The image is from Wikipedia Commons
|2nd President of Georgia|
26 November 1995 – 23 November 2003
|Preceded by||Zviad Gamsakhurdia|
|Succeeded by||Nino Burjanadze (acting)|
|1st Chairman of the Georgian Parliament|
6 November 1992 – 26 November 1995
|Preceded by||Position established;
Himself as Chairman of the State Council of Georgia
|Succeeded by||Zurab Zhvania|
|Chairman of the State Council of Georgia|
10 March 1992 – 4 November 1992
|Preceded by||Position established;
Military Council as interim head of state
|Succeeded by||Position abolished;
Himself as Chairman of the Georgian Parliament
|Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union|
2 July 1985 – 20 December 1990
|Preceded by||Andrei Gromyko|
|Succeeded by||Aleksandr Bessmertnykh|
19 November 1991 – 26 December 1991
|Preceded by||Boris Pankin (acting)|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party|
29 September 1972 – 6 July 1985
|Preceded by||Vasil Mzhavanadze|
|Succeeded by||Jumber Patiashvili|
|Full member of the 26th and 27th Politburo|
1 July 1985 – 14 July 1990
|Born||(1928-01-25)25 January 1928
Mamati, Guria, Georgian SSR, Transcaucasian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Georgia)
|Died||7 July 2014(2014-07-07) (aged 86)
(m. 1951; died 2004)
|Relatives||Sophie Shevardnadze (granddaughter)|
|Years of service||1964–1972|
Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze (Georgian: ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, romanized: Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat who ruled Georgia from 1972 until his resignation in 2003.
He was the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1990. In 1992 he become the leader of Georgia (as Chairman of Parliament) after president Zviad Gamsakhurdia resigned. In 1995, he became President and served until his resignation in 2003 because of the Rose Revolution.
Shevardnadze started his political career in the late 1940s as a leading member of his local Komsomol organisation. He was later appointed its Second Secretary, then its First Secretary. His rise in the Georgian Soviet hierarchy continued until 1961 when he was demoted after he insulted a senior official. After spending two years in obscurity, Shevardnadze returned as a First Secretary of a Tbilisi city district, and was able to charge the Tbilisi First Secretary at the time with corruption. His anti-corruption work quickly garnered the interest of the Soviet government and Shevardnadze was appointed as First Deputy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR. He would later become the head of the internal affairs ministry and was able to charge First Secretary (leader of Soviet Georgia) Vasil Mzhavanadze with corruption.
He served as First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party (GPC) from 1972 to 1985, which made him the de facto leader of Georgia. As First Secretary, Shevardnadze started several economic reforms, which would spur economic growth in the republic—an uncommon occurrence in the Soviet Union because the country was experiencing a nationwide economic stagnation. Shevardnadze's anti-corruption campaign continued until he resigned from his office as First Secretary.
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev appointed Shevardnadze to the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs. He served in this position, with the exception of a brief interruption between 1990 and 1991, until the fall of the Soviet Union. During this time, only Gorbachev would outrank Shevardnadze in importance in Soviet foreign policy. Shevardnadze was responsible for many key decisions in Soviet foreign policy during the Gorbachev Era, and was seen by the outside world as the face of Soviet reforms such as Perestroika.
In the aftermath of the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, Shevardnadze returned to the newly independent Georgia. He became the country's head of state following the removal of the country's first president, Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Shevardnadze was formally elected president in 1995. His presidency was marked by rampant corruption and accusations of nepotism. Allegations of electoral fraud during the 2003 legislative election led to a series of public protests and demonstrations colloquially known as the Rose Revolution. Eventually, Shevardnadze was forced to resign. He later published his memoirs and lived in relative obscurity until his death in 2014.
Early life and career
Eduard Shevardnadze was born on 25 January 1928, in Mamati in the Transcaucasian SFSR, which was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. His father Ambrose was a teacher and a devoted communist and party official. His mother had little respect for the communist government and opposed both Shevardnadze's and his father's party careers. Eduard was a cousin of the Georgian painter and intellectual Dimitri Shevardnadze, who was purged under Joseph Stalin. In 1937, during the Great Purge, his father was arrested but was later released because of the intervention of an NKVD officer who had been Ambrose's pupil.
In 1948 at the age of twenty, Shevardnadze joined the Georgian Communist Party (GCP) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). He rose steadily through the ranks of the Georgian Komsomol and after serving a term as Second Secretary, he became its First Secretary. During his Komsomol First Secretaryship, Shevardnadze met Mikhail Gorbachev for his first time. Shevardnadze said he grew disillusioned with the Soviet political system following Nikita Khrushchev's "Secret Speech" to the 20th CPSU Congress. Like many Soviet people, the crimes perpetrated by Joseph Stalin horrified Shevardnadze, and the Soviet government's response to the 1956 Georgian demonstrations shocked him even more. He was demoted in 1961 by the Politburo of the Georgian Communist Party after offending a senior official.
After his demotion Shevardnadze endured several years of obscurity before returning to attention as a First Secretary of a city district in Tbilisi. Shevardnadze challenged Tbilisi First Secretary Otari Lolashvili, and later charged him with corruption. Shevardnadze left party work after his appointment as First Deputy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR in 1964. It was his successful attempt at gaoling Lolashvili, which got him promoted to the post of First Deputyship. In 1965, Shevardnadze was appointed Minister of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR. After initiating a successful anti-corruption campaign supported by the Soviet government, Shevardnadze was voted as Second Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party. Shevardnadze's anti-corruption campaign increased public enmity against him. However, these campaigns garnered the interest of the Soviet government, and in turn, his promotion to the First Secretaryship after Vasil Mzhavanadze's resignation.
In 1951, Shevardnadze married Nanuli Shevardnadze, whose father was killed by the authorities at the height of the purge. At first, Nanuli rejected Shevardnadze's marriage proposal, fearing that her family background would ruin Shevardnadze's party career. These fears were well justified; many other couples lost their lives for the same reason. Between 25 July 1972 and 29 September 1972, Shevardnadze served the First secretary of the Tbilisi City Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia.
First Secretary of the GCP (1972–85)
Shevardnadze was appointed to the First Secretaryship of the Georgian Communist Party by the Soviet government; he was tasked with suppressing the grey and black-market capitalism that had grown under his predecessor Vasil Mzhavanadze's rule.
Shevardnadze's rapid rise in Soviet Georgia's political hierarchy was the result of his campaign against corruption. Throughout most of Shevardnadze's leadership, anti-corruption campaigns were central to his authority and policy. By the time Shevardnadze had become leader, Georgia was the Soviet republic most afflicted by corruption. The rule of Vasil Mzhavanadze had been characterised by weak leadership, nepotism, despotism, and bribery pervading the upper echelons of power. In Georgia, corruption had been allowed to thrive, leading to serious deformations in the system; for example only 68 per cent of Georgian goods were exported legally, while the percentage of goods exported legally from other Soviet Republics approached 100 per cent. Shevardnadze rallied support for his anti-corruption campaigns by establishing the Study of Public Opinion. To combat corruption, he engaged in subterfuge; after halting all exports he dressed himself as a peasant and drove a car filled with tomatoes through the border. After his personal subterfuge, the entire Georgian border police was purged. While never proven, it is said that after taking office, Shevardnadze asked all leading officials to show their left hands and ordered those who used Western-produced watches to replace them with Soviet ones. This story portrayed Shevardnadze as an active battler against corruption. His campaign against corruption was largely unsuccessful and when he returned to Georgia in 1992, corruption was still a huge problem.
Under Shevardnadze's rule, Georgia was one of several Soviet Republics that did not experience economic stagnation, instead experiencing rapid economic growth. By 1974, industrial output had increased by 9.6 per cent and agricultural output had increased by 18 per cent. The shortage economy, which had evolved into a prevalent problem in other parts of the Soviet Union, had nearly disappeared in Georgia. Long food queues in Tbilisi had shortened while those in Moscow had lengthened. Some of Shevardnadze's economic policies were adopted nationally by the Soviet government.
In 1973, Shevardnadze launched an agricultural reform in Abasha, popularly referred to as the "Abasha experiment". This reform was inspired by János Kádár's agricultural policy in Hungarian People's Republic, which returned agricultural decision-making to the local level of governance. Shevardnadze merged all Abasha agricultural institutions into a single entity and established a new remuneration system. If a farmer fulfilled the five-year plan early, he would be awarded a share of the crops. The policy had a positive effect on the Georgian economy and because of the large increase of agricultural output in Abasha, the reform was introduced elsewhere in the republic. The agricultural reform in Georgia became the model of the nationwide Agricultural-Industrial Organisations established by a decree in 1982.
Shevardnadze took much of the credit for Georgia's economic performance under his rule. Seven months before his promotion to the Soviet Foreign Affairs Ministership, Shevardnadze said there were thirty or more economic experiments operating in Georgia, which he said would further democratise the economic management.
Political experimentation and nationalism
Shevardnadze was a strong supporter of political reform in the Georgian SSR. He created agencies attached to the Central Committee of the Georgian Communist Party whose main task was studying, analysing and moulding public opinion. These agencies worked closely with Georgia's communications networks and media; government ministers and Shevardnadze were regularly interviewed live on television. Shevardnadze criticised flattery in Georgia and said he and his government's activities needed to be criticised more often, especially during party congresses. He showed himself, even before Mikhail Gorbachev's rise to power, to be a firm supporter of people's democracy—i.e. power from below.
Previous Soviet Georgian rulers had given in to nationalist favouritism to the Georgians; Shevardnadze was against this policy of favouritism. Therefore, his nationalistic policy is considered controversial in Georgia. At the 25th Congress of the Georgian Communist Party, Shevardnadze told the congress, "for Georgians, the sun rises not in the east, but in the north—in Russia". Shevardnadze saw "extreme nationalism", coupled with corruption and inefficiencies within the system, as one of the main obstacles to economic growth. During his rule he condemned what he considered "national narrow-mindedness and isolation" and writers who published works with nationalistic overtones. The 1970s saw an increase in nationalistic tendencies in Georgian society. The 1978 Georgian demonstrations were sparked by the Soviet government's decision to amend the Georgian constitution and remove the Georgian language as the sole state language in the republic. While at first standing firm with the Soviet government, Shevardnadze quickly reiterated his position and was able to compromise with the Soviet government and the demonstrators. The Georgian language was kept as the sole official language of the republic and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union passed legislation calling for an increasing level of Russian language training in the non-Russian republics.
There was another problem facing Shevardnadze during the 1978 demonstrations; some leading Abkhaz intellectuals were writing to Leonid Brezhnev in the hope that he would let the Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic secede from Georgia and merge into the Russian SFSR. To halt this development, the Georgian government gave way to concessions made by the secessionists that included establishing an Abkhaz university, the expansion of Abkhaz publications and creating an Abkhaz television station. Shevardnadze proved to be an active supporter of defending minority interests.
National politics and resignation
At the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1976, Shevardnadze gave a speech in which he called General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev "vozhd" (leader), a term previously reserved for Joseph Stalin. His adulation was only surpassed by that of Andrei Kirilenko and Heydar Aliyev. As Yegor Ligachev later said, Shevardnadze never contradicted a General Secretary. During Brezhnev's last days, Shevardnadze publicly endorsed Konstantin Chernenko's candidacy for the General Secretaryship and called him a "great theoretician". However, when it became clear that the secretaryship would not go to Chernenko but to Yuri Andropov, Shevardnadze swiftly revised his position and gave his support for Andropov. Shevardnadze became the first Soviet republican head to offer his gratitude to the newly elected leader; in turn, Andropov quickly signalled his appreciation and his support for some of the reforms pioneered by Shevardnadze. According to Andropov's biographers the anti-corruption drive he launched was inspired by Shervardnadze's Georgian anti-corruption campaign. When Andropov died, Shevardnadze again became an avid supporter of Chernenko's candidacy for the General Secretaryship.
When Chernenko died, Shevardnadze became a strong supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev's leadership candidacy. Shevardnadze became a member of the Central Committee (CC) of the CPSU in 1976, and in 1978 was promoted to the rank of non-voting candidate member of the Soviet Political Bureau (Politburo). His chance came in 1985, when the veteran Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Andrei Gromyko left that post for the largely ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The de facto leader, Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, appointed Shevardnadze to replace Gromyko as Minister of Foreign Affairs, thus consolidating Gorbachev's circle of relatively young reformers.
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union (1985–91)
Shevardnadze subsequently played a key role in the détente that marked the end of the Cold War. He negotiated nuclear arms treaties with the United States. He helped end the war in Afghanistan, allowed the reunification of Germany, and withdrew Soviet forces from Eastern Europe and from the Chinese border. He earned the nickname "The Silver Fox".
During the late 1980s as the Soviet Union descended into crisis, Shevardnadze became increasingly unpopular and was in conflict with Soviet hard-liners who disliked his reforms and his soft line with the West. He criticised a campaign by Soviet troops to put down an uprising in his native Georgia in 1989. In protest over the growing influence of hardliners under Gorbachev, Shevardnadze suddenly resigned in December 1990, saying, "Dictatorship is coming". A few months later, his fears were partially realised when an unsuccessful coup by Communist hardliners precipitated the collapse of the Soviet Union. Shevardnadze returned briefly as Soviet Foreign Minister in November 1991 but resigned with Gorbachev the following month, when the Soviet Union was formally dissolved.
President of Georgia (1995–2003)
Rise to power
The newly independent Republic of Georgia elected as its first president a leader of the national liberation movement, Zviad Gamsakhurdia—a scientist and writer who had been imprisoned by Shevardnadze's government in the late 1970s. However, Gamsakhurdia's rule ended abruptly in January 1992, when he was deposed in a bloody coup d'état. Shevardnadze was appointed Speaker of the Georgian parliament in March 1992 and as speaker of parliament in November; both of these posts were equivalent to that of president. When the presidency was restored in November 1995, he was elected with 70% of the vote.
2000 Georgian presidential election
According to the 1995 constitution, the president is elected for 5 years. The first presidential election since the adoption of this constitution was held on November 5, 1995, where Shevardnadze won. 5 years of his presidency were very difficult for the country, there was no electricity, no gas, the country was very poor. There seemed to be no hope for the people, too many left the country because of hardship. Shevardnadze Announces Candidacy for Presidential Election After Winning Parliamentary Elections in 1999 He started the election campaign, Jumber Patiashvili announced his participation in the elections, but he failed to get enough votes and was defeated in the 2000 elections, and Shevardnadze won by 82%. Shevardnadze's second five-year rule began after his inauguration
He secured a second term in April 2000 in an election that was marred by widespread claims of vote-rigging.
Shevardnadze's career as Georgian President was in some respects more challenging than his earlier career as Soviet Foreign Minister. He faced many enemies, some dating back to his campaigns against corruption and nationalism during Soviet times. A civil war between supporters of Gamsakhurdia and Shevardnadze broke out in western Georgia in 1993 but was ended by Russian intervention on Shevardnadze's side and the death of ex-President Gamsakhurdia on 31 December 1993. Shevardnadze survived three assassination attempts in 1992, 1995, and 1998. He escaped a car bomb in Abkhazia in 1992. In August 1995, he survived another car bomb attack outside the parliament building in Tbilisi. In 1998, his motorcade was ambushed by 10 to 15 armed men; two bodyguards were killed.
Shevardnadze also faced separatist conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The war in the Russian republic of Chechnya on Georgia's northern border caused considerable friction with Russia, which accused Shevardnadze of harbouring Chechen guerrillas and in apparent retaliation supported Georgian separatists. Further friction was caused by Shevardnadze's close relationship with the United States, which saw him as a counterbalance to Russian influence in the strategic Transcaucasus region. Under Shevardnadze's strongly pro-Western administration, Georgia became a major recipient of U.S. foreign and military aid, signed a strategic partnership with NATO and declared an ambition to join both NATO and the European Union.
At the same time, Georgia suffered badly from the effects of crime and rampant corruption, which were often perpetrated by well-connected officials and politicians. Shevardnadze's closest advisers, including several members of his family, exerted disproportionate economic power and became visibly wealthy. Transparency International's corruption index listed Georgia as one of the most corrupt countries in the world.
According to Spanish prosecutor Jose Grinda, Georgian mafia led by Dzhaba Iosselani during the 1990s took control of the country and state and then later led by Zakhariy Kalashov during Shevardnadze's rule. Since April 2006, Khachidze or Lasha Shushanashvilialso imparted influence on Georgia as well as Tariel Oniani from Kutaisi near South Abkazia.
On 2 November 2003, Georgia held a parliamentary election that was widely denounced as unfair by international election observers. The outcome sparked fury among many Georgians, leading to mass demonstrations in Tbilisi and elsewhere, called the Rose Revolution. Protesters broke into parliament on 22 November as the first session of the new Parliament was beginning, forcing President Shevardnadze to escape with his bodyguards. On 23 November, Shevardnadze met with the opposition leaders Mikheil Saakashvili and Zurab Zhvania to discuss the situation in a meeting arranged by Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov. After this meeting, Shevardnadze announced his resignation, declaring that he wished to avert a bloody power struggle "so all this can end peacefully and there is no bloodshed and no casualties". Shevardnadze's resignation as President of Georgia was the end of his political career.
Death and funeral
Shevardnadze spent his last years living quietly at his mansion house in the outskirts of Tbilisi. As his health deteriorated, his involvement in public life became much reduced. After a long illness, he died at the age of 86 on 7 July 2014.
Georgia's incumbent president Giorgi Margvelashvili and Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili extended condolences to his family members. Margvelashvili described him as "one of the distinguished politicians of the 20th century, who participated in dismantling of the Soviet system". He added, "He was also playing a serious role in creation of new Georgia and in development of our western course". Garibashvili said Shevardnadze's "contribution was especially important in establishing Georgia’s geopolitical role in the modern world. Eduard Shevardnadze was a politician of international significance, who made a great contribution to end the Cold War and to establish new world order." Former President Mikheil Saakashvili, who overthrew Shevardnadze in the 2003 Rose Revolution, offered condolences and said Shevardnadze was "a significant figure for the Soviet empire and for post-Soviet Georgia". Saakashvili said his government did not start a criminal prosecution against Shevardnadze, despite calls by some politicians and parts of society, out of "respect to the President’s institution".
Among others, Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry offered condolences. Kerry credited Shevardnadze with playing "an instrumental role" in bringing about the end of the Cold War, a reduction of "the risk of nuclear confrontation" as the Soviet Union's Foreign Minister, ensuring "the sovereignty and territorial integrity of [Georgia] during the 1990s" as President of Georgia and putting the country "on its irreversible trajectory toward Euro-Atlantic integration".
Shevardnadze was accorded a state funeral on 13 July 2014, which was attended by the Georgian political leaders and foreign dignitaries, including the former US Secretary of State James Baker and former German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher. After a service at the Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi, Shevardnadze was buried next to his late wife Nanuli Shevardnadze at the Krtsanisi residence in Tbilisi.
Honours and awards
- Soviet Union:
- 1999 – Germany: Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 1999 – Ukraine: 1st class Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, for outstanding contribution to the development of co-operation between Ukraine and Georgia, to strengthen the friendship between the Ukrainian and Georgian peoples
- 1999 – Turkey: First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey
- 1999 – IOC: Gold Olympic Order for the biggest merit in the development of world sport and Olympic field. 
- 1999 – Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
- 2000 – UK: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George.
- 2000 – Azerbaijan: Istiglal Order for his contributions to the development of Azerbaijan–Georgia relations and strategic co-operation between the states
- 2000 – Armenia: Order of St. Mesrop Mashtots
- 2003 – Uzbekistan: Order of Outstanding Merit
- On July, 1999, National Democratic Institute (NDI) awarded him with the W. Averell Harriman Democracy Award for the merit in the field of democracy and human rights.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze obituary". the Guardian. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 8.
- "ШЕВАРДНАДЗЕ: БЕРИЯ УБИЛ СТАЛИНА И РАССТРЕЛЯЛ ДВОЮРОДНОГО БРАТА МОЕГО ОТЦА". 22 March 2010. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- Suny, Ronald (1994). The Making of the Georgian Nation. Indiana University Press. pp. 328–329. ISBN 0-253-20915-3.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 10.
- Hough 1997, p. 178.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 15–16.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 10–11.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 11.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 12.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 11–12.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 9.
- "from 25 July, 1972, First Secretary of Tbilisi Party City Committee;". Archived from the original on 19 September 2017.
- "Soviet Union: Southern Corruption". Time. 3 December 1973. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 19.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 19–20.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 20.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 26.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 17.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 18.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 18–19.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 20–21.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 21.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 22.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 22–23.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 23.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 24.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 13.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 14.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 14–15.
- Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 31.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze: Controversial legacy to Georgia". BBC. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze, Foreign Minister Under Gorbachev, Dies at 86". New York Times. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze – obituary". Daily Telegraph. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Kolstø, Pål. Political Construction Sites: Nation-Building in Russia and the Post-Soviet States, p. 70. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 2000.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze obituary". Guardian. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze obituary" (7 July 2014). Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "POSTSCRIPT: EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE, 1928–2014". New Yorker. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
José Grinda González. "REGULACIÓN NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL DEL CRIMEN ORGANIZADO. EXPERIENCIA DE LA FISCALÍA ANTICORRUPCIÓN" (PDF). Fiscales de la Fiscalía contra la Corrupción y la Criminalidad Organizada (in Spanish). p. 8. Archived from José Grinda González. the original Check
|url=value (help) (PDF) on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- "Georgian Leader Resigns Amid Peaceful Opposition Standoff". PBS. 24 November 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze: A Soviet-Georgian life of global importance". DW. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- BBC News, "Georgian ex-President Eduard Shevardnadze dies at 86", 7 July 2014
- The Guardian, "Georgia's Former President Eduard Shevardnadze dies aged 86", 7 July 2014
- "Georgian President, PM Extend Condolences over Shevardnadze's Death". Civil Georgia. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Saakashvili Offers Condolences Over Shevardnadze's Death". Civil Georgia. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Putin Sends Condolences to Georgia over Shevardnadze's Death". Civil Georgia. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "On the Passing of Former Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze" (Press Statement). U.S. State Department. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Shevardnadze Laid to Rest in State Funeral". Civil Georgia. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Georgian ex-president Eduard Shevardnadze dies at 86". TASS. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- "Указ Президента України № 1257/99 від 1 жовтня 1999 року "Про нагородження відзнакою Президента України "Орден князя Ярослава Мудрого""". zakon.rada.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- "Dostluk İlişkilerine Katkının Altın Sembolü: Devlet ve Cumhuriyet Nişanları (Turkish) – The Gold Symbol Contribution of Friendly Relations : State and Republic Orders". Haberler.com. February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Eduard Shevardnadze". www.president.gov.ge. The administration of the President of Georgia. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Olympic Order Recipients". www.olympedia.org. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Gürcüstanın Prezidenti Eduard Amrosiyeviç Şevardnadzenin "İstiqlal" ordeni ilə təltif edilməsi haqqında AZƏRBAYCAN RESPUBLİKASI PREZİDENTİNİN FƏRMANI" [Order of the President of Azerbaijan Republic on awarding President of Georgia Eduard Shevarnadze with Istiglal Order]. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Выпуск № 208 (3300) | Народное слово". db.natlib.uz (in Russian). Retrieved 31 May 2020.
- "History of honorary degrees". Harvard University. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Honorary Degree Recipients 1981-2021" (pdf). Commencement Office of the Harvard University. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Past Harriman Democracy Award Recipients". National Democratic Institute. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- Ekedahl, Carolyn; Goodman, Melvin Allan (2001). The wars of Eduard Shevardnadze. Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-404-2.
- Hough, Jerry F. (1997). Democratization and revolution in the USSR, 1985-1991. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-3748-3.
- Als der Eiserne Vorhang zerriss - Begegnungen und Erinnerungen. Peter W. Metzler Verlag, Duisburg 2007 (German: revised, re-designed and expanded edition. Georgian "Pikri Tsarsulsa da Momawalze – Memuarebi", Tbilisi 2006). The German edition is the basis for all translations and editions. ISBN 978-3-936283-10-5
- Когда рухнул железный занавес. Встречи и воспоминания.Эдуард Шеварднадзе, экс-президент Грузии, бывший министр Иностранных дел СССР. Предисловие Александра Бессмертных. Translation from German to Russian. Russian license ("Als der Eiserne Vorhang zerriss", Peter W. Metzler Verlag, Duisburg 2007).
- Kui raudne eesriie rebenes. Translation from German to Estonian. Estonian license ("Als der Eiserne Vorhang zerriss", Peter W. Metzler Verlag, Duisburg 2007). Olion, Tallinn, 2009. ISBN 978-9985-66-606-7
- The Future Belongs To Freedom, by Edvard Shevardnadze, translated by Catherine A. Fitzpatrick
External links and sources
- BBC obituary
- Foes of Georgian Leader Storm Into Parliament Building by Seth Mydans, from the New York Times Web Site.
- Georgian Interior Minister Vows to Enforce State of Emergency on the Voice of America News Web Site.
- People power forces Georgia leader out from BBC News online.
- MacKinnon, Mark. Georgia revolt carried mark of Soros. Globe and Mail, 26 November 2003.
- Russians in Baden-Baden
- Inauguration of Eduard Shevardnadze (2000)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Aymar aru
- Беларуская (тарашкевіца)
- Chavacano de Zamboanga
- Bahasa Indonesia
- Bahasa Melayu
- Norsk bokmål
- Norsk nynorsk
- Runa Simi
- Simple English
- Српски / srpski
- Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
- Tiếng Việt
- This page is based on the Wikipedia article Eduard Shevardnadze; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.