First Continental Congress

First Continental Congress
Coat of arms or logo
Established September 5, 1774
Disbanded October 26, 1774
Preceded by Stamp Act Congress
Succeeded by Second Continental Congress
Peyton Randolph
  (through October 22, 1774)
Henry Middleton
Seats 56 from 12 of the 13 colonies
Meeting place
Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia

The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from 12 of the 13 British colonies that became the United States. It met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after the British Navy instituted a blockade of Boston Harbor and Parliament passed the punitive Intolerable Acts in response to the December 1773 Boston Tea Party. During the opening weeks of the Congress, the delegates conducted a spirited discussion about how the colonies could collectively respond to the British government's coercive actions, and they worked to make common cause. A plan was proposed to create a Union of Great Britain and the Colonies, but the delegates rejected it. They ultimately agreed to impose an economic boycott on British trade, and they drew up a Petition to the King pleading for redress of their grievances and repeal of the Intolerable Acts. That appeal had no effect, so the colonies convened the Second Continental Congress the following May, shortly after the battles of Lexington and Concord, to organize the defense of the colonies at the outset of the Revolutionary War. The delegates also urged each colony to set up and train its own militia.


The Congress met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, in Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia; delegates from 12 British colonies participated. They were elected by the people of the various colonies, the colonial legislature, or by the Committee of Correspondence of a colony.[1] Loyalist sentiments outweighed Patriot views in Georgia, and that colony did not join the cause until the following year.[2]

Peyton Randolph was elected as president of the Congress on the opening day, and he served through October 22 when ill health forced him to retire, and Henry Middleton was elected in his place for the balance of the session. Charles Thomson, leader of the Philadelphia Committee of Correspondence, was selected as the congressional secretary.[3] The rules adopted by the delegates were designed to guard the equality of participants and to promote free-flowing debate.[1]

As the deliberations progressed, it became clear that those in attendance were not of one mind concerning why they were there. Conservatives such as Joseph Galloway, John Dickinson, John Jay, and Edward Rutledge believed their task to be forging policies to pressure Parliament to rescind its unreasonable acts. Their ultimate goal was to develop a reasonable solution to the difficulties and bring about reconciliation between the Colonies and Great Britain. Others such as Patrick Henry, Roger Sherman, Samuel Adams, and John Adams believed their task to be developing a decisive statement of the rights and liberties of the Colonies. Their ultimate goal was to end what they felt to be the abuses of parliamentary authority and to retain their rights, which had been guaranteed under Colonial charters and the English constitution.[4]

Roger Sherman denied the legislative authority of Parliament, and Patrick Henry believed that the Congress needed to develop a completely new system of government, independent from Great Britain, for the existing Colonial governments were already dissolved.[5] In contrast to these ideas, Joseph Galloway put forward a "Plan of Union" which suggested that an American legislative body should be formed with some authority, whose consent would be required for imperial measures.[5][6]

Declaration and Resolves

In the end, the voices of compromise carried the day. Rather than calling for independence, the First Continental Congress passed and signed the Continental Association in its Declaration and Resolves, which called for a boycott of British goods to take effect in December 1774. It requested that local Committees of Safety enforce the boycott and regulate local prices for goods. These resolutions adopted by the Congress did not endorse any legal power of Parliament to regulate trade, but consented, nonetheless, to the operation of acts for that purpose. Furthermore, they did not repudiate control by the royal prerogative, which was explicitly acknowledged in the Petition to the King a few days later.


The primary accomplishment of the First Continental Congress was a compact among the colonies to boycott British goods beginning on December 1, 1774 unless parliament should rescind the Intolerable Acts.[7] Additionally, Great Britain's colonies in the West Indies were threatened with a boycott unless they agreed to non-importation of British goods.[8] Imports from Britain dropped by 97 percent in 1775, compared with the previous year.[7] Committees of observation and inspection were to be formed in each Colony to ensure compliance with the boycott. It was further agreed that if the Intolerable Acts were not repealed, the colonies would also cease exports to Britain after September 10, 1775.[7]

The Houses of Assembly of each participating colony approved the proceedings of the Congress, with the exception of New York.[9] The boycott was successfully implemented, but its potential for altering British colonial policy was cut off by the outbreak of hostilities in April 1775.

Congress also voted to meet again the following year if their grievances were not addressed satisfactorily. Anticipating that there would be cause to convene a second congress, delegates resolved to send letters of invitation to those colonies that had not joined them in Philadelphia, including: Quebec, Saint John's Island, Nova Scotia, Georgia, East Florida, and West Florida.[10] Of these, only Georgia would ultimately send delegates to the next Congress.

List of delegates


  1. ^ a b Future U.S. president.[11]
  2. ^ a b c d e Appointed by the Committee of Fifty-one of the city and county of New York and authorized by the counties of Albany, Duchess, and Westchester.
  3. ^ For Suffolk County.
  4. ^ a b Appointed by the general meeting of all the committees of Orange County.
  5. ^ a b Future U.S. Supreme Court chief justice.[11]
  6. ^ a b Ultimately became a loyalist.
  7. ^ a b Served as president of the Congress.


1774 Address to the King.jpg Articles.JPG
American Revolution Bicentennial Carpenters' Hall 10c 1974 issue U.S. stamp.jpg American Revolution Bicentennial We Ask But For Peace... 10c 1974 issue U.S. stamp.jpg
200th anniversary of the First Continental Congress
commemorated on two 10-cent U.S. postage stamps
of the 1971–1983 Bicentennial Series

See also


  1. ^ a b c "First Continental Congress: Proceedings of the First Continental Congress". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Independence Hall Association. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  2. ^ Cashin, Edward J. (March 26, 2005). "Revolutionary War in Georgia". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities and the University of Georgia Press. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  3. ^ Risjord, Norman K. (2002). Jefferson's America, 1760–1815. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 114.
  4. ^ McLaughlin, Andrew C. (1936). "A constitutional History of the United States". New York, London: D. Appleton-Century Company. pp. 83–90. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  5. ^ a b Greene, Evarts Boutell (1922). The Foundations of American Nationality. American Book Company. p. 434.
  6. ^ Miller, Marion Mills (1913). Great Debates in American Hist: From the Debates in the British Parliament on the Colonial Stamp. Current Literature Pub. Co. p. 91.
  7. ^ a b c Kramnick, Isaac (ed); Thomas Paine (1982). Common Sense. Penguin Classics. p. 21.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Ketchum, p. 262.
  9. ^ Launitz-Schurer p. 144.
  10. ^ Frothingham, Richard (1872). The Rise of the Republic of the United States. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, and Company. pp. 375–376. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Continental Congress". A&E Television Networks. October 3, 2018 [Originally published February 4, 2010]. Retrieved April 30, 2019.


External links

Preceded by
Stamp Act Congress
First Continental Congress
September 5 – October 26, 1774
Succeeded by
Second Continental Congress