ottoman dynasty.

A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house",[2] which may be styled as "imperial", "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", "baronial" etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.

Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt (3100–30 BC) and Imperial China (221 BCAD 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, and also to describe events, trends and artifacts of that period (e.g., "a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (e.g., "a Ming vase").

Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.[3]

Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. This also happened in the case of Queen Maria II of Portugal, who married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, but whose descendants remained members of the House of Braganza, per Portuguese law. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.

Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties; modern examples are the Vatican City State, the Principality of Andorra, and the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty; non-dynastic rulers include King Arioald of the Lombards and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; two modern examples are the monarchies of Malaysia and the royal families of the United Arab Emirates.

The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.[1]

Etymology

The word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia (δυναστεία), where it referred to "power", "dominion", and "rule" itself.[4] It was the abstract noun of dynástēs (δυνάστης),[5] the agent noun of dynamis (δύναμις), "power" or "ability",[6] from dýnamai (δύναμαι), "to be able".[7]

Dynasts

A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne. For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication.

In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, their son Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg, was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Even since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.

The term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, and sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown; in that sense, he is a British dynast, but since he is not a patrilineal member of the British royal family, he is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.

On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles (although he is entitled to reclaim the former royal dukedom of Cumberland). He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015.[8] Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who marry Roman Catholics are considered "dead" for the purpose of succession to the British throne.[9] That exclusion, too, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Roman Catholic.[8]

A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne or other royal privileges. The marriage of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands to Queen Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child Princess Catharina-Amalia is expected to inherit the Crown of the Netherlands eventually. However, the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau to Princess Mabel of Orange-Nassau in 2003 lacked governmental support and parliamentary approval. Thus, Prince Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession to the Dutch throne, lost his title as a "Prince of the Netherlands", and left his children without dynastic rights.

Gallery

List of dynasties and dynastic regimes by region

Some dynasties appear more than once in this list, because:

Africa

  • Solomonic dynasty (ሰለሞናዊው ሥርወ መንግሥት) (AD 100–940, AD 1270–1974)
    • Gondarine line (AD 1606–1769)
    • Tewodros dynasty (AD 1855–1868)
    • Tigrayan line (AD 1871–1889)
    • Shewan line (AD 1889–1936, AD 1941–1975)
  • Zagwe dynasty (c. AD 900–1270, AD 1868–1871)
  • Walashma dynasty (AD 1285–1577)
  • Mudaito dynasty (AD 1734–1971)
  • House of Savoy (AD 1936–1947) – Ethiopia under Italian rule
  • House of Moshesh (1822–present)

Asia

  • House of Wangchuck (དབང་ཕྱུག་རྒྱལ་བརྒྱུད་) (1907–present)
  • Varman dynasty (13th century–present)
    • House of Norodom (ផ្ទះនរោត្តម) (1860–1904, 1941–1960, 1993–present)
    • House of Sisowath (ព្រះបាទស៊ីសុវតិ្ថ) (1904–1941)
  • 1st dynasty (192–336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336–420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420–529)
  • 4th dynasty (529–758)
  • 5th dynasty (758–854)
  • 6th dynasty (854–989)
  • 7th dynasty (989–1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044–1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074–1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139–1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145–1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190–1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318–1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390–1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458–1471)
  • vacant (1471–1695)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695–1822)
  • Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors ( 三皇五帝 ㄙㄢ ㄏㄨㄤˊ ㄨˇ ㄉㄧˋ) (2852–2070 BC) – Mythical
  • Yu dynasty ( 虞朝 ㄩˊ ㄔㄠˊ) – Legendary
  • Xia dynasty ( 夏朝 ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (2070–1600 BC) – Semi-legendary; Ruled by the House of Si (姒) of Huaxia descent
  • Shang dynasty ( 商朝 ㄕㄤ ㄔㄠˊ) (1600–1046 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi (子) of Huaxia descent
  • Zhou dynasty ( 周朝 ㄓㄡ ㄔㄠˊ) (1046–256 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Western Zhou ( 西周 ㄒㄧ ㄓㄡ) (1046–771 BC)
    • Eastern Zhou ( 东周 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄓㄡ/東周) (770–256 BC)
  • Spring and Autumn period ( 春秋时代 ㄔㄨㄣ ㄑㄧㄡ ㄕˊ ㄉㄞˋ/春秋時代) (771–476 BC)
    • Total of 148 dynastic states were recorded during the Spring and Autumn period (See list)
  • Warring States period ( 战国时代 ㄓㄢˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄕˊ ㄉㄞˋ/戰國時代) (475–221 BC)
    • Yue ( ㄩㄝˋ) (2032–334 BC) – Ruled by the House of Si (姒) of Baiyue descent
    • Ba ( ㄅㄚ) (1122–316 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Song ( ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (1114–286 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi (子) of Huaxia descent
    • Cai ( ㄘㄞˋ) (1046–447 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Teng ( ㄊㄥˊ) (1046–297 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Qi ( ㄑㄧˊ/齊) (1046–221 BC)
    • Shu ( ㄕㄨˇ) (1045–316 BC)
    • Yan ( ㄧㄢ) (1044–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Lu ( ㄌㄨˇ/魯) (1042–249 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Wei ( ㄨㄟˋ/衛) (1040–209 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Chu ( ㄔㄨˇ) (1030–223 BC) – Ruled by the House of Mi (芈) of Huaxia descent
    • Qin ( ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (897–207 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent
    • Zheng ( ㄓㄥˋ/鄭) (806–375 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Yiqu ( 义渠 ㄧˋ ㄑㄩˊ/義渠) (720–272 BC)
    • Zhongshan ( 中山 ㄓㄨㄥ ㄕㄢ) (414–296 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Beidi descent
    • Han ( ㄏㄢˊ/韓) (403–230 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Wei ( ㄨㄟˋ) (403–225 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬) of Huaxia descent
    • Zhao ( ㄓㄠˋ/趙) (403–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent
    • Dai ( ㄉㄞˋ) (228–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏)
  • Minyue ( 闽越 ㄇㄧㄣˇ ㄩㄝˋ/閩越) (334–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶) of Baiyue descent
  • Dian Kingdom ( 滇国 ㄉㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/滇國) (278–109 BC)
  • Buyeo ( 扶余 ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ/扶餘) (239 BCAD 494)
    • Northern Buyeo ( 北扶余 ㄅㄟˇ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ/北扶餘) (239–58 BC)
    • Jolbon Buyeo ( 卒本扶余 ㄗㄨˊ ㄅㄣˇ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ/卒本扶餘) (86–37 BC)
    • Eastern Buyeo ( 东扶余 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ/東扶餘) (86 BCAD 410)
  • Qin dynasty ( 秦朝 ㄑㄧㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (221–207 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏) of Huaxia descent
  • Xiongnu confederation ( 匈奴 ㄒㄩㄥ ㄋㄨˊ) (209 BCAD 48) – Ruled by the House of Luandi (挛鞮/攣鞮) of Xiongnu descent
  • Eighteen Kingdoms ( 十八国 ㄕˊ ㄅㄚ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/十八國) (206 BC)
  • Western Chu ( 西楚 ㄒㄧ ㄔㄨˇ) (206–202 BC) – Ruled by the House of Xiang (项/項) of Huaxia descent
  • Nanyue ( 南越 ㄋㄢˊ ㄩㄝˋ) (204–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) of Huaxia descent
  • Han dynasty ( 汉朝 ㄏㄢˋ ㄔㄠˊ/漢朝) (202 BCAD 9, AD 23–220) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Han ( 西汉 ㄒㄧ ㄏㄢˋ/西漢) (202 BCAD 9)
    • Xuan Han ( 玄汉 ㄒㄩㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ/玄漢) (AD 23–25)
    • Eastern Han ( 东汉 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄏㄢˋ/東漢) (AD 25–220)
  • Yelang ( 夜郎 ㄧㄝˋ ㄌㄤˊ) (3rd century–27 BC)
  • Shule Kingdom ( 疏勒 ㄕㄨ ㄌㄜˋ) (200 BCAD 790)
  • Dong'ou ( 东瓯 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄡ/東甌) (191–138 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶)
  • Loulan Kingdom ( 楼兰 ㄌㄡˊ ㄌㄢˊ/樓蘭) (176–77 BC)
    • Shanshan ( 鄯善 ㄕㄢˋ ㄕㄢˋ) (77 BCAD 448)
  • Gouding ( 句町 ㄍㄡ ㄉㄧㄥ) (111 BCAD 316)
  • Kucha ( 龟兹 ㄑㄧㄡ ㄘˊ/龜茲) (72 BCAD 788)
  • Jushi Kingdom ( 车师 ㄐㄩ ㄕ/車師) (71 BCAD 508)
  • Goguryeo ( 高句丽 ㄍㄠ ㄍㄡ ㄌㄧˊ/高句麗) (37 BCAD 668) – Ruled by the House of Go (高) of Yemaek descent
    • Little Goguryeo ( 小高句丽 ㄒㄧㄠˇ ㄍㄠ ㄍㄡ ㄌㄧˊ/小高句麗) (AD 699–820) – Hypothesized
  • Xin dynasty ( 新朝 ㄒㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 9–23) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chengjia ( 成家 ㄔㄥˊ ㄐㄧㄚ) (AD 25–36) – Ruled by the House of Gongsun (公孙/公孫) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Khotan ( 于阗 ㄩˊ ㄊㄧㄢˊ/于闐) (AD 56–1006) – Ruled by the House of Yuchi (尉迟/尉遲) of Saka descent
  • Zhongjia ( 仲家 ㄓㄨㄥˋ ㄐㄧㄚ) (AD 197–199) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Three Kingdoms ( 三国 ㄙㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/三國) (AD 220–280)
    • Cao Wei ( 曹魏 ㄘㄠˊ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 220–266) – Ruled by the House of Cao (曹) of Han Chinese descent
    • Shu Han ( 蜀汉 ㄕㄨˇ ㄏㄢˋ/蜀漢) (AD 221–263) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
    • Eastern Wu ( 东吴 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨˊ/東吳) (AD 222–280) – Ruled by the House of Sun (孙/孫) of Han Chinese descent
  • Jin dynasty ( 晋朝 ㄐㄧㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ/晉朝) (AD 266–316, AD 317–420) – Ruled by the House of Sima (司马/司馬) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Jin ( 西晋 ㄒㄧ ㄐㄧㄣˋ/西晉) (AD 266–316)
    • Eastern Jin ( 东晋 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄐㄧㄣˋ/東晉) (AD 317–420)
  • Tuyuhun ( 吐谷浑 ㄊㄨˇ ㄩˋ ㄏㄨㄣˊ/吐谷渾) (AD 284–670) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Chouchi ( 仇池 ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ) (AD 296–371, AD 385–442, AD 443–477, AD 478–580) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Di descent
    • Former Chouchi ( 前仇池 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ) (AD 296–371)
    • Later Chouchi ( 后仇池 ㄏㄡˋ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ/後仇池) (AD 385–442)
    • Wudu Kingdom ( 武都国 ㄨˇ ㄉㄨ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/武都國) (AD 443–477)
    • Wuxing Kingdom ( 武兴国 ㄨˇ ㄒㄧㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/武興國) (AD 478–506, AD 529–553)
    • Yinping Kingdom ( 阴平国 ㄧㄣ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/陰平國) (AD 479–580)
  • Sixteen Kingdoms ( 十六国 ㄕˊ ㄌㄧㄡˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/十六國) (AD 304–439)
    • Han Zhao ( 汉赵 ㄏㄢˋ ㄓㄠˋ/漢趙) (AD 304–329) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Han ( 北汉 ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ/北漢) (AD 304–319)
      • Former Zhao ( 前赵 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ/前趙) (AD 319–329)
    • Cheng Han ( 成汉 ㄔㄥˊ ㄏㄢˋ/成漢) (AD 304–347) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Di descent
      • Cheng ( ㄔㄥˊ) (AD 304–338)
      • Han ( ㄏㄢˋ/漢) (AD 338–347)
    • Later Zhao ( 后赵 ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄠˋ/後趙) (AD 319–351) – Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Jie descent
    • Former Liang ( 前凉 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/前涼) (AD 320–376) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
    • Former Yan ( 前燕 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 337–370) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Former Qin ( 前秦 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (AD 351–394) – Ruled by the House of Fu (苻) of Di descent
    • Later Yan ( 后燕 ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ/後燕) (AD 384–409) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Qin ( 后秦 ㄏㄡˋ ㄑㄧㄣˊ/後秦) (AD 384–417) – Ruled by the House of Yao (姚) of Qiang descent
    • Western Qin ( 西秦 ㄒㄧ ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (AD 385–400, AD 409–431) – Ruled by the House of Qifu (乞伏) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Liang ( 后凉 ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/後涼) (AD 386–403) – Ruled by the House of Lü (吕/呂) of Di descent
    • Southern Liang ( 南凉 ㄋㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/南涼) (AD 397–414) – Ruled by the House of Tufa (秃发/禿髮) of Xianbei descent
    • Northern Liang ( 北凉 ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/北涼) (AD 397–439) – Ruled by the House of Juqu (沮渠) of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Liang of Gaochang ( 高昌北凉 ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/高昌北涼) (AD 443–460)
    • Southern Yan ( 南燕 ㄋㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 398–410) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Western Liang ( 西凉 ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/西涼) (AD 400–421) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Western Liang ( 后西凉 ㄏㄡˋ ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/後西涼) (AD 422–442)
    • Hu Xia ( 胡夏 ㄏㄨˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 407–431) – Ruled by the House of Helian (赫连/赫連) of Xiongnu descent
    • Northern Yan ( 北燕 ㄅㄟˇ ㄧㄢ) (AD 407–436) – Ruled by the House of Feng (冯/馮) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dai ( ㄉㄞˋ) (AD 310–376) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent
  • Rouran Khaganate ( 柔然 ㄖㄡˊ ㄖㄢˊ) (AD 330–555) – Ruled by the House of Yujiulü (郁久闾/鬱久閭)
  • Ran Wei ( 冉魏 ㄖㄢˇ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 350–352) – Ruled by the House of Ran (冉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Duan Qi ( 段齐 ㄉㄨㄢˋ ㄑㄧˊ/段齊) (AD 350–356) – Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Xianbei descent
  • Western Yan ( 西燕 ㄒㄧ ㄧㄢ) (AD 384–394) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Xianyu Zhao ( 鲜于赵 ㄒㄧㄢ ㄩˊ ㄓㄠˋ/鮮於趙) (AD 385) – Ruled by the House of Xianyu (鲜于/鮮於) of Dingling descent
  • Zhai Wei ( 翟魏 ㄓㄞˊ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 388–392) – Ruled by the House of Zhai (翟) of Dingling descent
  • Huan Chu ( 桓楚 ㄏㄨㄢˊ ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 401–404) – Ruled by the House of Huan (桓) of Han Chinese descent
  • Western Shu ( 西蜀 ㄒㄧ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 405–413) – Ruled by the House of Qiao (谯/譙) of Han Chinese descent
  • Northern and Southern dynasties ( 南北朝 ㄋㄢˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 420–589)
    • Northern dynasties ( 北朝 ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ)
      • Northern Wei ( 北魏 ㄅㄟˇ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 386–535) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent
        • Eastern Wei ( 东魏 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨㄟˋ/東魏) (AD 534–550)
        • Western Wei ( 西魏 ㄒㄧ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 535–557)
      • Northern Qi ( 北齐 ㄅㄟˇ ㄑㄧˊ/北齊) (AD 550–577) – Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Zhou ( 北周 ㄅㄟˇ ㄓㄡ) (AD 557–581) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent
    • Southern dynasties ( 南朝 ㄋㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ)
      • Liu Song ( 刘宋 ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ/劉宋) (AD 420–479) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Qi ( 南齐 ㄋㄢˊ ㄑㄧˊ/南齊) (AD 479–502) – Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent
      • Liang dynasty ( 梁朝 ㄌㄧㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 502–557) – Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent
        • Western Liang ( 西梁 ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 555–587)
        • Eastern Liang ( 东梁 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/東梁) (AD 557–560)
        • Later Western Liang ( 后西梁 ㄏㄡˋ ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/後西梁) (AD 617–621)
      • Chen dynasty ( 陈朝 ㄔㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ/陳朝) (AD 557–589) – Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dengzhi ( 邓至 ㄉㄥˋ ㄓˋ/鄧至) (AD 430–554) – Ruled by the House of Xiang (像) of Qiang descent
  • Gaochang ( 高昌 ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ) (AD 460–640)
    • Kan dynasty of Gaochang ( 阚氏高昌 ㄎㄢˋ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ/闞氏高昌) (AD 460–488) – Ruled by the House of Kan (阚/闞)
    • Zhang dynasty of Gaochang ( 张氏高昌 ㄓㄤ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ/張氏高昌) (AD 488–496) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
    • Ma dynasty of Gaochang ( 马氏高昌 ㄇㄚˇ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ/馬氏高昌) (AD 496–501) – Ruled by the House of Ma (马/馬)
    • Qu dynasty of Gaochang ( 麴氏高昌 ㄑㄩ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ) (AD 501–640) – Ruled by the House of Qu (麴) of Han Chinese descent
  • Hou Han ( 侯汉 ㄏㄡˊ ㄏㄢˋ/侯漢) (AD 551–552) – Ruled by the House of Hou (侯) of Jie descent
  • Tanchang ( 宕昌 ㄊㄢˋ ㄔㄤ) (?–AD 564) – Ruled by the House of Liang (梁) of Qiang descent
  • Turkic Khaganate ( 突厥汗国 ㄊㄨ ㄐㄩㄝˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/突厥汗國) (AD 552–630) – Ruled by the House of Ashina (阿史那) of Göktürk descent
  • Mong Mao ( 勐卯 ㄇㄥˇ ㄇㄠˇ) (AD 560–1604) – Ruled by the House of Si (思) of Dai descent
  • Sui dynasty ( 隋朝 ㄙㄨㄟˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 581–618) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xueyantuo ( 薛延陀 ㄒㄩㄝ ㄧㄢˊ ㄊㄨㄛˊ) (AD 605–646)
  • Xia ( ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 617–621) – Ruled by the House of Dou (窦/竇) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang ( ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 617–628) – Ruled by the House of Liang (梁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang ( ㄌㄧㄤˊ/涼) (AD 618–619) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xu ( ㄒㄩˇ/許) (AD 618–619) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent
  • Tang dynasty ( 唐朝 ㄊㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 618–690, AD 705–907) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
    • Wu Zhou ( 武周 ㄨˇ ㄓㄡ) (AD 690–705) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (武) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zheng ( ㄓㄥˋ/鄭) (AD 619–621) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王)
  • Balhae ( 渤海 ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (AD 698–926) – Ruled by the House of Dae (大) of Mohe descent
    • Later Balhae ( 后渤海 ㄏㄡˋ ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ/後渤海) (AD 928–976)
  • Nanzhao ( 南诏 ㄋㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ/南詔) (AD 738–902) – Ruled by the House of Meng (蒙) of Bai descent
    • Dali ( 大礼 ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ/大禮) (AD 859–877)
    • Dafengmin ( 大封民 ㄉㄚˋ ㄈㄥ ㄇㄧㄣˊ) (AD 878–902)
  • Uyghur Khaganate ( 回鹘汗国 ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/回鶻汗國) (AD 744–840) – Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (药罗葛/藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent and the House of Ediz (阿跌) of Tiele descent
  • Yan ( ㄧㄢ) (AD 756–763)
    • Former Yan ( 前燕 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 756–759) – Ruled by the House of An (安) of Sogdian descent
    • Later Yan ( 后燕 ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ/後燕) (AD 759–763) – Ruled by the House of Shi (史) of Göktürk descent
  • Chu ( ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 784–786) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kara-Khanid Khanate ( 喀喇汗国 ㄎㄚ ㄌㄚˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/喀喇汗國) (AD 840–1212)
    • Eastern Kara-Khanid ( 东喀喇汗国 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄎㄚ ㄌㄚˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/東喀喇汗國) (AD 1032–1210)
  • Qocho ( 高昌回鹘 ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ/高昌回鶻) (AD 843–1370)
  • Qi ( ㄑㄧˊ/齊) (AD 881–884) – Ruled by the House of Huang (黄/黃) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom ( 甘州回鹘 ㄍㄢ ㄓㄡ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ/甘州回鶻) (AD 894–1036) – Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (药罗葛/藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent
  • Later Three Dynasties of Yunnan ( 云南后三朝 ㄩㄣˊ ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄡˋ ㄙㄢ ㄔㄠˊ/雲南後三朝) (AD 902–937)
    • Dachanghe ( 大长和 ㄉㄚˋ ㄔㄤˊ ㄏㄜˊ/大長和) (AD 902–928) – Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent
    • Datianxing ( 大天兴 ㄉㄚˋ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄒㄧㄥ/大天興) (AD 928–929) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙)
    • Dayining ( 大义宁 ㄉㄚˋ ㄧˋ ㄋㄧㄥˊ/大義寧) (AD 929–937) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
  • Qi ( ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 907–924) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms ( 五代十国 ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/五代十國) (AD 907–960)
    • Five Dynasties ( 五代 ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ)
      • Later Liang ( 后梁 ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ/後梁) (AD 907–923) – Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Tang ( 后唐 ㄏㄡˋ ㄊㄤˊ/後唐) (AD 923–937) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Shatuo descent
        • Jin ( ㄐㄧㄣˋ/晉) (AD 907–923)
      • Later Jin ( 后晋 ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣˋ/後晉) (AD 936–947) – Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Han ( 后汉 ㄏㄡˋ ㄏㄢˋ/後漢) (AD 947–951) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Zhou ( 后周 ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄡ/後周) (AD 951–960) – Ruled by the House of Guo (郭) of Han Chinese descent
    • Ten Kingdoms ( 十国 ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/十國)
      • Former Shu ( 前蜀 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 907–925) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
      • Yang Wu ( 杨吴 ㄧㄤˊ ㄨˊ/楊吳) (AD 907–937) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
      • Ma Chu ( 马楚 ㄇㄚˇ ㄔㄨˇ/馬楚) (AD 907–951) – Ruled by the House of Ma (马/馬) of Han Chinese descent
      • Wuyue ( 吴越 ㄨˊ ㄩㄝˋ/吳越) (AD 907–978) – Ruled by the House of Qian (钱/錢) of Han Chinese descent
      • Min ( ㄇㄧㄣˇ/閩) (AD 909–945) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
        • Yin ( ㄧㄣ) (AD 943–945)
      • Southern Han ( 南汉 ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ/南漢) (AD 917–971) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
      • Jingnan ( 荊南 ㄐㄧㄥ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 924–963) – Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Shu ( 后蜀 ㄏㄡˋ ㄕㄨˇ/後蜀) (AD 934–965) – Ruled by the House of Meng (孟) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Tang ( 南唐 ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄤˊ) (AD 937–976) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Han ( 北汉 ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ/北漢) (AD 951–979) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent
  • Liao dynasty ( 辽朝 ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄔㄠˊ/遼朝) (AD 916–1125) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
    • Northern Liao ( 北辽 ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/北遼) (AD 1122–1123)
    • Western Liao ( 西辽 ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/西遼) (AD 1124–1218)
    • Eastern Liao ( 东辽 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/東遼) (AD 1213–1269)
    • Later Liao ( 后辽 ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/後遼) (AD 1216–1219)
  • Zhao ( ㄓㄠˋ/趙) (AD 910–921) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
  • Yan ( ㄧㄢ) (AD 911–914) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dongdan Kingdom ( 东丹 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄉㄢ/東丹) (AD 926–936) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
  • Dali Kingdom ( 大理 ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 937–1094, AD 1096–1253) – Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Bai descent
    • Former Dali ( 前大理 ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 937–1094)
    • Later Dali ( 后大理 ㄏㄡˋ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ/後大理) (AD 1096–1253)
  • Jeongan ( 定安 ㄉㄧㄥˋ ㄢ) (AD 938–986)
  • Song dynasty ( 宋朝 ㄙㄨㄥˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 960–1279) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) of Han Chinese descent
    • Northern Song ( 北宋 ㄅㄟˇ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 960–1127)
    • Southern Song ( 南宋 ㄋㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 1127–1279)
  • Li Shu ( 李蜀 ㄌㄧˇ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 994) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Heungyo ( 兴辽 ㄒㄧㄥ ㄌㄧㄠˊ/興遼) (AD 1029–1030) – Ruled by the House of Dae (大)
  • Changqi ( 长其 ㄔㄤˊ ㄑㄧˊ/長其) (AD 1029–1055) – Ruled by the House of Nong (侬/儂) of Zhuang descent
    • Dali ( 大历 ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˋ/大歷) (AD 1041–1045)
    • Nantian ( 南天 ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄧㄢ) (AD 1045–1052)
    • Danan ( 大南 ㄉㄚˋ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 1052–1055)
  • Western Xia ( 西夏 ㄒㄧ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 1038–1227) – Ruled by the House of Weiming (嵬名) of Tangut descent
  • Dazhong Kingdom ( 大中 ㄉㄚˋ ㄓㄨㄥ) (AD 1094–1096) – Interrupted the Dali Kingdom; Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Bai descent
  • Ziqi Kingdom ( 自杞国 ㄗˋ ㄑㄧˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/自杞國) (AD 1100–1259)
  • Jin dynasty ( 金朝 ㄐㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1115–1234) – Ruled by the House of Wanyan (完颜/完顏) of Jurchen descent
  • Great Balhae ( 大渤海 ㄉㄚˋ ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (AD 1116) – Ruled by the House of Gao (高)
  • Xi ( ㄒㄧ) (AD 1123) – Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Kumo Xi descent
  • Chu ( ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 1127) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liu Qi ( 刘齐 ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄑㄧˊ/劉齊) (AD 1130–1137) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Mongol Empire ( 大蒙古国 ㄉㄚˋ ㄇㄥˇ ㄍㄨˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/大蒙古國) (AD 1206–1368) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛儿只斤/孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
    • Chagatai Khanate ( 察合台汗国 ㄔㄚˊ ㄍㄜˇ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/察合台汗國) (AD 1225–1346)
      • Eastern Chagatai Khanate ( 东察合台汗国 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄔㄚˊ ㄍㄜˇ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/東察合台汗國) (AD 1347–1680)
        • Turpan Khanate ( 吐鲁番汗国 ㄊㄨˇ ㄌㄨˇ ㄈㄢ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/吐魯番汗國) (AD 1365–1570)
        • Yarkent Khanate ( 叶尔羌汗国 ㄧㄝˋ ㄦˇ ㄑㄧㄤ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/葉爾羌汗國) (AD 1514–1705)
    • Yuan dynasty ( 元朝 ㄩㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1271–1368)
      • Northern Yuan ( 北元 ㄅㄟˇ ㄩㄢˊ) (AD 1368–1635)
  • Eastern Xia ( 东夏 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄒㄧㄚˋ/東夏) (AD 1215–1233) – Ruled by the House of Puxian (蒲鲜/蒲鮮) of Jurchen descent
  • Kingdom of Mangalai ( 曼尕赖 ㄇㄢˋ ㄍㄚˇ ㄌㄞˋ/曼尕賴) (AD 1220–1877)
  • Tianwan ( 天完 ㄊㄧㄢ ㄨㄢˊ) (AD 1351–1360) – Ruled by the House of Xu (徐) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zhou ( ㄓㄡ) (AD 1354–1367) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Han Song ( 韩宋 ㄏㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ/韓宋) (AD 1355–1366) – Ruled by the House of Han (韩/韓) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chen Han ( 陈汉 ㄔㄣˊ ㄏㄢˋ/陳漢) (AD 1360–1364) – Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming Xia ( 明夏 ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 1362–1371) – Ruled by the House of Ming (明) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming dynasty ( 明朝 ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1368–1644) – Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Wu ( 西吴 ㄒㄧ ㄨˊ/西吳) (AD 1364–1368)
    • Southern Ming ( 南明 ㄋㄢˊ ㄇㄧㄥˊ) (AD 1644–1662)
  • Kara Del ( 哈密国 ㄏㄚ ㄇㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/哈密國) (AD 1380–1513)
  • Dzungar Khanate ( 准噶尔汗国 ㄓㄨㄣˇ ㄍㄚˊ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/準噶爾汗國) (AD 1634–1758) – Ruled by the House of Choros (绰罗斯/綽羅斯) of Oirat descent
  • Qing dynasty ( 清朝 ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1636–1912, AD 1917) – Ruled by the House of Aisin Gioro (爱新觉罗/愛新覺羅) of Manchu descent
    • Later Jin ( 后金 ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣ/後金) (AD 1616–1636)
  • Shun dynasty ( 顺朝 ㄕㄨㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ/順朝) (AD 1644–1645) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Tangut descent
  • Xi ( 西 ㄒㄧ) (AD 1644–1646) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Tungning ( 东宁王国 ㄉㄨㄥ ㄋㄧㄥˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/東寧王國) (AD 1661–1683) – Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent
  • Wu Zhou ( 吴周 ㄨˊ ㄓㄡ/吳周) (AD 1678–1681) – Ruled by the House of Wu (吴/吳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Middag ( 大肚王国 ㄉㄚˋ ㄉㄨˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/大肚王國) (?–AD 1732)
  • Taiping Heavenly Kingdom ( 太平天国 ㄊㄞˋ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/太平天國) (AD 1851–1864) – Ruled by the House of Hong (洪) of Han Chinese descent
  • Pingnan Sultanate ( 平南苏丹国 ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄋㄢˊ ㄙㄨ ㄉㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/平南蘇丹國) (AD 1856–1873) – Ruled by the House of Du (杜) of Hui descent
  • Empire of China ( 中华帝国 ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄉㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/中華帝國) (AD 1915–1916) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Tjaquvuquvulj ( 大龟文 ㄉㄚˋ ㄍㄨㄟ ㄨㄣˊ/大龜文) (?–AD 1930)
  • Imperial House of Japan ( 皇室 こうしつ) (660 BC (legendary) – present) – Also called "Yamato dynasty"
    • Northern Court ( 北朝 ほくちょう) (AD 1331–1392) – Also called "Jimyōin line" ( 持明院統 じみょういんとう)
    • Southern Court ( 南朝 なんちょう) (AD 1336–1392) – Also called "Daikakuji line" ( 大覚寺統 だいかくじとう)
  • Gojoseon (고조선/古朝鮮) (2333 BC (legendary) – 108 BC)
  • Takri Kingdom (고리국/槀離國) (c. 5th century–2nd century BC)
  • Jin (진/辰) (c. 4th century–2nd century BC)
  • Dongye (동예/東濊) (c. 3rd century BCAD 5th century)
  • Buyeo (부여/扶餘) (239 BCAD 494)
    • Northern Buyeo (북부여/北扶餘) (239–58 BC)
    • Jolbon Buyeo (졸본부여/卒本扶餘) (86–37 BC)
    • Eastern Buyeo (동부여/東扶餘) (86 BCAD 410)
  • Okjeo (옥저/沃沮) (c. 2nd century BCAD 5th century)
    • Eastern Okjeo (동옥저/東沃沮) – Also called "Southern Okjeo" (남옥저/南沃沮)
    • Northern Okjeo (북옥저/北沃沮)
  • Han dynasty (한나라/漢朝) (c. 108 BCAD 9, AD 30–220) – Ruled by the House of Liu (유/劉); Chinese rule over the Four Commanderies of Han (한사군/漢四郡) on the Korean Peninsula as far south as the Han River
  • Nakrang Kingdom (낙랑국/樂浪國) (c. 1st century BCAD 37)
  • Samhan (삼한/三韓) (c. 1st century BCAD 5th century)
    • Jinhan (진한/辰韓) (c. 1st century BCAD 4th century)
    • Mahan (마한/馬韓) (c. 1st century BCAD 5th century)
    • Byeonhan (변한/弁韓) (c. 1st century–4th century AD)
  • Three Kingdoms of Korea (삼국/三國) (57 BCAD 668)
    • Silla (신라/新羅) (57 BCAD 935) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金)
    • Goguryeo (고구려/高句麗) (37 BCAD 668) – Ruled by the House of Go (고/高)
      • Little Goguryeo (소고구려/小高句麗) (AD 699–820) – Hypothesized
    • Baekje (백제/百濟) (18 BCAD 660) – Ruled by the House of Buyeo (부여/扶餘); Also called "Southern Buyeo" (남부여/南扶餘)
  • Tamna (탐라/耽羅) (57 BCAD 1402)
  • Xin dynasty (신나라/新朝) (AD 9–23) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王)
  • Gaya (가야/伽倻) (AD 42–562)
    • Daegaya (대가야/大伽倻) (AD 42–562)
    • Geumgwan Gaya (금관가야/金官伽倻) (AD 43–532)
    • Bihwa Gaya (비화가야/非火伽倻) (?–AD 555)
    • Ara Gaya (아라가야/阿羅伽倻) (?–AD 559)
    • Goryeong Gaya (고령가야/古寧伽倻) (?–AD 562)
    • Sogaya (소가야/小伽倻)
    • Seongsan Gaya (성산가야/星山伽倻)
  • Cao Wei (조위/曹魏) (c. AD 236–265) – Ruled by the House of Cao (조/曹); Chinese rule over the Daifang Commandery (대방군/帶方郡) on part of the Korean Peninsula
  • Jin dynasty (진(위진)/晉朝) (c. AD 266–314) – Ruled by the House of Sima (사마/司馬); Chinese rule over the Daifang Commandery on part of the Korean Peninsula
  • Tang dynasty (당나라/唐朝) (AD 668–690, AD 705–761) – Ruled by the House of Li (이/李); Chinese rule over the Protectorate General to Pacify the East (안동도호부/安東都護府) on part of the Korean Peninsula
    • Wu Zhou (무주/武周) (AD 690–705) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (무/武)
  • North-South States (남북국/南北國) (AD 698–892)
    • Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) (AD 668–935) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅)
    • Balhae (발해/渤海) (AD 698–926) – Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大)
  • Later Three Kingdoms (후삼국/後三國) (AD 892–936)
    • Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) (AD 668–935) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅)
    • Taebong (태봉/泰封) (AD 901–918) – Ruled by the House of Gung (궁/弓); Also called "Later Goguryeo" (후고구려/後高句麗)
    • Later Baekje (후백제/後百濟) (AD 892–936) – Ruled by the House of Gyeon (견/甄)
  • Goryeo (고려/高麗) (AD 918–1392) – Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王)
  • Later Sabeol (후사벌/後沙伐) (AD 919–927) – Ruled by the House of Park (박/朴)
  • Jeongan (정안/定安) (AD 938–986)
  • Usan (우산국/于山國) (?–AD 1022)
  • Heungyo (흥요/興遼) (AD 1029–1030) – Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大)
  • Yuan dynasty (원나라/元朝) (AD 1270–1356) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (보르지긴/孛兒只斤); Goryeo ruled as the Zhengdong Province (정동등처행중서성/征東等處行中書省) of the Yuan dynasty
  • Joseon (조선/朝鮮) (AD 1392–1897) – Ruled by the House of Yi (이/李)
  • Kirat dynasty
  • Licchavi (लिच्छवि) (c. AD 400–750)
  • Tibetan Empire (AD 618–842)
  • Simroun dynasty (AD 1097–1324)
  • Khasa-Malla Kingdom (खस मल्ल राज्य) (AD 11th century–14th century)
  • Malla dynasty (AD 1201–1779)
  • Shah dynasty (शाह वंश) (AD 1559–2008)
  • Pande dynasty (पाँडे वंश) (AD 1744–1843) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)
  • Basnyat dynasty (बस्न्यात वंश) (AD 1747–1846) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)
  • Thapa dynasty (थापा वंश) (AD 1806–1837, AD 1843–1845) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)
  • Rana dynasty (राणा वंश) (AD 1846–1951) – Hereditary non-monarchical political leaders (Non-sovereign)

Royal families

  • Tenson dynasty ( 天孫氏 てんそんし) (?–AD 1185) – Legendary
  • Shunten dynasty ( 舜天王統 しゅんてんおうとう) (AD 1187–1259)
  • Eiso dynasty ( 英祖王統 えいそおうとう) (AD 1260–1349)
  • Sanzan period ( 三山時代 さんざんじだい) (AD 1314–1429)
    • Haniji line ( 怕尼芝王統 はねじおうとう) (AD 1314–1419) – Ruled over Hokuzan (北山)
    • Satto line ( 察度王統 さっとおうとう) (AD 1314–1429) – Ruled over Chūzan (中山)
    • Ōzato dynasty ( 大里王統 おおさとおうとう) (AD 1314–1429) – Ruled over Nanzan (南山)
  • First Shō dynasty ( 第一尚氏 だいいちしょうし) (AD 1407–1469) – Also called "Sashiki dynasty" (佐敷王統)
  • Second Shō dynasty ( 第二尚氏 だいにしょうし) (AD 1469–1879) – Also called "Izena dynasty" (伊是名王統)
  • Imperial House of Japan ( 皇室 こうしつ) (AD 1879–present) – Ryukyu Islands under Japanese rule
  • Singhanavati (สิงหนวัติ)
  • Lavachakkaraj dynasty (AD 638–1292) – Kingdom of Hiran
  • Phra Ruang dynasty (AD 1238–1438) – Sukhothai Kingdom (อาณาจักรสุโขทัย)
  • Mangrai dynasty (AD 1292–1558) – Lan Na (อาณาจักรล้านนา)
  • Uthong dynasty (AD 1350–1370, AD 1388–1409) – Ayutthaya Kingdom (อาณาจักรอยุธยา)
  • Suphannaphum dynasty (AD 1370–1388, AD 1409–1569) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Inland dynasty (AD 1457–1688) – Pattani Kingdom (อาณาจักรปัตตานี)
  • Sukhothai dynasty (AD 1569–1629) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Prasart Thong dynasty (AD 1629–1688) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Baan Plu Luang dynasty (AD 1688–1767) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • First Kelantanese dynasty (AD 1688–1808) – Pattani Kingdom
  • Chet Ton dynasty (เชื้อเจ็ดตน) (AD 1732–1943) – Also called "Thipchak dynasty" (ราชวงศ์ทิพย์จักร)
  • Thonburi dynasty (AD 1767–1782) – Thonburi Kingdom (กรุงธนบุรี)
  • Chakri dynasty (ราชวงศ์จักรี) (AD 1782–present) – Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) and Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย)
  • Second Kelantanese dynasty (AD 1842–1902) – Pattani Kingdom
  • Zhangzhung (ཞང་ཞུང་/ 象雄 ㄒㄧㄤˋ ㄒㄩㄥˊ) (c. 500 BCAD 625)
  • Yarlung dynasty (བོད་ཀྱི་གདོད་མའི་མངའ་མཛད།/ 雅鲁王朝 ㄧㄚˇ ㄌㄨˇ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ/雅魯王朝) (c. 127 BCAD 618) – Mythical; Ruled over Pre-Imperial Tibet
  • Tibetan Empire (བོད་ཆེན་པོ/ 吐蕃 ㄊㄨˇ ㄅㄛ) (AD 618–842)
  • Guge (གུ་གེ་རྒྱལ་རབས/ 古格王朝 ㄍㄨˇ ㄍㄜˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 967–1635)
  • Tsongkha (ཙོང་ཁ།/ 唃厮啰国 ㄍㄨ ㄙ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/唃廝囉國) (AD 1032–1104)
  • Yuan dynasty (ཡོན་རྒྱལ་རབས།/ 元朝 ㄩㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1270–1354) – Tibet administered by the Xuanzheng Yuan of the Yuan dynasty
  • Phagmodrupa dynasty (ཕག་མོ་གྲུ་པ་/ 帕木竹巴 ㄆㄚˋ ㄇㄨˋ ㄓㄨˊ ㄅㄚ) (AD 1354–1642)
  • Ming dynasty (མིང་རྒྱལ་རབས།/ 明朝 ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1372–1630) – Sovereignty of the Ming dynasty over Tibet is disputed among historians
  • Rinpungpa (རིན་སྤུངས་པ་/ 仁蚌巴 ㄖㄣˊ ㄅㄤˋ ㄅㄚ) (AD 1435–1565)
  • Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh ( 拉达克王国 ㄌㄚ ㄉㄚˊ ㄎㄜˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/拉達克王國) (AD 1460–1842)
  • Tsangpa (གཙང་པ/ 藏巴汗 ㄗㄤˋ ㄅㄚ ㄏㄢˊ) (AD 1565–1642)
  • Khoshut Khanate ( 和硕特汗国 ㄏㄜˊ ㄕㄨㄛˋ ㄊㄜˋ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/和碩特汗國) (AD 1642–1717)
  • Dzungar Khanate (ཛེ་གུན་གར།།/ 准噶尔汗国 ㄓㄨㄣˇ ㄍㄚˊ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ/準噶爾汗國) (AD 1717–1720)
  • Qing dynasty (ཆིང་རྒྱལ་རབས།/ 清朝 ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1720–1912) – Tibet administered by the Lifan Yuan of the Qing dynasty

Europe

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. Period Ruler

  • Vund c. 360
  • Balamber 360–378
  • Baltazár (Alypbi) 378–390
  • Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns) 390–410
  • Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns & beyond) 410–412
  • Charaton (Aksungur) 412–422
  • Octar[1] 422–432
  • Rugila 432–434
  • Bleda with Attila c. 434 – c. 445
  • Attila "the Hun" c. 434–453
  • Ellac 453 – c. 455
  • Tuldila fl. c. 457
  • Dengizich (Sabirs attack c. 460–463) ?-469 with Hernach/BelkErmak
  • Hernach/BelkErmak[2] 469–503
  • House of Dulo Bulgaria (390–503) A Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans genealogy claims that the Dulo clan is descended from Attila the Hun.
  • Edeko
  • Odoacer (435–493), was the 5th-century King of Italy
  • Erechtheid dynasty (1556–1127 BC) – Athens (Αθήνα)
  • Melanthid dynasty (1126–1068 BC) – Athens
  • Agiad dynasty (930–215 BC) – Sparta (Σπάρτη)
  • Eurypontid dynasty (930–206 BC) – Sparta
  • Argead dynasty (Ἀργεάδαι) (700–305 BC) – Macedonia (Μακεδονία)
  • Paeonia Kingdom (Παιονία) (?–511 BC)
  • Achaemenid Empire (Αχαιμενιδική Αυτοκρατορία) (511–499 BC, 492–479 BC)
  • Antigonid dynasty (Ἀντιγονίδαι) (306–286 BC, 276–168 BC) – Macedonia
  • Antipatrid dynasty (Ἀντιπατρίδαι) (305–294 BC, 279–276 BC) – Macedonia
  • Mithridatic dynasty (281–37 BC) – Pontus (Βασίλειο του Πόντου)
  • Julio–Claudian dynasty (Ιουλιο-Κλαυδιανή δυναστεία) (27 BCAD 68) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Flavian dynasty (AD 68–96) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Nerva–Antonine dynasty (AD 96–192) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Severan dynasty (AD 193–235) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Gordian dynasty (AD 238–244) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Decian dynasty (AD 249–253) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Valerian dynasty (AD 253–268) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Illyrian emperors (AD 268–284) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Caran dynasty (AD 282–285) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Constantinian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Κωνσταντίνου) (AD 305–363) – Greece under Roman/Byzantine rule
  • Valentinian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Βαλεντινιανού) (AD 364–392) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Theodosian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Θεοδοσίου) (AD 379–457) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • House of Leo (Δυναστεία του Λέοντος) (AD 457–518) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Justinian dynasty (AD 518–602) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Heraclian dynasty (AD 610–711) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Isaurian dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ισαύρων) (AD 717–802) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Nikephorian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Νικηφόρου) (AD 802–813) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Amorian dynasty (AD 820–867) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Macedonian dynasty (Δυναστεία των Μακεδόνων) (AD 867–1056) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Doukid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Δουκών) (AD 1059–1081) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Komnenos dynasty (Δυναστεία των Κομνηνών) (AD 1081–1185) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Angelos dynasty (Οίκος των Αγγέλων) (AD 1185–1204) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • House of Flanders (Οίκος της Φλάνδρας) (AD 1204–1216) – Greece within the Latin Empire (Λατινική Αυτοκρατορία)
  • Capetian House of Courtenay (AD 1216–1261) – Greece within the Latin Empire
  • Palaiologos dynasty (Δυναστεία των Παλαιολόγων) (AD 1261–1453) – Byzantine rule in Greece restored
  • House of Barcelona (Οίκος της Βαρκελώνης) (AD 1319–1387) – Duchy of Neopatras
  • Ottoman dynasty (Οθωμανική Δυναστεία) (AD 1458–1830) – Greece under Ottoman rule
  • House of Wittelsbach (Οίκος του Βίττελσμπαχ) (AD 1832–1862) – Kingdom of Greece (Βασίλειο της Ελλάδας)
  • House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Οίκος του Σλέσβιχ-Χόλσταϊν-Σόντερμπουργκ-Γκλύξμπουργκ) (AD 1863–1924, AD 1935–1973) – Kingdom of Greece
  • Khazar Khaganate (Хазары) (AD 650–969)
  • Volga Bulgaria (Волжская Булгария) (AD 7th century–1242)
  • Rus' Khaganate (Русский каганат) (AD 8th century–9th century) – Hypothesized
  • Kyi dynasty (AD 842–882)
  • Rurik dynasty (Рю́риковичи) (AD 862–1598, AD 1605–1610)
  • Golden Horde (Золотая Орда) (AD 1242–1502) – Russia under Mongol rule
  • Qasim dynasty (AD 1575–1576)
  • Godunov dynasty (Годуно́в) (AD 1598–1605)
  • House of Vasa (Васа) (AD 1610–1613)
  • House of Romanov (Рома́новы) (AD 1613–1762, AD 1796–1917, AD 1922)
  • Kalmyk Khanate (Калмыцкое ханство) (AD 1630–1771)
  • House of Ascania (Аскании) (AD 1762–1796)

North America

  • House of Stuart (AD 1632–1649, AD 1660–1714) – Antigua and Barbuda under English rule (AD 1632–1649, AD 1660–1707) and Antigua and Barbuda under British rule (AD 1707–1714)
  • House of Hanover (AD 1714–1901) – Antigua and Barbuda under British rule
  • House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (AD 1901–1917) – Antigua and Barbuda under British rule
  • House of Trastámara (Casa de Trastámara) (AD 1511–1516) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Habsburg (Casa de Habsburgo) (AD 1516–1700) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Bourbon-Anjou (Casa de Borbón-Anjou) (AD 1700–1808, AD 1813–1868, AD 1874–1898) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Bonaparte (Casa de Bonaparte) (AD 1808–1813) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Savoy (Casa de Saboya) (AD 1870–1873) – Cuba under Spanish rule

South America

  • House of Habsburg (Casa de Habsburgo) (AD 1534–1700) – Argentina under Spanish rule
  • House of Bourbon-Anjou (Casa de Borbón-Anjou) (AD 1700–1808, AD 1813–1816) – Argentina under Spanish rule
  • House of Bonaparte (Casa de Bonaparte) (AD 1808–1813) – Argentina under Spanish rule

Oceania

Antarctica

List of dynasties currently in power

As of 2019, there are 44 sovereign states with a monarch as head of state, of which 42 are ruled by dynasties.

Dynasty Realm Reigning monarch Dynastic founder Description
House of Windsor  Antigua and Barbuda Queen Elizabeth II George V The House of Windsor is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in AD 1917.
 Commonwealth of Australia
 Commonwealth of the Bahamas
 Barbados
 Belize
 Canada
 Grenada
 Jamaica
 New Zealand
 Independent State of Papua New Guinea
 Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Solomon Islands
 Tuvalu
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
House of Khalifa  Kingdom of Bahrain King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Khalifa bin Mohammed
House of Belgium  Kingdom of Belgium King Philippe Albert I The House of Belgium is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Belgium" in AD 1920.
House of Wangchuck  Kingdom of Bhutan King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Ugyen Wangchuck
House of Bolkiah  Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Muhammad Shah
House of Norodom  Kingdom of Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni Norodom The House of Norodom is a branch of the Varman dynasty.
House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg  Kingdom of Denmark Queen Margrethe II Friedrich Wilhelm The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
 Kingdom of Norway King Harald V
House of Dlamini  Kingdom of Eswatini King Mswati III Dlamini I
Imperial House of Japan  Japan Emperor Naruhito Jimmu The Imperial House of Japan, or the Yamato dynasty, is the world's oldest continuous dynasty.
House of Hashim  Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan King Abdullah II Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi
House of Al Sabah  State of Kuwait Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Sabah I bin Jaber
House of Moshesh  Kingdom of Lesotho King Letsie III Moshoeshoe I
House of Liechtenstein  Principality of Liechtenstein Prince Hans-Adam II Karl I
House of Luxembourg-Nassau  Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Grand Duke Henri Adolphe The House of Luxembourg-Nassau is descended from the House of Nassau-Weilburg, which is a branch of the House of Nassau and the House of Bourbon-Parma.
Bendahara dynasty  Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdullah Tun Habib Abdul Majid
House of Grimaldi  Principality of Monaco Prince Albert II François Grimaldi
Alaouite dynasty  Kingdom of Morocco King Mohammed VI Sharif ibn Ali
House of Orange-Nassau  Kingdom of the Netherlands King Willem-Alexander William I The House of Orange-Nassau is a branch of the House of Nassau. Additionally, King Willem-Alexander is also linked to the House of Lippe through Beatrix of the Netherlands.
House of Al Said  Sultanate of Oman Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi
House of Al Thani  State of Qatar Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Thani bin Mohammed
House of Saud  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Muhammad ibn Saud
House of Bourbon-Anjou  Kingdom of Spain King Felipe VI Philip V The House of Bourbon-Anjou is a branch of the House of Bourbon.
House of Bernadotte  Kingdom of Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf Charles XIV John
Chakri dynasty  Kingdom of Thailand King Vajiralongkorn Rama I
Tupou dynasty  Kingdom of Tonga King Tupou VI George Tupou I
Al Nahyan family  United Arab Emirates President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Dhiyab bin Isa Al Nahyan

Political dynasties in republics

Though in elected governments, rule does not pass automatically by inheritance, political power often accrues to generations of related individuals in republics. Eminence, influence, tradition, genetics, and nepotism may contribute to the phenomenon.

Family dictatorships are a different concept in which political power passes within a family because of the overwhelming authority of the leader, rather than informal power accrued to the family.

Some political dynasties in republics:

Influential/wealthy families

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "house, n.¹ and int, 10. b." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2011.
  3. ^ Thomson, David (1961). "The Institutions of Monarchy". Europe Since Napoleon. New York: Knopf. pp. 79–80. The basic idea of monarchy was the idea that hereditary right gave the best title to political power...The dangers of disputed succession were best avoided by hereditary succession: ruling families had a natural interest in passing on to their descendants enhanced power and prestige...Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, were alike infatuated with the idea of strengthening their power, centralizing government in their own hands as against local and feudal privileges, and so acquiring more absolute authority in the state. Moreover, the very dynastic rivalries and conflicts between these eighteenth-century monarchs drove them to look for ever more efficient methods of government
  4. ^ Liddell, Henry George & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δυναστεία". Hosted by Tufts University's Perseus Project.
  5. ^ Liddell & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δυνάστης".
  6. ^ Liddell & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δύναμις".
  7. ^ Liddell & al. "δύναμαι".
  8. ^ a b Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
  9. ^ "Monaco royal taken seriously ill". BBC News. London. 8 April 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  10. ^ including County of Flanders, Marquisate of Namur, Duchy of Brabant, County of Hainaut, Duchy of Limburg, County of Luxembourg

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