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Matthew 5:13–16 on Papyrus 86 (4th century)
|Book||Gospel of Matthew|
|Christian Bible part||New Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||1|
Matthew 5 is the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. It contains the first portion of the Sermon on the Mount, which will also take up chapters 6 and 7. Portions are similar to the Sermon on the Plain in Luke 6, but much of the material is found only in Matthew. It is one of the most discussed and analyzed chapters of the New Testament. Warren Kissinger reports that among Early Christians no chapter was more often cited by early scholars. The same is true in modern scholarship.
In the Middle Ages an interpretation was developed that the chapter only applied to a select group, and not to the general populace. Reformer Martin Luther, in a discussion of this chapter, was highly critical of the Catholic view. He wrote that "there have fallen upon this [fifth] chapter the vulgar hogs and asses, jurists and sophists, the right hand of the pope and his Mamelukes."
In John Wesley's analysis of the Sermon on the Mount, chapter five outlines "the sum of all true religion", allowing chapter 6 to detail "rules for that right intention which we are to preserve in all our outward actions, unmixed with worldly desires or anxious cares for even the necessaries of life" and chapter 7 to provide "cautions against the main hinderances of religion".
The source of Matthew 5 is uncertain. It contains only a handful of parallels with Mark, but does have a number of loose parallels with Luke's Sermon on the Plain. For those who believe in the two-source hypothesis, it indicates that much of this text likely came from Q. However, Harvey King McArthur notes that the parallels in Luke tend to be very loose, much further away than most areas they overlap. There are also a considerable number of verses that have no parallel in Luke. McArthur thus theorizes that there was an extra step between the sources Matthew and Luke used.
Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:
- Papyrus 64 (Magdalen papyrus) (c. 50–70 to 2nd century)
- Codex Vaticanus (AD 325–350)
- Codex Sinaiticus (AD 330–360)
- Papyrus 86 (4th century; extant verses 13–16, 22–25)
- Codex Bezae (c. AD 400)
- Codex Washingtonianus (c. AD 400)
- Codex Alexandrinus (AD 400–440)
- Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (c. AD 450; extant verses 1–14)
The New King James Version organises this chapter as follows:
- Matthew 5:1–12 – The Beatitudes
- Matthew 5:13–16 – Believers are salt and light
- Matthew 5:17–20 – Christ affirms the Law
- Matthew 5:21–26 – Murder begins in the heart
- Matthew 5:27–30 – Adultery in the heart
- Matthew 5:31–32 – Marriage is sacred and binding
- Matthew 5:33–37 – Jesus forbids oaths
- Matthew 5:38–42 – Go the second mile
- Matthew 5:43–48 – Love your enemies
After a brief introduction (Matthew 5:1–2), the chapter contains the section known as the Beatitudes, which includes some of Jesus' most famous teachings. Theologian Robert H. Gundry suggests the Beatitudes can be divided into two quartets. The first group outlines the persecuted nature of Jesus' disciples, and the rewards they will receive for enduring this condition. The second four list the righteous behaviour which can lead to such persecution. Most scholars feel the ninth Beatitude at Matthew 5:11 is separate from the first eight, as demonstrated by its shift to the second person. Four of the Beatitudes seem to be also in Luke, the rest are only found in Matthew.
The English word used to show the positive nature of the Beatitudes is blessed. A number of scholars note that this is not an ideal translation as in modern English, blessed often means "blessed by God", a meaning not implied by the Greek. William F. Albright and C. S. Mann use the more general word fortunate instead of blessed. R. T. France feels that it should be read as "worthy of congratulation". Lapide supports the New American Bible usage of happy; it directly translates the word beatus in the Vulgate, and it carries the meaning of the Greek. After the Beatitudes there are a series of metaphors, called Salt and Light, that are often seen as commentaries upon them. These include a number of famous phrases such as salt of the earth and city on a hill.
Teachings on the law
The role and importance of the law
- Verse 17 – Jesus states that he has not come to "abolish[a] the law" but to "fulfill"[b] it.
- Verse 18 – Jesus then declares the law to be valid until "Heaven and Earth pass away" and "all things are accomplished[c]".
- Verse 19 – shows a direct correlation between the act of adhering to the Biblical Code, and the righteousness of the individual.
- Verse 20 – Jesus identifies Greater Righteousness[d] as a condition for inclusion in the Kingdom of Heaven.
The NIV translation entitles Matthew 5:17–20 "The Fulfillment of the Law", the NRSV translation entitles it "The Law and the Prophets", the United Bible Societies' "The Greek New Testament", edited by Kurt Aland, Bruce Metzger and others, entitles it the "Teaching about the Law."
This pericope is at the core of the argument about the relationship between the views attributed to Jesus, such as Gospel, Grace, New Covenant, New Commandment, Law of Christ, and those attributed to Moses or the Mosaic Law, and hence on the relationship between the New Testament and Old Testament, Christian views on the old covenant, Law and Gospel, and as a basis of Christian ethics.
The reason for this argument is a disagreement about the proper interpretation of the word "fulfillment" (πληρῶσαι; plerosai). This goes back at least as far as Marcion of Sinope and continues until today. Many modern scholars now consider these four verses to be a prelude to the Antitheses, but this position is not universally accepted, and many continue to interpret Matthew 5:17–20 independent of its textual neighbors.
The sermon then moves to a highly structured discussion ("Ye have heard… But I say unto you") of the "Law and Prophets" or Old Covenant. This section (Matthew 5:17 to Matthew 5:48) is traditionally referred to as the Antitheses, or the Six Antitheses.
Gundry disputes this title: "The sayings are traditionally called 'the Antitheses'. But this designation seems to imply that after stoutly affirming the Law in Matthew 5:17–20, Jesus contradicts it". Instead Gundry argues that Jesus escalates the Law towards "the goal toward which it was already headed, so that we should stop calling these sayings "the Antitheses" and perhaps start calling them "the Culminations".
After the introduction (5:17–20), the next verses are commentaries on six specific topics where Jesus recites a law, starting with two of the Ten Commandments, and then comments on it. This generally sees Jesus impose more rigorous standards. The six antitheses are on:
- You shall not murder in verses 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26
- You shall not commit adultery in verses 27, 28, 29, 30
- Divorce in verses 31 and 32
- Oaths in verses 33, 34, 35, 36, 37
- Eye for an eye in verses 38, 39, 40, 41, 42
- Love thy neighbour as thyself in verses 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48
The Jewish Encyclopedia states:
As Schechter in J.Q.R. x. 11, shows, the expression "Ye have heard…" is an inexact translation of the rabbinical formula (שומע אני), which is only a formal logical interrogation introducing the opposite view as the only correct one: "Ye might deduce from this verse[Lev 19:18] that thou shalt love thy neighbor and hate thine enemy, but I say to you the only correct interpretation is, Love all men, even thine enemies."
Jesus' six antitheses are on six topics. In each of them, Jesus opens the statement with words to the effect: "You have heard it said… but I say to you…" These antitheses only appear in Matthew. At the outset, Jesus made it clear that he greatly respects Old Testament Law in the Torah, and fulfilling the Law was one of his purposes for coming to Earth.
Daniel J. Harrington believes that the community for which Matthew wrote primarily but not exclusively were Jewish Christians. If so, that may explain why Matthew could use Jewish rhetoric and themes without explanation. Harrington says that is not the case for 21st-century Americans and others who read the Gospel today. In the six antitheses Jesus either extends through the Commandment's scope by going to the root of the abuse (avoiding anger and lust to prevent murder and adultery) or going beyond a biblical commandment as in the case of divorce and oaths. Harrington writes that Matthew presents the six antitheses as examples of the principle that Jesus came not to abolish but to fulfill the Law and the Prophets.
Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished. Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven.— Jesus, Matthew 5:17–20
The first antithesis (verses 21–22) attacks anger as the root of murder. The two loosely connected illustrations (23–24, 25–26) point out the value of reconciling with one's enemy.
²¹You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, "Do not murder,[Ex 20:13] and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment." ²²But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother[e] will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to his brother, "Raca,"[f] is answerable to the Sanhedrin. But anyone who says, "You fool!" will be in danger of the fire of hell.— Jesus, Matthew 5:21–22
The second antithesis (verses 27–28) attacks lust as the root of adultery. The sayings about the right eye and the right-hand as causes of scandal (29–30) are further instances of going to the sources of sin.
²⁷You have heard that it was said, "Do not commit adultery."[Ex 20:14] ²⁸But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart. ²⁹If your right eye causes you to sin, gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. ³⁰And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to go into hell.— Jesus, Matthew 5:27–30
³¹It has been said, "Anyone who divorces his wife must give her a certificate of divorce."[Deut. 24:1] ³²But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for marital unfaithfulness, causes her to become an adulteress, and anyone who marries the divorced woman commits adultery.— Jesus, Matthew 5:31–32
The fourth antithesis (verses 33–37) about oaths says to avoid oaths entirely so as never to swear falsely.
³³Again, you have heard that it was said to the people long ago, "Do not break your oath, but keep the oaths you have made to the Lord." ³⁴But I tell you, Do not swear at all: either by heaven, for it is God's throne; ³⁵or by the earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. ³⁶And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make even one hair white or black. ³⁷Simply let your "Yes" be "Yes," and your "No," "No"; anything beyond this comes from the evil one.— Jesus, Matthew 5:33–37
An eye for an eye
The fifth antithesis on non-retaliation (verses 38–39a) also urges the followers of Jesus to not seek revenge through violence. The examples not only prohibit violence, but also require that brutality and force be met with goodness.
³⁸You have heard that it was said, "Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth."[Ex 21:24] [Lev 24:20] [Deu 19:21] ³⁹But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. ⁴⁰And if someone wants to sue you and take your tunic, let him have your cloak as well. ⁴¹If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. ⁴²Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.— Jesus, Matthew 5:38–42
Love for enemies
The final antithesis (verses 43–48) defines "neighbor". Here Jesus urges that love include even enemies instead of restricting love only to those who either can benefit us or who already love us.
⁴³You have heard that it was said, "Love your neighbor[Lev 19:18] and hate your enemy." ⁴⁴But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, ⁴⁵that you may be sons of your Father in heaven. He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. ⁴⁶If you love those who love you, what reward will you get? Are not even the tax collectors doing that? ⁴⁷And if you greet only your brothers, what are you doing more than others? Do not even pagans do that? ⁴⁸Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.— Jesus, Matthew 5:43–47
- Matthew 5:1
- Matthew 5:2
- Matthew 5:3
- Matthew 5:4
- Matthew 5:5
- Matthew 5:6
- Matthew 5:7
- Matthew 5:8
- Matthew 5:9
- Matthew 5:10
- Matthew 5:11
- Matthew 5:12
- Matthew 5:13
- Matthew 5:14
- Matthew 5:15
- Matthew 5:16
- Matthew 5:17
- Matthew 5:18
- Matthew 5:19
- Matthew 5:20
- Matthew 5:21
- Matthew 5:22
- Matthew 5:23
- Matthew 5:24
- Matthew 5:25
- Matthew 5:26
- Matthew 5:27
- Matthew 5:28
- Matthew 5:29
- Matthew 5:30
- Matthew 5:31
- Matthew 5:32
- Matthew 5:33
- Matthew 5:34
- Matthew 5:35
- Matthew 5:36
- Matthew 5:37
- Matthew 5:38
- Matthew 5:39
- Matthew 5:40
- Matthew 5:41
- Matthew 5:42
- Matthew 5:43
- Matthew 5:44
- Matthew 5:45
- Matthew 5:46
- Matthew 5:47
- Matthew 5:48
In the King James Version chapter five reads:
Old Testament references
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