|Born||(1905-08-02)2 August 1905
Glauchau, Saxony, German Empire
|Died||2 November 1979(1979-11-02) (aged 74)
|Years of service||1924–45|
|Rank||Kapitän zur See|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross|
Ernst Kals (2 August 1905 – 2 November 1979) was a Kapitän zur See with the Kriegsmarine during World War II. He commanded the Type IXC U-boat U-130 on five patrols, and sank twenty ships, for a total of 145,656 tons of Allied shipping. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
Kals joined the Reichsmarine in 1924. In October 1940, after a period of service on torpedo boats and light cruisers, he transferred to the Ubootwaffe ("U-boat force"). After one patrol on U-37 under the command of Nicolai Clausen as commander in training, he took command of U-130 in June 1941. He was awarded the Knight's Cross in September 1941.
In April 1942, Kals, in U-130, bombarded the Allied petroleum tank farm on Curaçao, in the Netherlands Antilles. He went on to sink a total of 20 ships on five patrols, for a total of 145,656 tons of Allied shipping. In five minutes he sank three United States troopships, the Edward Rutledge, Hugh L. Scott and Tasker H. Bliss.
Summary of career
As commander of U-130 Ernst Kals reportedly sank 17 merchant ships for a total of 111,249 gross register tons (GRT), three auxiliary warships for a total of 34,407 GRT and damaged one further ship of 6,986 GRT.
|Date||Name of ship||Flag||Tonnage||Fate|
|10 December 1941||Kirnwood||United Kingdom||3,829||Sunk|
|10 December 1941||Kurdistan||United Kingdom||5,844||Sunk|
|10 December 1941||Star of Luxor||Egypt||5,298||Sunk|
|13 January 1942||Friar Rock||Panama||5,427||Sunk|
|13 January 1942||Frisco||Norway||1,582||Sunk|
|21 January 1942||Alexander Høegh||Norway||8,248||Sunk|
|25 January 1942||Varanger||Norway||9,305||Sunk|
|27 January 1942||Francis E. Powell||United States||7,096||Sunk|
|27 January 1942||Halo||United States||6,986||Damaged|
|11 April 1942||Grenanger||Norway||5,393||Sunk|
|11 April 1942||Esso Boston||United States||7,699||Sunk|
|25 July 1942||Tankexpress||Norway||10,095||Sunk|
|27 July 1942||Elmwood||Norway||7,167||Sunk|
|30 July 1942||Danmark||United Kingdom||8,391||Sunk|
|9 August 1942||Malmanger||Norway||7,078||Sunk|
|11 August 1942||Mirlo||Norway||7,455||Sunk|
|25 August 1942||Viking Star||United Kingdom||6,445||Sunk|
|26 August 1942||Beechwood||United Kingdom||4,897||Sunk|
|12 November 1942||USS Edward Rutledge||United States Navy||9,360||Sunk|
|12 November 1942||USS Hugh L. Scott||United States Navy||12,479||Sunk|
|12 November 1942||USS Tasker H. Bliss||United States Navy||12,568||Sunk|
- Iron Cross (1939) 2nd Class (18 December 1939) & 1st Class (18 December 1941)
- U-boat War Badge (1939) (18 December 1941)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 1 September 1942 as Korvettenkapitän and commander of U-130
- War Merit Cross 2nd Class with Swords (30 January 1944)
- "Kapitän zur See Ernst Kals". uboat.net. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- Busch & Röll 2003, p. 255.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 250.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (2003). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939–1945 — Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [The U-Boat War 1939–1945 — The Knight's Cross Bearers of the U-Boat Force from September 1939 to May 1945] (in German). Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 978-3-8132-0515-2.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) . Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.