The image is from Wikipedia Commons
Square Enix Europe
|Square Enix Europe|
|Industry||Video game industry|
|Founded||1984 (1984) in Putney, London, England|
Square Enix Limited (formerly Domark Limited and Eidos Interactive Limited), doing business as Square Enix Europe, is a British video game publisher, acting as the European subsidiary of Square Enix. The company was founded as Domark in 1984, named after the founders Mark Strachan and Dominic Wheatley. In 1995, the company was acquired by Eidos and was merged with two other studios and renamed Eidos Interactive the following year. Eidos was in turn acquired by SCi in 2005, and Eidos Interactive was sold to Square Enix in 2009. On 9 November 2009, Square Enix completed the merger of its existing European branch with Eidos Interactive, renaming the resulting company Square Enix Europe.
Foundation as Domark (1984–1995)
In 1984, Mark Douglas Ashley Strachan and Dominic Marius Dennis Anthony Wheatley founded Domark as a video game publisher. Its first title was 1984's Eureka!, written by Ian Livingstone. Livingstone would go on to become deputy chairman of the company a few years later, and would stay in various roles at the company, until his departure from the company in 2013. Located within London's Putney district, the company held its own development team, The Kremlin, in the publisher's headquarters basement. Domark was primarily remembered as the publisher for Championship Manager and Hard Drivin'.
Transformation into Eidos Interactive (1995–2005)
On 25 September 1995, publicly traded Eidos Public Limited Company acquired Domark, alongside Simis and Big Red Software, for a total of GB£12.9 million. On 31 May 1996, Simis and Big Red Software were merged into Domark to create Eidos Interactive. Eidos Interactive acquired CentreGold in April 1996 for GB£17.6 million. CentreGold consisted of distributor CentreSoft and publisher U.S. Gold, which also included developers Core Design and Silicon Dreams Studio, though the latter would be re-acquired by its founder, Geoff Brown, through his newly founded Geoff Brown Holdings, on 16 December that year. The Eidos Interactive acquisition was months prior to the release of Tomb Raider by Core Design, which CentreGold had acquired two years prior.
Acquisition by SCi (2005–2009)
In March 2005, Eidos admitted that cash reserves had dwindled to GB£11.9 million during the second half of 2004, and pre-tax losses had grown to GB£29 million.
On 21 March 2005, Eidos received a takeover bid from Elevation Partners, the private equity firm owned by former Electronic Arts president John Riccitiello and with a number of notable partners, including U2's lead singer Bono. This takeover valued the company at GB£71 million, and would inject GB£23 million in order to keep the company from bankruptcy in the short term.
The following day, Eidos received a second takeover bid from the British games manufacturer SCi. The company offered GB£74 million, and tabled a restructuring plan to cut GB£14 million from annual costs. To fund this takeover, SCi proposed to sell GB£60 million worth of stock. Eventually, in late April, Elevation Partners formally withdrew its offer, leaving the way clear for SCi. The takeover was finalized on 16 May 2005, with SCi merging itself into Eidos Interactive's parent, renaming it SCi Entertainment Group Limited.
In May 2006, Eidos announced that independent developer Rebellion Developments had acquired Core Designs' assets and staff, while the Core brand and intellectual property, including Tomb Raider, remained in Eidos' possession.
Since the SCi purchase, the vast majority of the old Eidos Interactive management were let go. SCi left its Battersea Office and moved into the old Eidos Interactive office on the second floor of Wimbledon Bridge House, 1 Hartfield Road, Wimbledon. Eidos Interactive announced on 15 February 2007 that it would open a new studio in Montreal, Quebec, Canada responsible for "new undisclosed next-generation projects". Eidos Montréal started developing a new game in the Deus Ex franchise.
In February 2007, Eidos Interactive acquired Rockpool Games, along with its two sister companies Ironstone Partners and SoGoPlay, and proceeded to close Rockpool Games in 2009.
On 4 September 2007, the board of SCi Entertainment confirmed recent speculation that the company has been approached with a view to making an offer. On 10 January 2008, SCi announced take over and/or merger talks had been halted. As a result, the share price dropped by over 50%. Major investors called for the resignation of key personnel, including chief executive officer (CEO) Jane Cavanagh, over this issue as well as delays to key titles. On 18 January 2008, Jane Cavanagh, Bill Ennis and Rob Murphy left the company.
When SCi revealed its 2008 financial report, losses were at GB£100 million, but new CEO Phil Rogers claimed this was only due to the reconstructing plans. On 19 September 2008, Eidos Interactive opened a Shanghai-based studio, Eidos Shanghai, consisting of a small team to build up relations in Asia.
In January 2009, Eidos closed its Manchester studio.
Takeover by Square Enix (2009–present)
In February 2009, Square Enix reached an agreement to purchase Eidos Interactive for GB£84.3 million, pending shareholder approval, with an initial aim of fully buying Eidos Interactive on 6 May 2009. The date was brought forward, and Square Enix officially took over Eidos Interactive on 22 April 2009.
Square Enix initially stated that it would let Eidos Interactive remain structured as it was at the time of its takeover. It subsequently announced in July 2009 that it would merge Eidos with its own pre-existing European subsidiary, Square Enix Limited (itself established on December 1998). The merger would create a new entity, tentatively titled Square Enix Europe. The merger was completed on 9 November 2009 with the Square Enix Europe name being permanently retained as the resulting company name. The Eidos name was however retained for the development studios Eidos Montreal and Eidos Shanghai.
- Beautiful Game Studios in London, England; opened in 2003.
- Crystal Dynamics in Redwood City, California, U.S.; founded in 1992, acquired in 1998.
- Eidos Montréal in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; opened in 2007.
- Eidos Shanghai in Shanghai, China; opened in 2008.
- Square Enix London Studios in London, England; opened in 2009.
- Square Enix Montreal in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; opened in 2011.
- Core Design in Derby, England; founded in 1988, acquired in 1996, sold to Rebellion Developments in 2006.
- Eidos Hungary in Budapest, Hungary; founded in 2002, acquired and renamed in 2006, closed in 2009.
- IO Interactive in Copenhagen, Denmark; founded in 1998, acquired in 2004, sold to its management in 2017.
- Ion Storm in Dallas, Texas, U.S.; founded in 1996, acquired in 1999, closed in 2005.
- Pivotal Games in Bath, England; founded in 2000, acquired in 2003, closed in 2008.
- Rocksteady Studios in London, England; founded in 2004, majority stake sold to Warner Brothers in 2010.
- Arena, Paul (27 June 2005). "In2Games appoints Mark Strachan as Non-Executive Director". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Martin, Matt (21 December 2006). "iDVD will broaden videogame market, says Tomb Raider boss". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Weber, Rachel (27 June 2012). "New CEO and commercial director for Kuju". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Gibson, Ellie (3 January 2006). "Ian Livingstone receives OBE for services to industry". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Remo, Chris (23 April 2010). "Eidos Life President Ian Livingstone Granted British Inspiration Award". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Gibson, Ellie (30 September 2005). "Livingstone takes on new role at Eidos". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Corriea, Alexa Ray (30 September 2013). "Eidos President and CEO Ian Livingstone departs after 20 years". Polygon. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Martin, Matt (30 September 2013). "Ian Livingstone leaves Eidos". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Stuart, Keith (19 November 2016). "The Ant Man: my year in development hell". Eurogamer. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Fahey, Rob (27 April 2009). "Square and Eidos: The History". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "EIDOS ACQUIRES THREE COMPANIES, UNVEILS PLACING". Telecompaper. 25 September 1995. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Sherman, Christopher (April 1996). "Four Way Merger Between Domark, Big Red, Simis, and Eidos". Next Generation. No. 16. Imagine Media. p. 23.
- Publishing (25 July 2008). "Deals that shook the industry: 5/10". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- IGN Staff (15 July 2003). "Core Founder Steps Down". IGN. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "SILICON DREAMS TO BE 75% ACQUIRED BY NEW FIRM". Telecompaper. 16 December 1996. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Moss, Richard (31 March 2015). ""It felt like robbery": Tomb Raider and the fall of Core Design". Ars Technica. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Maragos, Nich; Carless, Simon (21 March 2005). "Elevation Partners Purchases Eidos". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Alexander, Leigh (26 November 2007). "Eidos Announces Deus Ex 3, Talks New Montreal Studio". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Thorsen, Tor (26 November 2007). "Eidos resurrecting Deus Ex?". GameSpot. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Sliwinski, Alexander (23 January 2009). "Eidos closes mobile developer Rockpool Games". Engadget. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Elliott, Phil (4 September 2007). "SCi confirms approach has been made". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Lara Croft firm scraps bid talks". BBC. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Takeover talk at Tomb Raider firm". BBC. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Armitstead, Louise (13 January 2008). "Game Over for Tomb Raider boss". The Times. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via www.thetimes.co.uk.
- Gage, Terence (18 January 2008). "Eidos management quit due to pressure from shareholders". Thunderbolt. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Publishing (15 September 2008). "SCi results reaction". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Publishing (19 September 2008). "Eidos opens Shanghai base". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Martin, Matt (23 January 2009). "Eidos closes Manchester studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Plunkett, Luke (12 February 2009). "Square Enix Trying To Buy Tomb Raider". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Fahey, Mike (4 March 2009). "Eidos Pencils In Square Enix Takeover For May". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "RECOMMENDED CASH OFFER FOR EIDOS PLC BY SQEX LTD. TO BE EFFECTED BY MEANS OF A SCHEME OF ARRANGEMENT UNDER THE UK COMPANIES ACT 2006" (PDF). Square Enix. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Fahey, Mike (27 March 2009). "Square Enix Lets Eidos Be Eidos". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Square Enix Annual Report for 2004" (PDF). Square Enix. 2004. p. 67. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- Elliott, Phil (7 July 2009). "Square Enix revamps Europe operation". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Plunkett, Luke (8 July 2009). "Goodbye Eidos, Hello Square Enix Europe". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Elliott, Phil (10 November 2009). "Square Enix confirms European identity". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- This page is based on the Wikipedia article Square Enix Europe; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.