Ezhimala (hill, Kannur)

Ezhimala
Ezhimala beach.JPG
Ezhimala
Highest point
Elevation 286 m (938 ft)
Coordinates 12°01′06″N 75°12′57″E / 12.01833°N 75.21583°E / 12.01833; 75.21583
Geography
Ezhimala is located in Kerala
Ezhimala
Ezhimala
Location of Ezhimala
Location Kerala, India
Country India
Parent range Independent, adjacent to the Arabian Sea
Naval Academy, Ezhimala

Ezhimala, a hill reaching a height of 286 metres, is located near Payyanur, in Kannur district of Kerala, south India. It is a part of a conspicuous and isolated cluster of hills, forming a promontory, 38 km north of Kannur (Cannanore). The Indian Naval Academy at Ezhimala is the Asia's largest, and the world's third-largest, naval academy.[1][2][3]

As the former capital of the ancient Kolathunadu Kingdom of the Mushikas, Ezhimala is considered to be an important historical site. A flourishing seaport and center of trade around the beginning of the Common Era, it was also one of the major battlefields of the Chola-Chera Wars, in the 11th century. It is believed by some that Buddha had visited Ezhimala. The Kolathunadu (Kannur) Kingdom at the peak of its power, reportedly extended from Netravati River (Mangalore) in the north to Korapuzha (Kozhikode) in the south with Arabian Sea on the west and Kodagu hills on the eastern boundary, also including the isolated islands of Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea.[4]

Etymology

The hills is also known as Elimala, Mooshika Sailam and Sapta Sailam. The hill had been named Monte d'Eli by the Portuguese.[5] and was known as Mount Delly, Mount Dilly, Delyn,[6] or Mount Eli to the British.

Backwaters in Ezhimala

History

The ancient port of Naura, which is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as a port somewhere north of Muziris is somewhere near Ezhimala.[7]

Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE)

Pliny the Elder (1st century CE) states that the port of Tyndis was located at the northwestern border of Keprobotos (Chera dynasty).[8] The North Malabar region, which lies north of the port at Tyndis, was ruled by the kingdom of Ezhimala during Sangam period.[9] According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a region known as Limyrike began at Naura and Tyndis. However the Ptolemy mentions only Tyndis as the Limyrike's starting point. The region probably ended at Kanyakumari; it thus roughly corresponds to the present-day Malabar Coast. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces.[10] Pliny the Elder mentioned that Limyrike was prone by pirates.[11] The Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned that the Limyrike was a source of peppers.[12][13]

Ezhimala kingdom based at Ezhimala had jurisdiction over two Nadus - The coastal Poozhinadu and the hilly eastern Karkanadu. According to the works of Sangam literature, Poozhinadu consisted much of the coastal belt between Mangalore and Kozhikode.[14] Karkanadu consisted of Wayanad-Gudalur hilly region with parts of Kodagu (Coorg).[15] It is said that Nannan, the most renowned ruler of Ezhimala dynasty, took refuge at Wayanad hills in 5th century CE when he was lost to Cheras, just before his execution in a battle, according to the Sangam works.[15] Ezhimala kingdom was succeeded by Mushika dynasty in the early medieval period, most possibly due to the migration of Tuluva Brahmins from Tulu Nadu. An Old Malayalam inscription (Ramanthali inscriptions), dated to 1075 CE, mentioning king Kunda Alupa, the ruler of Alupa dynasty of Mangalore, can be found at Ezhimala.[16] The Indian anthropologist Ayinapalli Aiyappan states that a powerful and warlike clan of the Bunt community of Tulu Nadu was called Kola Bari and the Kolathiri Raja of Kolathunadu was a descendant of this clan.[17] The Arabic inscription on a copper slab within the Madayi Mosque, which lies about 3 km away from Ezhimala, records its foundation year as 1124 CE.[18] The Kolathunadu (Kannur) Kingdom at the peak of its power, reportedly extended from Netravati River (Mangalore) in the north to Korapuzha (Kozhikode) in the south with Arabian Sea on the west and Kodagu hills on the eastern boundary, also including the isolated islands of Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea.[4]

Ezhimala, which is part of Ramanthali panchayath, is one of the most important places in the recorded history of north Malabar. From before the period of known history, some chapters of the Ramayana and local Hindu legends associate the Ezhimala Hills with the famous epic, in particular with Hanuman.[19][20]

Ezhimala, Pazhayangadi, and several villages and towns in this region find plenty of mention in the extant Tamil Sangam Period's literature (500 BC to 300 AD). Pazhayangadi is the present corrupted form of its ancient name of Pazhi. Pazhi is mentioned as the ancient capital of King Udayan Venmon Nannan (known as Nannan or Nandan) of the Mushika or Kolathiri Royal Family. Though the Dynasty of Nannans was a cousin or sister dynasty of the Cheras and Pandyas and Cholas, warfare among them was nearly consistent, and the period of Nannan was no exception.[21][22][23][24] There are texts that speak of Nannan fighting heroic battles at Pazhi against the Chera Kings who invaded his kingdom (Kolathunadu). Eventually, Nannan was killed in battle by the Chera king, Narmudi Cheral. Like the other kings of the then Tamilakam cultural polity, Narmudi Cheral was a great patron of scholars and poets, and he once gifted his court-poet, Kappiyattu Kappiyanar with 40 lakhs gold coins, as a token of his poetic genius.

North Malabar was a hub of Indian Ocean trade during the era. According to Kerala Muslim tradition, Kolathunadu was home to several oldest mosques in Indian subcontinent. According to the Legend of Cheraman Perumals, the first Indian mosque was built in 624 AD at Kodungallur with the mandate of the last the ruler (the Cheraman Perumal) of Chera dynasty, who left from Dharmadom to Mecca and converted to Islam during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (c. 570–632).[25][26][27][28] According to Qissat Shakarwati Farmad, the Masjids at Kodungallur, Kollam, Madayi, Barkur, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Dharmadam, Panthalayani, and Chaliyam, were built during the era of Malik Dinar, and they are among the oldest Masjids in Indian Subcontinent.[29] It is believed that Malik Dinar was died at Thalangara in Kasaragod town.[30] Most of them lies in the erstwhile region of Ezhimala kingdom. Most of them lies in North Malabar region, which was earlier under the kingdom of Ezhimala. The Koyilandy Jumu'ah Mosque contains an Old Malayalam inscription written in a mixture of Vatteluttu and Grantha scripts which dates back to 10th century CE.[31] It is a rare surviving document recording patronage by a Hindu king (Bhaskara Ravi) to the Muslims of Kerala.[31] The Arabic inscription on a copper slab within the Madayi Mosque in records its foundation year as 1124 CE.[32][33] The 16th century Tuhfat Ul Mujahideen also states about Madayi.[34] Madayi is located just 5 km away from Ezhimala.

Extant Tamil Sangam texts describe the glory and wealth of the ancient Pazhi in the highest terms.[35] Sangam Era poets, as well as Classical Tamil poets of later centuries, like Paranar, speak of the wealth of Pazhi in the greatest degree. One of the Sangam pieces, Akam 173 speaks of "Nannan's great mountain slopes where goldfields abound, and long bamboos dried in the Sun burst and released the unfinished pearls."[35] Noted scholar, Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai states that "It is from Kottayam (of North Malabar) and Cannanore regions of old Ezhimalainad that innumerable Roman (gold) coins have been excavated. On one (single) occasion (gold) coins that could be carried by six porters were obtained. These coins were found to belong to the period down to 491 AD".[35]

Ezhimala was also a flourishing seaport and center of trade at least by the start of the Common Era; and later was also one of the major battlefields of the series of Chola-Chera Wars in the 11th century; some believe that Buddha had visited Ezhimala.

The Mushika-vamsha Mahakavya, written by Athula in the 11th century, throws light on the recorded past of the Mushika Royal Family up until that point.[36][37] The first recorded king of Mooshika Vamsham (the Mooshika Dynasty) was Ramaghata Mooshika and his capital most probably was Pazhi (ancient Pazhayangadi). Athulan describes the later kings of this dynasty who are now better known as the Kolathiri Dynasty and Mannanar.[38] King Ramaghata Mooshika's successors shifted their capital to Ezhimala, Valabhapattanam (Valapattanam), and eventually Chirakkal, among other nearby places, over the following centuries.

Indian Naval Academy

The Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, inaugurated the Indian Naval Academy in Ezhimala, which is the largest in Asia, on 8 January 2009. This institution trains officer candidates of the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard.[39]

Transportation

The national highway passes through Perumba junction. Mangalore, Goa and Mumbai can be accessed on the northern side and Cochin and Thiruvananthapuram can be accessed on the southern side. The road to the east of Iritty connects to Mysore and Bangalore. The nearest railway station is Payyanur on Mangalore-Palakkad line. There are airports at Mangalore, Kannur and Calicut.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Navy-Training Academy-proposed Expansion". Deccan Herald. 11 August 2017.
  2. ^ "Asia's largest naval academy opened". Arab News. 10 January 2009.
  3. ^ https://www.facebook.com/IndianNavy/videos/390383354649864/
  4. ^ a b Sreedhara Menon, A. (2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. p. 175. ISBN 978-8126415885. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  5. ^ Edgar Thurston (1913). The Madras Presidency. Cambridge University Press. p. 167.
  6. ^ A Relation of Some Yeares Travaile, Begunne Anno 1626. Into Afrique and the Greater Asia., by Thomas Herbert
  7. ^ Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007). A Survey of Kerala History. DC Books. ISBN 9788126415786.
  8. ^ Gurukkal, R., & Whittaker, D. (2001). In search of Muziris. Journal of Roman Archaeology, 14, 334-350.
  9. ^ A. Shreedhara Menon, A Survey of Kerala History
  10. ^ According to Pliny the Elder, goods from India were sold in the Empire at 100 times their original purchase price. See [1]
  11. ^ Bostock, John (1855). "26 (Voyages to India)". Pliny the Elder, The Natural History. London: Taylor and Francis.
  12. ^ Indicopleustes, Cosmas (1897). Christian Topography. 11. United Kingdom: The Tertullian Project. pp. 358–373.
  13. ^ Das, Santosh Kumar (2006). The Economic History of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 301.
  14. ^ District Census Handbook, Kasaragod (2011) (PDF). Thiruvananthapuram: Directorate of Census Operation, Kerala. p. 9.
  15. ^ a b Government of India (2014–15). District Census Handbook – Wayanad (Part-B) 2011 (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala.
  16. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 483.
  17. ^ Ayinapalli, Aiyappan (1982). The Personality of Kerala. Department of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 162. Retrieved 27 July 2018. A very powerful and warlike section of the Bants of Tulunad was known as Kola bari. It is reasonable to suggest that the Kola dynasty was part of the Kola lineages of Tulunad.
  18. ^ Charles Alexander Innes (1908). Madras District Gazetteers Malabar (Volume-I). Madras Government Press. p. 423-424.
  19. ^ Murkot Ramunny (1 January 1993). Ezhimala: The Abode of the Naval Academy. Northern Book Centre. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-81-7211-052-9.
  20. ^ Kerala (India); C. K. Kareem (1976). Kerala District Gazetteers: Palghat. printed by the Superintendent of Govt. Presses.
  21. ^ Indian History. 1988. ISBN 9788184245684.
  22. ^ "marriage+alliances" Glimpses of Tamil civilization. 1994. ISBN 9788170902119.
  23. ^ Leela Devi, R. (1986). "History of Kerala".
  24. ^ Congress, Indian History (1981). "Proceedings of the Indian History Congress".
  25. ^ Jonathan Goldstein (1999). The Jews of China. M. E. Sharpe. p. 123. ISBN 9780765601049.
  26. ^ Edward Simpson; Kai Kresse (2008). Struggling with History: Islam and Cosmopolitanism in the Western Indian Ocean. Columbia University Press. p. 333. ISBN 978-0-231-70024-5. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  27. ^ Uri M. Kupferschmidt (1987). The Supreme Muslim Council: Islam Under the British Mandate for Palestine. Brill. pp. 458–459. ISBN 978-90-04-07929-8. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  28. ^ Husain Raṇṭattāṇi (2007). Mappila Muslims: A Study on Society and Anti Colonial Struggles. Other Books. pp. 179–. ISBN 978-81-903887-8-8. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  29. ^ Prange, Sebastian R. Monsoon Islam: Trade and Faith on the Medieval Malabar Coast. Cambridge University Press, 2018. 98.
  30. ^ Pg 58, Cultural heritage of Kerala: an introduction, A. Sreedhara Menon, East-West Publications, 1978
  31. ^ a b Aiyer, K. V. Subrahmanya (ed.), South Indian Inscriptions. VIII, no. 162, Madras: Govt of India, Central Publication Branch, Calcutta, 1932. p. 69.
  32. ^ Muhammad, K. M. (1999). Arab Relations with Malabar Coast from 9th to 16th centuries. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. pp. 226–234.
  33. ^ Charles Alexander Innes (1908). Madras District Gazetteers Malabar (Volume-I). Madras Government Press. p. 423-424.
  34. ^ S. Muhammad Hussain Nainar (1942). Tuhfat-al-Mujahidin: An Historical Work in The Arabic Language. University of Madras.
  35. ^ a b c Ramunny, Murkot (1993). Ezhimala. ISBN 9788172110529.
  36. ^ "Ouch, Something seems wrong!!".
  37. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ P.J Rajendran (2000). Kshethravinjanakosam. D.C.Books publishing, Google books. p. 103. ISBN 9788126402540.
  39. ^ http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=46464&kwd=

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