The image is from Wikipedia Commons
The term eunuch (//; Greek: εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man, typically from antiquity, who had been castrated in order to serve a specific social function. In Latin, the words eunuchus, spado (Greek: σπάδων spadon), and castratus were used to denote eunuchs.
The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. Over the millennia since, they have performed a wide variety of functions in many different cultures: courtiers or equivalent domestics, treble singers, religious specialists, soldiers, royal guards, government officials, and guardians of women or harem servants.
Eunuchs would usually be servants or slaves who had been castrated in order to make them reliable servants of a royal court where physical access to the ruler could wield great influence. Seemingly lowly domestic functions—such as making the ruler's bed, bathing him, cutting his hair, carrying him in his litter, or even relaying messages—could in theory give a eunuch "the ruler's ear" and impart de facto power on the formally humble but trusted servant. Similar instances are reflected in the humble origins and etymology of many high offices.
Eunuchs supposedly did not generally have loyalties to the military, the aristocracy, or to a family of their own (having neither offspring nor in-laws, at the very least), and were thus seen as more trustworthy and less interested in establishing a private 'dynasty'. Because their condition usually lowered their social status, they could also be easily replaced or killed without repercussion. In cultures that had both harems and eunuchs, eunuchs were sometimes used as harem servants (compare the female odalisque) or seraglio guards.
Eunuch comes from the Greek word eunoukhos, first attested in a fragment of Hipponax, the 6th century BC comic poet and prolific inventor of compound words. The acerbic poet describes a certain lover of fine food having "consumed his estate dining lavishly and at leisure every day on tuna and garlic-honey cheese paté like a Lampsacene eunoukhos". In ancient classical literature from the early 5th century BC onward, the word generally designates some incapacity for or abstention from procreation, whether due to natural constitution or to physical mutilation. For instance, Lucian suggests two methods to determine whether someone is a eunuch: physical inspection of the body, or scrutiny of his ability to perform sexually with females (Lucian, Eunuchus 12).
The earliest surviving etymology of the word is from late antiquity. The 5th century (AD) Etymologicon by Orion of Thebes offers two alternative origins for the word eunuch: first, to tēn eunēn ekhein, "guarding the bed", a derivation inferred from eunuchs' established role at the time as "bedchamber attendants" in the imperial palace, and second, to eu tou nou ekhein, "being good with respect to the mind", which Orion explains based on their "being deprived of male-female intercourse (esterēmenou tou misgesthai), the things that the ancients used to call irrational (anoēta, literally: 'mindless')". Orion's second option reflects well-established idioms in Greek, as shown by entries for noos, eunoos and ekhein in Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, while the first option is not listed as an idiom under eunē in that standard reference work. However, the first option was cited by the late 9th century Byzantine emperor Leo VI in his New Constitution 98 banning the marriage of eunuchs, in which he noted eunuchs' reputation as trustworthy guardians of the marriage bed (eunē) and claimed that the very word eunuch attested to this kind of employment. The emperor also goes further than Orion by attributing eunuchs' lack of male-female intercourse specifically to castration, which he said was performed with the intention "that they will no longer do the things that males do, or at least to extinguish whatever has to do with desire for the female sex". The 11th century Byzantine monk Nikon of the Black Mountain, opting instead for Orion's second alternative, stated that the word came from eunoein (eu "good" + nous "mind"), thus meaning "to be well-minded, well-inclined, well-disposed or favorable", but unlike Orion he argued that this was due to the trust that certain jealous and suspicious foreign rulers placed in the loyalty of their eunuchized servants. Theophylact of Ohrid in a dialogue In Defence of Eunuchs also stated that the origin of the word was from eunoein and ekhein, "to have, hold", since they were always "well-disposed" toward the master who "held" or owned them. The 12th century Etymologicum Magnum (s.v. eunoukhos) essentially repeats the entry from Orion, but stands by the first option, while attributing the second option to what "some say". In the late 12th century, Eustathius of Thessalonica (Commentaries on Homer 1256.30, 1643.16) offered an original derivation of the word from eunis + okheuein, "deprived of mating".
In translations of the Bible into modern European languages, such as the Luther Bible or the King James Bible, the word eunuchus as found in the Latin Vulgate is usually rendered as officer, official or chamberlain, consistent with the idea that the original meaning of eunuch was bed-keeper (Orion's first option). Modern religious scholars have been disinclined to assume that the courts of Israel and Judah included castrated men, even though the original translation of the Bible into Greek used the word eunoukhos.
The early 17th century scholar and theologian Gerardus Vossius therefore explains that the word originally designated an office, and he affirms the view that it was derived from eunē and ekhein (i.e. "bed-keeper"). He says the word came to be applied to castrated men in general because such men were the usual holders of that office. Still, Vossius notes the alternative etymologies offered by Eustathius ("deprived of mating") and others ("having the mind in a good state"), calling these analyses "quite subtle". Then, after having previously declared that eunuch designated an office (i.e., not a personal characteristic), Vossius ultimately sums up his argument in a different way, saying that the word "originally signified continent men" to whom the care of women was entrusted, and later came to refer to castration because "among foreigners" that role was performed "by those with mutilated bodies".
Modern etymologists have followed Orion's first option. In an influential 1925 essay on the word eunuch and related terms, Ernst Maass suggested that Eustathius's derivation "can or must be laid to rest", and he affirmed the derivation from eunē and ekhein ("guardian of the bed"), without mentioning the other derivation from eunoos and ekhein ("having a well-disposed state of mind").
By region and epoch
Ancient Middle East
Eunuchs were familiar figures in the Assyrian Empire (ca. 850 until 622 BC) and in the court of the Egyptian Pharaohs (down to the Lagid dynasty known as Ptolemies, ending with Cleopatra, 30 BC). Eunuchs sometimes were used as regents for underage heirs to the throne, as it seems to be the case for the Neo-Hittite state of Carchemish. Political eunuchism became a fully established institution among the Achamenide Persians. Eunuchs held powerful positions in the Achaemenide court. The eunuch Bagoas (not to be confused with Alexander's Bagoas) was the Vizier of Artaxerxes III and IV, and was the primary power behind the throne during their reigns, until he was killed by Darius III.
Ancient Greece, Rome and Byzantium
The practice was also well established in other Mediterranean areas among the Greeks and Romans, although a role as court functionary does not arise until Byzantine times. The Galli or Priests of Cybele were eunuchs.
In the late period of the Roman Empire, after the adoption of the oriental royal court model by the Emperors Diocletian and Constantine, Emperors were surrounded by eunuchs for such functions as bathing, hair cutting, dressing, and bureaucratic functions, in effect acting as a shield between the Emperor and his administrators from physical contact, thus enjoying great influence in the Imperial Court (see Eusebius and Eutropius). Eunuchs were believed loyal and indispensable.
The Roman poet Martial rails against a woman who has sex with partially castrated eunuchs (those whose testicles were removed or rendered inactive only) in the bitter epigram (VI, 67): "Do you ask, Panychus, why your Caelia only consorts with eunuchs? Caelia wants the flowers of marriage – not the fruits." It is up for debate whether this passage is representative of any sort of widely practiced behavior, however.
At the Byzantine imperial court, there were a great number of eunuchs employed in domestic and administrative functions, actually organized as a separate hierarchy, following a parallel career of their own. Archieunuchs—each in charge of a group of eunuchs—were among the principal officers in Constantinople, under the emperors. Under Justinian in the 6th century, the eunuch Narses functioned as a successful general in a number of campaigns. By the last centuries of the Empire the number of roles reserved for eunuchs had reduced, and their use may have been all but over.
Following the Byzantine tradition, eunuchs had important tasks at the court of the Norman kingdom of Sicily during the middle 12th century. One of them, Philip of Mahdia, has been admiratus admiratorum, and another one, Ahmed es-Sikeli, was prime minister.
Eunuchs have existed in China since about four thousand years ago, were imperial servants by three thousand years ago, and were common as civil servants by the time of the Qin dynasty. From those ancient times until the Sui Dynasty, castration was both a traditional punishment (one of the Five Punishments) and a means of gaining employment in the Imperial service. Certain eunuchs gained immense power that occasionally superseded that of even the Grand Secretaries; Zheng He, who lived during the Ming Dynasty, is an example of such a eunuch. Self-castration was a common practice, although it was not always performed completely, which led to its being made illegal.
It is said that the justification for the employment of eunuchs as high-ranking civil servants was that, since they were incapable of having children, they would not be tempted to seize power and start a dynasty. In many cases, eunuchs were considered more reliable than the scholar officials. A similar system existed in Vietnam.
The tension between eunuchs in the service of the emperor and virtuous Confucian officials is a familiar theme in Chinese history. In his History of Government, Samuel Finer points out that reality was not always that clear-cut. There were instances of very capable eunuchs who were valuable advisers to their emperor, and the resistance of the "virtuous" officials often stemmed from jealousy on their part. Ray Huang argues that in reality, eunuchs represented the personal will of the Emperor, while the officials represented the alternative political will of the bureaucracy. The clash between them would thus have been a clash of ideologies or political agenda.
Men sentenced to castration were turned into eunuch slaves of the Qin dynasty state to perform forced labor for projects such as the Terracotta Army. The Qin government confiscated the property and enslaved the families of rapists who received castration as a punishment. Men punished with castration during the Han dynasty were also used as slave labor.
In Han dynasty China castration continued to be used as a punishment for various offences. Sima Qian, the famous Chinese historian, was castrated by order of the Han Emperor of China for dissent. In another incident multiple people, including a chief scribe and his underlings, were subjected to castration.
Indigenous tribals from southern China were used as eunuchs during the Sui and Tang dynasties.
The Khitans adopted the practice of using eunuchs from the Chinese and the eunuchs were non-Khitan prisoners of war. When they founded the Liao dynasty they developed a harem system with concubines and wives and adopted eunuchs as part of it. The Khitans captured Chinese eunuchs at the Jin court when they invaded the Later Jin. Another source was during their war with the Song dynasty, the Khitan would raid China, capture Han Chinese boys as prisoners of war and emasculate them to become eunuchs. The emasculation of captured Chinese boys guaranteed a continuous supply of eunuchs to serve in the Liao Dynasty harem. The Empress Dowager Chengtian played a large role in the raids to capture and emasculate the boys. She personally led her own army defeated the Song in 986, fighting the retreating Chinese army. She then ordered the castration of around 100 Chinese boys she had captured, supplementing the Khitan's supply of eunuchs to serve at her court, among them was Wang Ji'en. The boys were all under ten years old and were selected for their good looks.
There were eunuchs from China's various ethnic tribes, Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Central Asia, Thailand, and Okinawa. During the early Ming period, Korean concubines and eunuchs, some of whom oversaw the Korean concubines in the harem, were occasionally demanded as tribute by Ming Emperors, such as the Xuande Emperor, for the imperial harem in imitation of the previous dynasty's precedent, as were Vietnamese women and eunuchs. Korea stopped sending human tribute after 1435. A total of 198 eunuchs were sent from Korea to Ming. The Ming eunuch hats were similar to the Korean royal hats, indicating the foreign origins of the Ming eunuchs, many of whom came from Southeast Asia and Korea.
There were Korean, Jurchen, Mongol, Central Asian, and Vietnamese eunuchs under the Yongle Emperor, including Mongol eunuchs who served him while he was the Prince of Yan. Muslim and Mongol eunuchs were present in the Ming court, such as the ones captured from Mongol-controlled Yunnan in 1381, and among them was the great Ming maritime explorer Zheng He, who served Yongle. Muslim eunuchs were sent as ambassadors to the Timurids. Vietnamese eunuchs like Ruan Lang, Ruan An, Fan Hong, Chen Wu, and Wang Jin were sent by Zhang Fu to the Ming. During Ming's early contentious relations with Joseon, when there were disputes such as competition for influence over the Jurchens in Manchuria, Korean officials were even flogged by Korean-born Ming eunuch ambassadors when their demands were not met. Some of the ambassadors were arrogant, such as Sin Kwi-saeng who, in 1398, got drunk and brandished a knife at a dinner in the presence of the king. Sino-Korean relations later became amiable, and Korean envoys' seating arrangement in the Ming court was always the highest among the tributaries.
During the Miao Rebellions, the Ming Governor castrated thousands of Miao boys when their tribes revolted, and then gave them as slaves to various officials. The Governor who ordered the castration of the Miao was reprimanded and condemned by the Ming Tianshun Emperor for doing it once the Ming government heard of the event.
Zhu Shuang (Prince of Qin), while he was high on drugs, had some Tibetan boys castrated and Tibetan women seized after a war against minority Tibetan peoples and as a result was reprimanded after he died from overdose.
On 30 January 1406, the Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs in order to give them to the emperor. The Yongle Emperor said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and did not deserve castration, and he returned the boys to Ryukyu and instructed them not to send eunuchs again.
An anti-pig-slaughter edict led to speculation that the Zhengde emperor adopted Islam due to his use of Muslim eunuchs who commissioned the production of porcelain with Persian and Arabic inscriptions in white and blue color. Muslim eunuchs contributed money in 1496 to repairing Niujie Mosque. Central Asian women were provided to the Zhengde Emperor by a Muslim guard and Sayyid Hussein from Hami. The guard was Yu Yung and the women were Uighur. It is unknown who really was behind the anti-pig slaughter edict. The speculation of him becoming a Muslim is remembered alongside his excessive and debauched behavior along with his concubines of foreign origin. Muslim Central Asian girls were favored by Zhengde like how Korean girls were favored by Xuande. A Uighur concubine was kept by Zhengde. Foreign origin Uighur and Mongol women were favored by the Zhengde emperor.
At the end of the Ming dynasty, there were about 70,000 eunuchs (宦官 huànguān, or 太監 tàijiàn) employed by the emperor, with some serving inside the imperial palace. There were 100,000 eunuchs at the height of their numbers during the Ming. In popular culture texts such as Zhang Yingyu's The Book of Swindles (ca. 1617), eunuchs were often portrayed in starkly negative terms as enriching themselves through excessive taxation and indulging in cannibalism and debauched sexual practices.
In Ming China, the royal palace usually gets eunuchs in two ways: foreign supplies of eunuchs and domestic supplies of eunuchs. On the one hand, the eunuchs in Ming China come from the foreign supplies, the enemies of Ming China are castrated as a mean of punishment when they are captured by Ming army as prisoners. For example, the population of Mongol eunuchs in Nanjing increased significantly during Yongle's reign when there was a war between Ming China and the Mongols. The foreign eunuchs also comes from the tributes from a lot of small countries around China. On the other hand, the eunuchs also came from locals in China. In Ming China, many men castrated themselves in order to be hired in the palace, when the only way for these men to enter privilege was eunuchism. Besides the royal palace, elites such as officials also hired eunuchs to be servants to their family. With the demand, a lot of men were willing to castrate themselves to become eunuchs.
Eunuchs in Ming China also played an critical role in the operation of the imperial palace: their responsibilities varied in significance: their jobs include almost every aspect of the everyday routine in the imperial palace; their responsibilities also included procuring copper, tin , wood, and iron. Also, they had to repair and construct ponds, castle gates, palaces in major cities like Beijing and Nanjing, and the mansions and mausolea in the living place of imperial relatives. They prepared meals for a great number of people in the palace. Taking care of the animals in the palace was also one of their jobs. In a word, the eunuchs' work was the cornerstone of the palace daily operation and the emperor and his relatives' comfortable life. 
The eunuchs also highly associated with other lower ranking occupations in the royal palace. For example, some eunuchs would have special relationships with serving women in the palace. Some eunuchs would form a partnership with serving women in order to support each other, called “vegetarian couple" (Duishi). In this kind of relationship, both eunuchs and serving women can be more secure when they encountered conflicts with the those of higher rank such as bureaucrats. 
The eunuchs also had opportunity to rise to higher ranks. The duties and jobs of eunuchs gradually changed in Ming dynasty: in Ming Taizu's time, the emperor decreed that the eunuchs were to be kept in small numbers and of minimal literacy in case the eunuchs seized power. However, in later generations, the emperors began to train and educate the eunuchs and make them their personal secretaries. The lack of the restriction allowed some eunuchs to rise to great power, for example, Wang Zhen, Liu Jin, and Wei Zhongxian especially. There are even eunuch-supervised secret police working for the emperor known as the Eastern Depot and Western Depot. Also, Zhenghe, a very famous eunuch in China's history, became an early pioneer of seafaring and spread Chinese influence to the world.
However, the reputation of eunuchs was controversial in Ming China. Chinese bureaucrats-scholars always depicted eunuchs negatively: Chinese bureaucrat-scholars, who always depicted the eunuchs as greedy, evil, cunning, and duplicitous. Chinese people seemed to have a stereotypical view toward the eunuchs. The bad reputation may be explained by the fact that the eunuchs, in order to get employment in the royal palace or official houses, needed to be castrated. Castration gave the eunuchs the licence to work in the palace or official houses in Ming China because the officials and emperor in Ming China usually kept many concubines. However, In Chinese society, castration broke with conventional moral rules. A son who could not have male heir to carry on the family name breaks Confician doctrine. The eunuchs, despite their awareness of losing ability to have children but still get castrated in order to get better lives. Another guilty knowledge of eunuchs in palace is to exceed their power to do the areas the don't belong to. Some of the jobs eunuchs do is the dirty work. For examples, they may become the spies of emperors or the officials; another action of the Yongle emperor that had a significant effect is to give the eunuchs the authority to have charge in the implementation of political tasks. As eunuchs' presence and power grew, they gradually took over the duties of the women palace musicians and become the dominant musicians in the Ming palace. When they came to power, eunuchs would even interfere the politics such succession to the throne. 
While eunuchs were employed in all Chinese dynasties, their number decreased significantly under the Qing, and the tasks they performed were largely replaced by the Imperial Household Department. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were about 2,000 eunuchs working in the Forbidden City. The eunuchs at the Forbidden City during the later Qing period were infamous for their corruption, stealing as much as they could. The position of eunuch at the Forbidden City offered such opportunities for theft and corruption and China was such a poor country that countless men willingly become eunuchs in order to live a better life. However, eunuchs as the Emperor's slaves had no rights and could be abused at the emperor's whim. The emperor Puyi recalled in his memoirs that growing up in the Forbidden City that: "By the age of 11, flogging eunuchs was part of my daily routine. My cruelty and love of power were already too firmly set for persuasion to have any effect on me...Whenever I was in a bad temper the eunuchs would be in for trouble."
After the revolution of 1911-12 that toppled the Qing, the last emperor, Puyi, continued to live in the Forbidden City with his eunuchs as if the revolution had never happened while receiving financial support from the new Chinese republic until 1924 when the former emperor and his entourage were expelled from the Forbidden City by the warlord General Feng Yuxiang. In 1923, after a case of arson that Puyi believed was started to cover the theft of his Imperial treasures, Puyi expelled all of the eunuchs from the Forbidden City.
The sons and grandsons of the Tajik rebel, Yaqub Beg, in China were all castrated. Surviving members of Yaqub Beg's family included his 4 sons, 4 grandchildren (2 grandsons and 2 granddaughters), and 4 wives. They either died in prison in Lanzhou, Gansu, or were killed by the Chinese. His sons Yima Kuli, K'ati Kuli, Maiti Kuli, and grandson Aisan Ahung were the only survivors in 1879. They were all underage children, and put on trial, sentenced to an agonizing death if they were complicit in their father's rebellious "sedition", or if they were innocent of their fathers' crimes, were to be sentenced to castration and serve as eunuch slaves to Chinese troops, when they reached 11 years old, and were handed over to the Imperial Household to be executed or castrated. In 1879, it was confirmed that the sentence of castration was carried out; Yaqub Beg's son and grandsons were castrated by the Chinese court in 1879 and turned into eunuchs to work in the Imperial Palace.
The eunuchs of Korea, called Naesi (내시, 內侍), were officials to the king and other royalty in traditional Korean society. The first recorded appearance of a Korean eunuch was in Goryeosa ("History of Goryeo"), a compilation about the Goryeo period. In 1392, with the founding of the Joseon Dynasty, the Naesi system was revised, and the department was renamed the "Department of Naesi" (내시부, 內侍府).
The Naesi system included two ranks, those of Sangseon (상선, 尙膳, "Chief of Naesi"), who held the official title of senior second rank, and Naegwan (내관, 內官, "Common official naesi"), both of which held rank as officers. 140 naesi in total served the palace in Joseon Dynasty period. They also took the exam on Confucianism every month. The naesi system was repealed in 1894 following Gabo reform.
Eunuchs were the only males outside the royal family allowed to stay inside the palace overnight. Court records going back to 1392 indicate that the average lifespan of eunuchs was 70.0 ± 1.76 years, which was 14.4–19.1 years longer than the lifespan of non-castrated men of similar socio-economic status.
The Vietnamese adopted the eunuch system and castration techniques from China. Records show that the Vietnamese performed castration in a painful procedure by removing the entire genitalia with both penis and testicles being cut off with a sharp knife or metal blade. The procedure was agonizing since the entire penis was cut off. The young man's thighs and abdomen would be tied and others would pin him down on a table. The genitals would be washed with pepper water and then cut off. A tube would be then inserted into the urethra to allow urination during healing. The eunuchs served as slaves to the Vietnamese palace women in the harem- like the consorts, concubines, maids, Queen, and Princesses- doing most of the work. The only man allowed in the Palace was the Emperor, the only others allowed were his women and the eunuchs since they were not able to have sexual relations with the women. The eunuchs were assigned to do work for the palace women, like massaging and applying make up to the women, preparing them for sex with the Emperor.
The Trần Dynasty sent Vietnamese boy eunuchs as tribute to Ming Dynasty China several times, in 1383, 1384 and 1385 Nguyen Dao, Nguyen Toan, Tru Ca, and Ngo Tin were among several Vietnamese eunuchs sent to China.
During the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam, the Ming Chinese under the Yongle Emperor castrated many young Vietnamese boys, choosing them for their handsomeness and ability, and brought them to Nanjing to serve as eunuchs. Among them were the architect-engineer Nguyễn An and Nguyen Lang (阮浪). Vietnamese were among the many eunuchs of different origins found at the Yongle Emperor's court. Among the eunuchs in charge of the Capital Battalions of Beijing was Xing An, a Vietnamese.
In the Lê Dynasty the Vietnamese Emperor Lê Thánh Tông was aggressive in his relations with foreign countries including China. A large amount of trade between Guangdong and Vietnam happened during his reign. Early accounts recorded that the Vietnamese captured Chinese whose ships had blown off course and detained them. Young Chinese men were selected by the Vietnamese for castration to become eunuch slaves to the Vietnamese. It has been speculated by modern historians that the Chinese who were captured and castrated by the Vietnamese were involved in trade between China and Vietnam instead of actually being blown off course by the wind and they were punished as part of a crackdown on foreign trade by Vietnam.
Several Malay envoys from the Malacca sultanate were attacked and captured in 1469 by the Lê Dynasty of Annam (Vietnam) as they were returning to Malacca from China. The Vietnamese enslaved and castrated the young from among the captured.
A 1472 entry in the Ming Shilu, reported that some Chinese from Nanhai county escaped back to China after their ship had been blown off course into Vietnam, where they had been forced to serve as soldiers in Vietnam's military. The escapees also reported that they found out that up to 100 Chinese men remained captive in Vietnam after they were caught and castrated by the Vietnamese after their ships were blown off course into Vietnam. The Chinese Ministry of Revenue responded by ordering Chinese civilians and soldiers to stop going abroad to foreign countries. China's relations with Vietnam during this period were marked by the punishment of prisoners by castration.
A 1499 entry in the Ming Shilu recorded that thirteen Chinese men from Wenchang, including a man named Wu Rui (吳瑞), were captured by the Vietnamese after their ship was blown off course while traveling from Hainan to Guangdong's Qin subprefecture (Qinzhou), causing them to end up near the coast of Vietnam during the Chenghua Emperor's rule (1447 - 1487). Twelve of them were enslaved as agricultural laborers, while Wu Rui, the only one still young, was castrated and became a eunuch attendant at the Vietnamese Imperial Palace in Thang Long. After years of service, upon the death of the Vietnamese ruler in 1497, he was promoted to a military position in northern Vietnam. There, a soldier told him of an escape route back to China through which Wu Rui then escaped to Longzhou. The local chief planned to sell him back to the Vietnamese, but Wu was rescued by the Pingxiang Magistrate, then was sent to Beijing to work as a eunuch in the palace.
The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư records that in 1467 in An Bang province of Dai Viet (now Quảng Ninh Province), a Chinese ship blew off course onto the shore. The Chinese were detained and not allowed to return to China as ordered by Le Thanh Tong. This incident may be the same one where Wu Rui was captured.
Commoners were banned from undergoing castration in Vietnam. Only adult men of high social rank could be castrated. Most eunuchs were born as such with a congenital abnormality. The Vietnamese government mandated that boys born with defective genitalia were to be reported to officials, in exchange for the town being freed from mandatory labor requirements. The boy would have the option of serving as a eunuch official or serving the palace women when he became ten years old. This law was put in place in 1838 during the Nguyễn Dynasty. The only males allowed inside the Forbidden City at Huế were the Emperor and his eunuchs.
The presence of eunuchs in Vietnam was used by the French colonizers to degrade the Vietnamese.
In Siam (modern Thailand) Indian Muslims from the Coromandel Coast served as eunuchs in the Thai palace and court. The Thai at times asked eunuchs from China to visit the court in Thailand and advise them on court ritual since they held them in high regard.
Sir Henry Yule saw many Muslims serving as eunuchs in the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (modern Myanmar) while on a diplomatic mission. These Muslim eunuchs came from Arakan.
In the Ottoman Empire, eunuchs were typically slaves imported from outside their domains. A fair proportion of male slaves were imported as eunuchs. The Ottoman court harem—within the Topkapı Palace (1465–1853) and later the Dolmabahçe Palace (1853–1909) in Istanbul—was under the administration of the eunuchs. These were of two categories: Black Eunuchs and White Eunuchs. Black Eunuchs were African slaves who served the concubines and officials in the Harem together with chamber maidens of low rank. The White Eunuchs were Europeans from the Balkans or the Caucasus, either purchased in the slave markets or were boys taken from Christian families in the Balkans who were unable to pay the Jizya tax. They served the recruits at the Palace School and were from 1582 prohibited from entering the Harem. An important figure in the Ottoman court was the Chief Black Eunuch (Kızlar Ağası or Dar al-Saada Ağası). In control of both the Harem and a net of spies in the Black Eunuchs, the Chief Eunuch was involved in almost every palace intrigue and could thereby gain power over either the sultan or one of his viziers, ministers, or other court officials. One of the most powerful Chief Eunuchs was Beshir Agha in the 1730s, who played a crucial role in establishing the Ottoman version of Hanafi Islam throughout the Empire by founding libraries and schools. The entire Devşirme system, where the children of Christian families in the Balkans unable to pay the onerous jizya tax were taken away, and, depending upon their sex, became either concubines, in the case of the girls, or, in the case of the boys, were conscripted into Janissary Corps or became eunuchs. The act (emasculation) made Ottoman rule much hated by Christians in the Balkans.
Edmund Andrews of Northwestern University, in an 1898 article called "Oriental Eunuchs" in the American Journal of Medicine, refers to Coptic priests in "Abou Gerhè in Upper Egypt" castrating slave boys.
Coptic castration of slaves was discussed by Peter Charles Remondino, in his book History of Circumcision from the Earliest Times to the Present, published in 1900. He refers to the "Abou-Gerghè" monastery in a place he calls "Mount Ghebel-Eter". He adds details not mentioned by Andrews such as the insertion of bamboo into the victim. Bamboo was used with Chinese eunuchs. Andrews states his information is derived from an earlier work, "Les Femmes, les eunuques, et les guerriers du Soudan" published by a French explorer, Count Raoul du Bisson, in 1868, though the place does not appear in Du Bisson's book.
Remondino's claims were repeated in similar form by Henry G. Spooner in 1919, in the American Journal of Urology and Sexology. Spooner, an associate of William J. Robinson, referred to the monastery as "Abou Gerbe in Upper Egypt".
According to Remondino, Spooner and several later sources, the Coptic priests sliced the penis and testicles off Nubian or Abyssinian slave boys around the age of eight. The boys were captured from Abyssinia and other areas in Sudan like Darfur and Kordofan, then brought into Sudan and Egypt. During the operation, the Coptic clergyman chained the boys to tables, then, after slicing off their sexual organs, stuck a piece of bamboo into the genital area, and then submerged them in neck-high sand to burn. The recovery rate was ten percent. The resulting eunuchs fetched large profits in contrast to eunuchs from other areas.
In the 16th century, an Englishman, Samson Rowlie, was captured and castrated to serve the Ottoman governor in Algiers.
Eunuchs were frequently employed in Imperial palaces by Muslim rulers as servants for female royalty, as guards of the royal harem, and as sexual mates for the nobles. Some of these attained high-status positions in society. An early example of such a high-ranking eunuch was Malik Kafur. Eunuchs in Imperial palaces were organized in a hierarchy, often with a senior or Chief Eunuch (Urdu: Khwaja Saras), directing junior eunuchs below him. Eunuchs were highly valued for their strength and trustworthiness, allowing them to live amongst women with fewer worries. This enabled eunuchs to serve as messengers, watchmen, attendants and guards for palaces. Often, eunuchs also doubled as part of the King's court of advisers.
The Ancient Indian Kama Sutra refers to people of a "third sex" (triteeyaprakrti), who can be dressed either in men's or in women's clothes and perform fellatio on men. The term has been translated as "eunuchs" (as in Sir Richard Burton's translation of the book), but these persons have also been considered to be the equivalent of the modern Hijra of India.
Hijra, an Urdu term traditionally translated into English as "eunuch", actually refers to what modern Westerners would call transgender women and effeminate homosexual men (although some of them reportedly identify as belonging to a third sex). Some of them undergo ritual castration, but the majority do not. They usually dress in saris (traditional Indian garb worn by women) or shalwar kameez (traditional garb worn by women in South Asia) and wear heavy make-up. They typically live in the margins of society and face discrimination. However, they are integral to several Hindu ceremonies which is the primary form of their livelihood. They are a part of dance programs (sometimes Adult) in marriage ceremonies. They also perform certain ceremonies for the couple in Hindu tradition. Other means to earn their living are: by coming, uninvited at weddings, births, new shop openings and other major family events, singing until they are paid or given gifts to go away. The ceremony is supposed to bring good luck and fertility, while the curse of an unappeased hijra is feared by many. Hijra often engage in prostitution and begging to earn money, the begging is accompanied by singing and dancing. Some Indian provincial officials have used the assistance of hijras to collect taxes in the same fashion—they knock on the doors of shopkeepers, while dancing and singing, embarrassing them into paying. Recently, hijras have started to found organizations to improve their social condition and fight discrimination, such as the Shemale Foundation Pakistan.
Castration as part of religious practice, and eunuchs occupying religious roles have been established prior to classical antiquity. Archaeological finds at Çatalhöyük in Anatolia indicate worship of a 'Magna Mater' figure, a forerunner of the goddess Cybele found in later Anatolia and other parts of the near East. Later Roman followers of Cybele were called Galli, who practiced ritual self-castration, known as sanguinaria. Eunuch priests also figured prominently in the Atargatis cult in Syria during the first centuries CE.
The practice of religious castration continued into the Christian era, with members of the early church practising celibacy (including castration) for religious purposes, although the extent and even the existence of this practice among Christians is subject to debate. The early theologian Origen found evidence of the practice in Matthew 19:10-12: "His disciples said to him, "If such is the case of a man with his wife, it is better not to marry." But he said to them, "Not everyone can accept this teaching, but only those to whom it is given. For there are eunuchs who have been so from birth, and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchs by others, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. Let anyone accept this who can" (NRSV).
Tertullian, a 2nd-century Church Father, described Jesus himself and Paul of Tarsus as spadones, which is translated as "eunuchs" in some contexts. Quoting from the cited book: "... Tertullian takes 'spado' to mean virgin ...". The meaning of spado in late antiquity can be interpreted as a metaphor for celibacy. Tertullian even goes so far with the metaphor as to say St. Paul had been castrated.
Eunuch priests have served various goddesses from India for many centuries. Similar phenomena are exemplified by some modern Indian communities of the hijra, which are associated with a deity and with certain rituals and festivals – notably the devotees of Yellammadevi, or jogappas, who are not castrated and the Ali of southern India, of whom at least some are.
The 18th-century Russian Skoptzy (скопцы) sect was an example of a castration cult, where its members regarded castration as a way of renouncing the sins of the flesh. Several members of the 20th-century Heaven's Gate cult were found to have been castrated, apparently voluntarily and for the same reasons.
In the Bible
Eunuchs are mentioned many times in the Bible such as in the Book of Isaiah (56:4) using the word סריס (saris). Although the Ancient Hebrews did not practice castration, eunuchs were common in other cultures featured in the Bible, such as ancient Egypt, Babylonia, the Persian Empire and ancient Rome. In the Book of Esther, servants of the harem of Ahasuerus such as Hegai and Shashgaz as well as other servants such as Hatach, Harbonah, Bigthan, and Teresh are referred to as sarisim. Being exposed to the consorts of the king, they would have likely been castrated.
There is some confusion regarding eunuchs in Old Testament passages, since the Hebrew word for eunuch, saris (סריס), could also refer to other servants and officials who had not been castrated but served in similar capacities. The Egyptian royal servant Potiphar is described as a saris in Genesis 39:1, although he was married and hence unlikely to have been a castrated eunuch.
One of the earliest converts to Christianity was an Ethiopian eunuch who was a high court official of Candace the Queen of Ethiopia. Acts 8:27-39 The reference to "eunuchs" in Matthew 19:12 has yielded various interpretations.
The term eunuch has sometimes figuratively been used for a wide range of men who were seen to be physically unable to procreate. Hippocrates describes a particular ethnic group afflicted with high rates of erectile dysfunction as "the most eunuchoid of all nations" (Airs Waters Places 22). In the Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, the term literally used for impotent males is spado, but may also be used for eunuchs. But this is sometimes generalized to mean that eunuch may be used for impotent males, which is a fallacy.
Eunuchs castrated before puberty were also valued and trained in several cultures for their exceptional voices, which retained a childlike and other-worldly flexibility and treble pitch (a high-pitched voice). Such eunuchs were known as castrati.
As women were sometimes forbidden to sing in Church, their place was taken by castrati. The practice, known as castratism, remained popular until the 18th century and was known into the 19th century. The last famous Italian castrato, Giovanni Velluti, died in 1861. The sole existing sound recording of a castrato singer documents the voice of Alessandro Moreschi, the last eunuch in the Sistine Chapel choir, who died in 1922.
In the contemporary world
The hijra of India (see above) may number as many as 2,000,000, and are usually described as "eunuchs", although they may be more of a male-to-female transsexual individual, but have surgical castration instead of reassignment surgery, and seldom have access to hormones. The loss of testosterone and lack of estrogen means their bodies take on the characteristics of post-pubertal eunuchs.
In popular culture
In chronological order.
First millennium BC
- Mutakkil-Marduk (8th century BC): Assyrian chief eunuch, eponym of the year 798 BCE in an Assyrian eponym chronicle.
- Yariri (8th century BC): regent of Neo-Hittite Carchemish thought to likely be an eunuch.
- Aspamistres or Mithridates (5th century BCE): bodyguard of Xerxes I of Persia, and (with Artabanus) his murderer.
- Artoxares: an envoy of Artaxerxes I and Darius II of Persia.
- Bagoas (4th century BC): prime minister of king Artaxerxes III of Persia, and his assassin. (Bagoas is an old Persian word meaning eunuch.)
- Bagoas (4th century BCE): a favorite of Alexander the Great. Influential in changing Alexander's attitude toward Persians and therefore in the king's policy decision to try to integrate the conquered peoples fully into his Empire as loyal subjects. He thereby paved the way for the relative success of Alexander's Seleucid successors and greatly enhanced the diffusion of Greek culture to the East.
- Philetaerus (4th/3rd century BC): founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamum
- Sima Qian (old romanization Ssu-ma Chi'en; 2nd/1st century BC): the first person to have practiced modern historiography – gathering and analyzing both primary and secondary sources in order to write his monumental history of the Chinese Empire.
- Ganymedes (1st century BCE): highly capable adviser and general of Cleopatra VII's sister and rival, Princess Arsinoe. Unsuccessfully attacked Julius Caesar three times at Alexandria.
- Pothinus (1st century BC): regent for pharaoh Ptolemy XII.
- Sporus (1st century BC): an attractive Roman boy who was castrated by, and later married to, Emperor Nero
First millennium AD
- Unidentified eunuch of the Ethiopian court (1st century AD), described in The Acts of the Apostles (chapter 8). Philip the Evangelist, one of the original seven deacons, is directed by the Holy Spirit to catch up to the eunuch's chariot and hears him reading from the Book of Isaiah (chapter 53). Philip explained that the section prophesies Jesus' crucifixion, which Philip described to the eunuch. The eunuch was baptized shortly thereafter.
- Cai Lun (old romanization Ts'ai Lun; 1st/2nd century AD): reasonable evidence exists to suggest that he was truly the inventor of paper. At the very least, he established the importance of paper and standardized its manufacture in the Chinese Empire.
- Origen: early Christian theologian, allegedly castrated himself based on his reading of the Gospel of Matthew 19:12 (For there are eunuchs, who were born so from their mother's womb: and there are eunuchs, who were made so by men: and there are eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven. He that can take, let him take it.). Despite the fact that the early Christian theologian Tertullian wrote that Jesus was a eunuch, there is no corroboration in any other early source. (The Skoptsy did, however, believe it to be true.)
- Eutropius (5th century): only eunuch known to have attained the highly distinguished and very influential position of Roman Consul.
- Chrysaphius: chief minister of Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II, architect of imperial policy towards the Huns.
- Narses (478–573): general of Byzantine emperor Justinian I, responsible for destroying the Ostrogoths in 552 at the Battle of Taginae in Italy and saving Rome for the empire.
- Solomon: general and governor of Africa under Justinian I
- Staurakios: chief associate and minister of the Byzantine empress Irene of Athens
- Ignatius of Constantinople (799–877): twice Patriarch of Constantinople during troubled political times [847–858 and 867–877]. First absolutely unquestioned eunuch saint, recognized by both the Orthodox and Roman Churches. (There are a great many early saints who were probably eunuchs, though few either as influential nor unquestioned as to their castration.)
- Yazaman al-Khadim (died 891): Emir of Tarsus and successful commander in the wars against Byzantium
- Mu'nis al-Khadim (845/846–933/934): Commander-in-chief of the Abbasid armies between 908 and his death,
- Joseph Bringas: chief minister of the Byzantine Empire under Romanos II (959-963).
Second millennium AD
- Jia Xian (c. 1010- c. 1070): Chinese mathematician, Invented the Jia Xian triangle for the calculation of square roots and cube roots.
- Ly Thuong Kiet (1019–1105): general during the Lý Dynasty in Vietnam. Penned what is considered the first Vietnamese declaration of independence. Regarded as a Vietnamese national hero.
- Pierre Abélard (1079–1142): French scholastic philosopher and theologian. Forcibly castrated by his girlfriend's uncle while in bed.
- Malik Kafur (fl. 1296–1316): a eunuch slave who became a general in the army of Alauddin Khalji, ruler of the Delhi sultanate.
- Zheng He (1371–1433): famous admiral who led huge Chinese fleets of exploration around the Indian Ocean.
- Judar Pasha (late 16th century): a Spanish eunuch who became the head of the Moroccan invasion force into the Songhai Empire.
- Kim Cheo Seon: one of the most famous eunuchs in Korean Joseon Dynasty, ably served kings in the Joseon dynasty. His life is now the subject of a historical drama in South Korea.
- Mohammad Khan Qajar: chief of the Qajar tribe. He became the King/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty.
- Zhao Gao: favourite of Qin Shihuangdi, who plotted against Li Si (died 210 BC)
- Zhang Rang: head of the infamous "10 Changshi" (Ten attendants) of Eastern Han Dynasty
- Huang Hao: eunuch in the state of Shu; also appears in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms
- Cen Hun: eunuch in the state of Wu during the Three Kingdoms Period
- Gao Lishi: a loyal and trusted friend of Tang emperor Xuanzong
- Le Van Duyet: famous 18th-century Vietnamese eunuch, military strategist and government official (not a true eunuch, he was born a hermaphrodite)
- Senesino (1686–1758): Italian contralto castrato singer.
- Farinelli (1705–1782): Italian soprano castrato singer.
- Giusto Fernando Tenducci (c. 1736–1790): Italian soprano castrato singer.
- Li Fuguo: The Tang eunuch who began another era of eunuch rule
- Yu Chao'en: Tang eunuch who began his "career" as army supervisor
- Wang Zhen: first Ming eunuch with much power, see Tumu Crisis
- Gang Bing: patron saint of eunuchs in China who castrated himself to demonstrate his loyalty to the Yongle Emperor
- Yishiha: admiral in charge of expeditions down the Amur River under the Yongle and Xuande Emperors
- Liu Jin: a well-known eunuch despot, member of the Eight Tigers
- Wei Zhongxian: most infamous eunuch in Chinese history
- Wu Rui: a Chinese eunuch in Lê Dynasty Annam (Vietnam)
- Li Lianying: a despotic eunuch of the Qing Dynasty
- Thomas P. Corbett/Boston Corbett (1832 – presumed dead 1894): who killed John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of Abraham Lincoln, castrated himself to avoid temptation from prostitutes
- Alessandro Moreschi (1858–1922), Italian castrato singer, the only one to make recordings.
- Sun Yaoting (1902–1996): last surviving imperial eunuch of Chinese history
- εὐνοῦχος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
- "Eunuch". The New Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1998. p. 634. ISBN 9780198612636.
- eunuchus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
- spado. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
- σπάδων in Liddell and Scott.
- "Words". Archives.nd.edu. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Maekawa, Kazuya (1980). Animal and human castration in Sumer, Part II: Human castration in the Ur III period. Zinbun [Journal of the Research Institute for Humanistic Studies, Kyoto University], pp. 1–56.
- Maekawa, Kazuya (1980). Female Weavers and Their Children in Lagash – Presargonic and Ur III. Acta Sumerologica 2:81–125.
- Christine Hsu (24 September 2012). "Eunuch Study Reveals That Castration May Add 20 Years to a Man's Life". Medicaldaily.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Miller, Margaret (1997). Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC: A Study in Cultural Receptivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-521-49598-9.
- Hawkins, Shane (2013). Studies in the Language of Hipponax. Bremen: Hempen Verlag. pp. 111–120.
- West, M.L., ed. and trans. (1993). Greek Lyric Poetry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 117.
- Sturz, Friedrich Wilhelm, ed. (1820). Orionis Thebani Etymologicon. Leipzig: Weigel. p. 58.
- Liddell, H.G. and R. Scott (1883). Greek-English Lexicon. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 607–608, 1009.
- Noailles, P., and A. Dain (1944). Les Nouvelles de Leon VI le Sage. Paris. p. 327.
- Noailles, P., and A. Dain (1944). Les Nouvelles de Leon VI le Sage. Paris. p. 325.
- Benesevic, V.N. (1917). Taktikon Nikona Cernogorca. St. Petersburg. p. 99.
- Gautier, Paul, ed. and tr. (1980). Théophylacte d'Achrida: Discours, Traités, Poésies. Thessaloniki: Association de Recherches Byzantines. pp. 308–309.
- Ringrose, Kathryn M. (2003). The Perfect Servant: Eunuchs and the Social Construction of Gender in Byzantium. Chicago: University of Chicago. pp. 16, 39. ISBN 0-226-72015-2.
- Kittel, Gerhard; Friedrich, Gerhard (1985). Bromiley, Geoffrey (ed.). Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. 277.
- Vossius, Gerardus (1662). Etymologicon Linguae Latinae. Amsterdam: Lodewijk and Daniel Elsevir. p. 198.
- Maass, Ernst (1925). "Eunouchos und Verwandtes". Rheinisches Museum. 74: 437.
- Chantraine, Pierre (1970). Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque - Histoire des mots, Vol. 2, E-K. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck. pp. 385–386.
- “Mesopotamian Law and Homosexuality.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project, https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/pwh/meso-law.asp
- “Ch 31-The Middle Assyrian Law-Book about Women.” Women in the Ancient Near East, by Marten Stol et al., De Gruyter, 2016, pp. 670
- Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 95.
- Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death, 511 pp., Harvard University Press, 1982 ISBN 0-674-81083-X, 9780674810839 (see p.315)
- Diod. xvi. 50; cf. Didymus, Comm. in Demosth. Phil. vi. 5
- Penzer, N. M. (1965) The Harem, Spring Books, London, p. 147.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers, Ephraim, ed. (1728). "Eunuch" (PDF). Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. 1 (first ed.). James and John Knapton, et al. p. 354.
- Vern L. Bullough (2001). Encyclopedia of birth control. ABC-CLIO. p. 248. ISBN 1-57607-181-2. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- American Medical Association (1902). The journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 39, Part 1. American Medical Association Press. p. 235. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Walter Scheidel (2009). Rome and China: comparative perspectives on ancient world empires. Oxford University Press US. p. 71. ISBN 0-19-533690-9. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Guido Majno (1991). The healing hand: man and wound in the ancient world. Harvard University Press. p. 254. ISBN 0-674-38331-1. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Melissa S. Dale, Inside the World of the Eunuch (2018, ISBN 9888455753), page 14.
- Victor T. Cheney, A Brief History Of Castration: Second Edition (2006, ISBN 1467816663), page 14.
- For an extended discussion see Mitamura Taisuke,Chinese Eunuchs: The Structure of Intimate Politics tr. Charles A. Pomeroy, Tokyo 1970, a short, condensed version of Mitamura's original book =三田村泰助, 宦官, Chuko Shinsho, Tokyo 1963
- Huang, Ray (1981). 1587, A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02518-1.
- Bayerischen Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege (2001). Qin Shihuang. Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege. p. 273. ISBN 3-87490-711-2. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Mark Edward Lewis (2007). The early Chinese empires: Qin and Han. Harvard University Press. p. 252. ISBN 0-674-02477-X. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- History of Science Society (1952). Osiris, Volume 10. Saint Catherine Press. p. 144. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). The History of China. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 76. ISBN 1-61530-181-X. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Qian Ma (2005). Women in traditional Chinese theater: the heroine's play. University Press of America. p. 149. ISBN 0-7618-3217-3. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner (1919). China of the Chinese. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 152. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Ch'ien Ssu-Ma (2008). The Grand Scribe's Records: The Memoirs of Han China, Part 1. Indiana University Press. p. 231. ISBN 0-253-34028-4. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Rideout, J. K. (1949). "The Rise Of The Eunuchs During The T'ang Dynasty" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2010.
- Peterson(2000), 259. Books.google.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Derven(2000), 199. Books.google.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Bauer(2010), 569. Books.google.com. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Wang(2013). Books.google.com. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Keay(2010). Books.google.com. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- McMahon(2013), 261. Books.google.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- McMahon(2013), 269. Books.google.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Robinson, David M. (2009). Empire's Twilight: Northeast Asia Under the Mongols. Harvard University Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780674036086. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Lee, Peter H. (2010). Sourcebook of Korean Civilization: Volume One: From Early Times to the 16th Century. Columbia University Press. p. 681. ISBN 9780231515290. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (1988). The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 976. ISBN 0-521-24332-7. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2687-6.
- Journal of Asian History. O. Harrassowitz. 1991. p. 130.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee; Luther Carrington Goodrich; 房兆楹 (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. pp. 288–. ISBN 978-0-231-03801-0.
- Yuan-kang Wang (6 December 2010). Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics. Columbia University Press. pp. 301–. ISBN 978-0-231-52240-3.
- Conrad Schirokauer; Miranda Brown; David Lurie; Suzanne Gay (2012). A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilizations. Cengage Learning. pp. 247–. ISBN 1-133-70924-9.
- "pp. 382-385" (PDF).
- Hugh Dyson Walker (20 November 2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. pp. 259–. ISBN 978-1-4772-6517-8.
- 김한규 (1999). 한중관계사 II. 아르케. pp. 581~585. ISBN 89-88791-02-9.
- Norman A. Kutcher (2018). Eunuch and Emperor in the Great Age of Qing Rule. Univ of California Press. p. 22. ISBN 0520969847.
- John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0490-4.
- Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 212–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1 July 2011). Perpetual happiness: the Ming emperor Yongle. University of Washington Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-295-80022-6.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2687-6.
- 1421. The New York Times. February 2, 2003.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2687-6.
- Bosworth, Michael L. (1999). "The Rise and Fall of 15th Century Chinese Sea Power" (PDF). Military Revolution. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Watt, James C. Y.; Leidy, Denise Patry (2005). "Defining_Yongle_Imperial Art in Early Fifteenth Century China" (PDF). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee; Luther Carrington Goodrich; 房兆楹 (January 1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. pp. 1363–. ISBN 978-0-231-03833-1.
- Denis C. Twitchett; Frederick W. Mote (28 January 1998). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty. Cambridge University Press. pp. 283–. ISBN 978-0-521-24333-9.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- p, 74-75, 82
- "1.10 跋《明秦府承奉正康公墓志铭》 "A Sogdian Descendant—Study of the Epitaph of Kang Jing: The Man Who Served at Ming Prince Qin's Mansion, Collected Studies on Ming History 明史研究论丛 9 (2011): 283-297".
- "千秋罪恶不该忘：朱明政权的血腥屠杀史_手机三国在线". Archived from the original on 18 August 2016.
- "明代的大屠杀_acmilan1928_新浪博客". blog.sina.com.cn.
- "[原创]元惠宗在韩国形象为什么比明神宗强过百倍，因为他流放高丽王拯救高丽百姓 – 铁血网". bbs.tiexue.net.
- "被明人色情化抹黑的元惠宗及藏密大喜乐法 – 铁血网". bbs.tiexue.net.
- "太祖次子秦王朱樉死于宫人毒杀【明朝吧】_百度贴吧". tieba.baidu.com.
- Zi, Yolu (17 September 2015). "ziyolu easy hut: 朱元璋祭次子朱樉祝文".
- Wade, Geoff (1 July 2007). "Ryukyu in the Ming Reign Annals 1380s-1580s" (PDF). Working Paper Series (93). Asia Research Institute National University of Singapore: 75. SSRN 1317152. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Jay A. Levenson; National Gallery of Art (U.S.) (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. pp. 477–. ISBN 978-0-300-05167-4.
- Bernard O'Kane (15 December 2012). The Civilization of the Islamic World. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-1-4488-8509-1.
- "Bonhams : A rare blue and white screen Zhengde six-character mark and of the period". www.bonhams.com.
- Oriental Blue and White. London, 1970, p.29.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.
- Kathleen Kuiper (2010). The Culture of China. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-140-9.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (1 April 2010). The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.
- Suzanne G. Valenstein (1988). A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-0-8109-1170-3.
- Susan Naquin (16 December 2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-520-92345-4.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee; Luther Carrington Goodrich; 房兆楹 (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-0-231-03801-0.
- B.J. ter Haar (2006). Telling Stories: Witchcraft and Scapegoating in Chinese History. BRILL. pp. 4–. ISBN 90-04-14844-2.
- Frank Trentmann (22 March 2012). "Things in Between: Splendour and Excess in Ming China". The Oxford Handbook of the History of Consumption. OUP Oxford. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-19-162435-3.
- John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0491-1.
- Peter C Perdue (30 June 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.
- Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 657–. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2687-6.
- Susan Naquin (16 December 2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-0-520-92345-4.
- Geoffrey Parker (15 March 2013). Global Crisis: War, Climate and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. Yale University Press. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-0-300-18919-3.
- Mary Laven (13 May 2013). Mission to China: Matteo Ricci and the Jesuit Encounter with the East. Faber & Faber. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-0-571-27178-8.
- Zhang Yingyu, The Book of Swindles: Selections from a Late Ming Collection, translated by Christopher Rea and Bruce Rusk (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017).
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.126-138
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.127
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.127
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.127
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.128
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.131
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.131
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p. 125
- Bao Hua HSIEH, “From Charwoman to Empress Dowager: Serving-Women in the Ming Palace.” Ming Studies 42 (1999): 26-80, p.43
- Bao Hua HSIEH, “From Charwoman to Empress Dowager: Serving-Women in the Ming Palace.” Ming Studies 42 (1999): 26-80, p.60
- John W. Dardess, Ming China 1368-1664.(Lanham,Maryland,2012) p.64
- John W. Dardess, Ming China 1368-1664.(Lanham,Maryland,2012) p.65
- John W. Dardess, Ming China 1368-1664.(Lanham,Maryland,2012) p.65
- Edward Dreyer, Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty(longman, 2006) , pp.188
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.121
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.133
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.132
- Joseph S. C. Lam Culture, Courtiers, and Competition: The Ming Court 1368–1644, (Harvard university, 2008), pp. 29
- Shih-shan Henry TSAI, “The demand and supply of Ming eunuchs,” Journal of Asian History (1991): 121-146, p.125
- John W. Dardess (2010). Governing China, 150-1850. Hackett Publishing. pp. 57–. ISBN 1-60384-311-6.
- Hudson, Roger (August 2013). "The Eunuchs are Expelled". History Today. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "Chinese Cultural Studies: Mary M. Anderson, Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China". Archived from the original on 27 July 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- Behr, Edward The Last Emperor London: Futura, 1987 page 73.
- Behr, Edward The Last Emperor London: Futura, 1987 page 74.
- Translations of the Peking Gazette. 1880. p. 83. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- The American annual cyclopedia and register of important events of the year ..., Volume 4. D. Appleton and Company. 1888. p. 145. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Appletons' annual cyclopedia and register of important events: Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry, Volume 19. Appleton. 1886. p. 145. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Peter Tompkins (1963). The eunuch and the virgin: a study of curious customs. C. N. Potter. p. 32. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- ‹See Tfd›(in Korean) 내시 - 네이버 백과사전
- Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph Calder Miller (2009). Children in slavery through the ages. Ohio University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-8214-1877-7. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "WHKMLA : Eunuchs in East Asian History". www.zum.de.
- Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph C. Miller (8 September 2009). Children in Slavery through the Ages. Ohio University Press. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-0-8214-4339-2.
- JinMin, Kyung (25 September 2012). "The lifespan of Korean eunuchs". Current Biology. 22 (18): R792–R793. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- "Chuyện 'tịnh thân' hãi hùng của thái giám Việt xưa". Viet Bao. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Chuyện 'tịnh thân' hãi hùng của thái giám Việt xưa". Ngôi sao. Theo Đất Việt. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". Báo Mới. Báo Đất Việt. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". 2sao. Theo Đất Việt. 8 August 2012. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". Treonline. ĐVO. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Hành trình đau khổ của những hoạn quan thời xưa". Báo Gia đình & Xã hội. Theo Báo Đất Việt. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2013.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". Zing News. Theo Công An Nhân Dân. 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Theo Công An Nhân Dân (18 July 2013). "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". Zing news. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Lê Quyết - GĐXH (6 June 2012). "Hoang lạnh khu mộ địa thái giám độc nhất Việt Nam". Vĩ Nhân Online. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Kim Thoa - Lê Quyết (27 December 2012). "Chuyện ở khu nghĩa địa thái giám Việt Nam". Người Đưa Tin. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Phan Bùi Bảo Thy (18 July 2013). "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung nhà Nguyễn: Những phận đời đặc biệt". Báo Dân trí. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Lê Khắc Niên (Bee.net) (29 July 2011). "Thái giám dưới thời Minh Mạng". Báo Dân trí. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Văn Nguyễn (24 May 2011). "Những thái giám trong hậu cung triều Nguyễn". Báo Dân trí. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". VnExpress. 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Nguyễn Đắc Xuân (13 June 2010). "Thái giám - người phục vụ đặc biệt trong cung Nguyễn". queviet.pl (Hội người Việt Nam tại Ba Lan). Khoa học Đời Sống. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Thái giám và bí mật phòng the của vua chúa Việt Nam". Góc Cuộc Sống. Theo Đất Việt. 2 August 2013. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Thái giám, loại công chức đặc biệt trong cung Nguyễn". Gác Thọ Lộc. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Nguyen Dac Xuan (May 2013). "The safe sex and thier(sic) amorous duties". (No.4, Vol.3, May 2013 Vietnam Heritage Magazine). Vol.3 (No.4). Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- Tsai (1996), p. 15 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 15, at Google Books
- Nguyẽ̂n (2008), p. 169 The History Buddhism in Vietnam, Vol. IIID.5, p. 169, at Google Books
- Wang (2000), p. 135 Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China, p. 135, at Google Books
- Goodrich (1976), p. 691 Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644, p. 691, at Google Books
- Campbell (2009), p. 147 Children in Slavery Through the Ages, p. 147, at Google Books
- Tran (2006), p. 116 Việt Nam: Borderless Histories, p. 116, at Google Books
- 黄啟臣 (16 March 2008). "明代广东海上丝绸之路的高度发展". 國學網－－中國經濟史論壇 (China Economic History Forum). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "明代广东海上丝绸之路的高度发展". 中國評論學術出版社 (China Review Academic Publishers Unlimited). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "中國評論新聞網". www.zhgpl.com.
- 中國評論新聞 (in Chinese). Zhgpl.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "鄭和下西洋與廣東商人的海外移民". 中國評論新聞網 (chinareviewnews.com). 8 March 2006. p. 1. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "中國評論新聞". Chinareviewnews.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "中國評論新聞網". www.chinareviewnews.com.
- "中國評論新聞網". www.chinareviewnews.com.
- "中國評論新聞". Chinareviewnews.com. 1 June 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- 中國評論新聞 (in Chinese). Chinareviewnews.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "郑和下西洋与广东商人的海外移民人文历史". 广州日报大洋网 (life.dayoo.com). 20 October 2009. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- 李慶新. "貿易、移殖與文化交流:15-17 世紀廣東人與越南" (PDF). 廣東省社會科學院歷史研究所 南開大學中國社會歷史研究中心. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
此外,沿海平民在海上航行或捕撈漁獵,遇風漂流至越南者時有發生。如成化十三年, 廣東珠池奉御陳彜奏:南海縣民遭風飄至安南被編入軍隊及被閹禁者超過 100 人。5成化中, 海南文昌人吳瑞與同鄉劉求等 13 人到欽州做生意,遇風飄至安南,當局將他們"俱發屯田, 以瑞獨少,宮之"。6... 6《明孝宗實錄》卷一百五十三,弘治十二年八月辛卯。
- 李慶新. "貿易、移殖與文化交流:15-17 世紀廣東人與越南". 廣東省社會科學院歷史研究所 南開大學中國社會歷史研究中心. p. 12. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Rost (1887), p. 252 Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, p. 252, at Google Books
- Rost (1887), p. 252 Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China and Indian archipelage: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Second Series, Volume 1, p. 252, at Google Books
- Wade 2005, p. 3785/86
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 49-明实录宪宗实录-- > 203-大明宪宗纯皇帝实录卷之二百十九". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
Simplified Chinese:○满剌加国使臣端亚妈剌的那查等奏成化五年本国使臣微者然那入贡还至当洋被风漂至安南国微者然那与其傔从俱为其国所杀其余黥为官奴而幼者皆为所害又言安南据占城城池欲并吞满剌加之地本国以皆为王臣未敢兴兵与战适安南使臣亦来朝端亚妈剌的那查乞与廷辨兵部尚书陈钺以为此已往事不必深校宜戒其将来 上乃因安南使臣还谕其王黎灏曰尔国与满剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦结好藩屏王室岂可自恃富强以干国典以贪天祸满剌加使臣所奏朝廷虽未轻信尔亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其国复谕满剌加使臣曰自古圣王之驭四夷不追咎于既往安南果复侵陵尔国宜训练士马以御之 Traditional Chinese:○滿剌加國使臣端亞媽剌的那查等奏成化五年本國使臣微者然那入貢還至當洋被風漂至安南國微者然那與其傔從俱為其國所殺其餘黥為官奴而幼者皆為所害又言安南據占城城池欲併吞滿剌加之地本國以皆為王臣未敢興兵與戰適安南使臣亦來朝端亞媽剌的那查乞與廷辨兵部尚書陳鉞以為此已往事不必深校宜戒其將來 上乃因安南使臣還諭其王黎灝曰爾國與滿剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦結好藩屏王室豈可自恃富強以幹國典以貪天禍滿剌加使臣所奏朝廷雖未輕信爾亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其國複諭滿剌加使臣曰自古聖王之馭四夷不追咎于既往安南果複侵陵爾國宜訓練士馬以禦之
- Wade 2005, p. 2078/79
- Leo K. Shin (2007). "Ming China and Its Border with Annam". In Diana Lary (ed.). The Chinese State at the Borders (PDF) (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. p. 92. ISBN 0774813334. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 49-明实录宪宗实录-- > 106-明宪宗纯皇帝实录卷之一百六". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 January 2013.
Simplified Chinese:○癸亥广东守珠池奉御陈彝奏南海县民为风飘至安南国被其国王编以为军其后逸归言中国人飘泊被留及所为阉禁者百余人奏下户部请移文巡抚镇守等官禁约军民人等毋得指以□贩私通番国且令守珠军人设法堤备从之 Traditional Chinese:○癸亥廣東守珠池奉禦陳彝奏南海縣民為風飄至安南國被其國王編以為軍其後逸歸言中國人飄泊被留及所為閹禁者百余人奏下戶部請移文巡撫鎮守等官禁約軍民人等毋得指以□販私通番國且令守珠軍人設法堤備從之
- Tsai (1996), p. 16 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 16, at Google Books
- Tsai (1996), p. 245 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 245, at Google Books
- Lary (2007), p. 91 The Chinese State at the Borders, p. 91, at Google Books
- Lary, Diana; Leo K. Shin (2007). Diana Lary (ed.). The Chinese State at the Borders (PDF) (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. p. 91. ISBN 0774813334. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Cooke (2011), p. 109 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 109, at Google Books
- Wade 2005, p. 2704/05
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 47-明实录孝宗实录-- > 146-明孝宗敬皇帝实录卷之一百五十三". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
Simplified Chinese:○金星昼见于辰位○辛卯吴瑞者广东文昌县人成化中与同乡刘求等十三人于钦州贸易遭风飘至安南海边罗者得之送本国求等俱发屯田以瑞独少宫之弘治十年国王黎灏卒瑞往东津点军得谅山卫军杨三知归路缘山行九日达龙州主头目韦琛家谋告守备官送还琛不欲久之安南国知之恐泄其国事遣探儿持百金为赎琛少之议未决而凭祥州知州李广宁闻之卒兵夺送于分守官都御史邓廷瓒遣送至京礼部请罪琛为边人之戒奖广宁为土官之劝从之瑞送司礼监给役 Traditional Chinese:○金星晝見於辰位○辛卯吳瑞者廣東文昌縣人成化中與同鄉劉求等十三人於欽州貿易遭風飄至安南海邊羅者得之送本國求等俱發屯田以瑞獨少宮之弘治十年國王黎灝卒瑞往東津點軍得諒山衛軍楊三知歸路緣山行九日達龍州主頭目韋琛家謀告守備官送還琛不欲久之安南國知之恐洩其國事遣探兒持百金為贖琛少之議未決而憑祥州知州李廣寧聞之卒兵奪送於分守官都御史鄧廷瓚遣送至京禮部請罪琛為邊人之戒獎廣寧為土官之勸從之瑞送司禮監給役
- Cooke (2011), p. 108 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 108, at Google Books
- PGS.TSKH; Nguyễn Hải Kế (28 March 2013). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网 (www.dayoo.com). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- PGS.TSKH; Nguyễn Hải Kế (22 April 2013). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网 (www.dayoo.com). Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu; Phan Phu Tiên; Ngô Sĩ Liên, eds. (1993). "Phần 26 (Bản kỷ thực lục Q2(a) Nhà Hậu Lê (1460-1472).)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985-1992). Nhà xuất bản Khoa Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu; Phan Phu Tiên; Ngô Sĩ Liên, eds. (1993). "DVSK Bản Kỷ Thực Lục 12: Nhà Hậu Lê (1460-1472) ... Phần 1(Đại Việt Sử Ký Bản Kỷ Thực Lục Quyển XII [1a] Kỷ Nhà Lê Thánh Tông Thuần Hoàng Đế)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985-1992). Nhà xuất bản Khoa Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Chandler (1987), p. 129 In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History, p. 129, at Google Books
- Andaya (2006), p. 177 The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia, p. 177, at Google Books
- Woodside (1971), p. 66 Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Nguyen and Ch'ing Civil Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century, p. 66, at Google Books
- Fodor's (2012), p. 31 Fodor's See It Vietnam, 3rd Edition, p. 31, at Google Books
- Stearns (2006), p. 1 Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China, p. 1, at Google Books
- Peletz (2009), p. 73 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 73, at Google Books
- Peletz (2009), p. 73 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 73, at Google Books
- Peletz (2009), p. 75 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 75, at Google Books
- Peletz (2009), p. 75 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 75, at Google Books
- Thant Myint-U (2007), p. 126 The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, p. 126, at Google Books
- Yegar (1972), p. 10 The Muslims of Burma, p. 10, at Google Books
- Takkasuilʻ myāʺ Samuiṅʻʺ Sutesana Ṭhāna (2007), p. 57 Myanmar historical research journal, Issue 19, p. 57, at Google Books
- Fleischmann (1981), p. 49 Arakan, Konfliktregion zwischen Birma und Bangladesh: Vorgeschichte und Folgen des Flüchtlingsstroms von 1978, p. 49, at Google Books
- Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Oxford Univ Press 1994.
- Lad, Jateen. "Panoptic Bodies. Black Eunuchs in the Topkapi Palace", Scroope: Cambridge Architecture Journal, No.15, 2003, pp.16–20.
- Hathaway, Jane (2005). Beshir Agha : chief eunuch of the Ottoman imperial harem. Oxford: Oneworld. pp. xii, xiv. ISBN 1-85168-390-9.
- "Journal of the American Medical Association". American Medical Association. 1 January 1898 – via Google Books.
- Remondino, P. C. (1 June 2001). "History of Circumcision". The Minerva Group, Inc. – via Google Books.
- "Les femmes, les eunuques et les guerriers du Soudan".
- Henry G. Spooner (1919). The American Journal of Urology and Sexology, Volume 15. The Grafton Press. p. 522. Retrieved 11 January 2011. "In the Turkish Empire most of the eunuchs are furnished by the monastery Abou-Gerbe in Upper Egypt where the Coptic priests castrate Nubian and Abyssinian boys at about eight years of age and afterward sell them to the Turkish market. The Coptic priests perform the 'complete' operation, that is, they cut away the whole scrotum, testes and penis."
- Northwestern lancet, Volume 17. s.n. 1897. p. 467. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- John O. Hunwick; Eve Troutt Powell (2002). The African diaspora in the Mediterranean lands of Islam. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 1-55876-275-2. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- American Medical Association (1898). The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 30, Issues 1-13. American Medical Association. p. 176. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Akbar-Birbal Anecdotes". Retrieved 2 November 2008.
- "Ghilmans and Eunuchs". Retrieved 2 November 2008.
- Ravaging the Vulnerable: Abuses Against Persons at High Risk of HIV Infection in Bangladesh, Human Rights Watch, August 2003. Report online.
See also: Peoples Union of Civil Liberties (Karnataka) Report on Human Rights Violations Against the Transgender Community, released in September 2003. Reported in Being a Eunuch, By Siddarth Narrain, for Frontline, 14 October 2003.
- Eunuchs 'cut off man's penis'. By Baldev Chauhan, BBC correspondent in Himachal Pradesh. BBC News. Thursday, 24 July 2003.
- "Dancing eunuchs taxing red-faced shopkeepers. Reuters. November 10, 2006". Reuters.com. 10 November 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
- Roller, Lynn (1999). "In search of god the mother". University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-21024-0.
- Dirven, Lucinda (1999). The Palmyrenes of Dura-Europos: A Study of Religious Interaction in Roman Syria. BRILL. p. 296.
- Caner, Daniel (1997). "The Practice and Prohibition of Self-Castration in Early Christianity". Vigiliae Christianae. Brill. 51 (4): 396–415. doi:10.1163/157007297X00291. JSTOR 1583869.
- Hester, David (2005). "Eunuchs and the Postgender Jesus: Matthew 19:12 and Transgressive Sexualities". Journal for the Study of the New Testament. Sage Publications. 28 (1): 13–40. doi:10.1177/0142064X05057772.
- Frend, W. H. C., The Rise of Christianity, Fortress Press, Philadelphia, 1984, p. 374, which in footnote 45 cites Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica VI.8.2
- Moxnes, By Halvor (2004). "Putting Jesus in his place". Westminster John Knox Press: 85. ISBN 978-0-664-22310-6.
- "Yellamma cult of India". Kamat.com. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
- "The Mystery of the Threshold: "Ali" of Southern India". Web.archive.org. 25 November 2006. Archived from the original on 25 November 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
- Christel, Lane (1978). "Christian religion in the Soviet Union". State University of New York Press: 94. ISBN 978-0-87395-327-6.
- "Some members of suicide cult castrated, CNN, March 28, 1997". Cnn.com. 28 March 1997. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
- The Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine at Heartlight.
- EUNUCH Biblical at Gender Tree.
- Reddy, Gayatri, With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India, 310 pp., University of Chicago Press, 2005 ISBN 0-226-70755-5 (see p. 8)
- Jean-Jaques Glassner: Mesopotamian Chronicles. Atlanta 2004, p. 169.
- English translation of Rudople Guilland's essay on Byzantine eunuchs "Les Eunuques dans l'Empire Byzantin: Étude de titulature et de prosopographie byzantines", in 'Études Byzantines', Vol. I (1943), pp. 197–238 with many examples
- Bauer, Susan Wise (2010). The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393078175. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana; Anderson, James, eds. (2011). The Tongking Gulf Through History (illustrated ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812243366. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Keay, John (2010). China: A History. HarperCollins UK. ISBN 0007372086. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Lary, Diana (2007). Diana Lary (ed.). The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. ISBN 0774813334. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Kutcher, Norman (2018). Eunuch and Emperor in the Great Age of Qing Rule. Oakland, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520297524. </ref>
- McMahon, Keith (2013). Women Shall Not Rule: Imperial Wives and Concubines in China from Han to Liao. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1442222905. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Peterson, Barbara Bennett, ed. (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0765619296. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan) (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. ISBN 0791426874. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Tuotuo. Liaoshi [History of Liao]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974 (or Tuotuo, Liaoshi (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974))
- Toqto'a; et al. (1344). Liao Shi (宋史) [History of Liao] (in Chinese).
- Van Derven, H. J., ed. (2000). Warfare in Chinese History. Volume 47 of Sinica Leidensia / Sinica Leidensia (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9004117741. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Wade, Geoff (2005). "Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource". Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore. Retrieved 6 November 2012
- Wang, Yuan-Kang (2013). Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231522401. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- 祝建龙 (Zhu Jianlong) (April 2009). 辽代后宫制度研究 [Research on the System of Imperial Harem in the Liao Dynasty] (Master's thesis) (in Chinese). Jilin University. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "A Eunuch Cooks Boys to Make a Tonic of Male Essence," in Zhang Yingyu, The Book of Swindles: Selections from a Late Ming Collection, translated by Christopher Rea and Bruce Rusk (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2017), pp. 138–141.
- English language Abstracts of the thesis
- [permanent dead link] Research on the System of Imperial Harem in Liao Dynasty
- Research on the System of Imperial Harem in Liao Dynasty
- Research on the System of Imperial Harem in Liao Dynasty
External links and further reading
- "38 rare pictures of eunuchs during Qing Dynasty". China Underground.
- "Born Eunuchs". Well.com.
- "Eunuchs in Pharaonic Egypt". well.com.
- "Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China". Brooklyn.cuny.edu. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008.
- "Long-Term Consequences of Castration in Men: Lessons from the Skoptzy and the Eunuchs of the Chinese and Ottoman Courts". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 84 (12): 4324–4331. 1 December 1999. Archived from the original on 6 September 2012.
- "The Ancient Roman and Talmudic Definition of Natural Eunuchs". well.com.
- "The Eunuch Archive". eunuch.org.
- The Eunuchs of Ming Dynasty China.
- "The Perfect Servant: Eunuchs and the Social Construction of Gender in Byzantium". Findarticles.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007.
- Bahasa Indonesia
- Simple English
- Српски / srpski
- Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
- Tiếng Việt
- This page is based on the Wikipedia article Eunuch; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.