French Fifth Republic

French Republic

République française
Motto:  "Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité"  (French)
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem:  "La Marseillaise"
Location of France (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of  France (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Paris
48°51.4′N 2°21.05′E / 48.8567°N 2.35083°E / 48.8567; 2.35083
Official language
and national language
French[I]
Government Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
•  President
Emmanuel Macron
Jean Castex
Legislature Parliament
•  Upper house
Senate
•  Lower house
National Assembly
Establishment
4 October 1958 (62 years)
Currency
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Calling code +33[II]
ISO 3166 code FR
Internet TLD .fr[III]

The Fifth Republic (French: Cinquième République), France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.[1] The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential (or dual-executive) system[2] that split powers between a prime minister as head of government and a president as head of state.[3] De Gaulle, who was the first French president elected under the Fifth Republic in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation ("the spirit of the nation").[4]

The Fifth Republic is France's third-longest-lasting political regime, after the hereditary and feudal monarchies of the Ancien Régime (Late Middle Ages – 1792) and the parliamentary Third Republic (1870–1940). The Fifth Republic will overtake the Third Republic as the second-longest-lasting regime and the longest-lasting French republic if it survives to July 11, 2028.

Origins

The trigger for the collapse of the Fourth French Republic was the Algiers crisis of 1958. France was still a colonial power, although conflict and revolt had begun the process of decolonization. French West Africa, French Indochina, and French Algeria still sent representatives to the French parliament under systems of limited suffrage in the French Union. Algeria in particular, despite being the colony with the largest French population, saw rising pressure for separation from Metropolitan France. The situation was complicated by those in Algeria, such as European settlers and many native Jews, who wanted to maintain the union with France. The Algerian War was not just a separatist movement but had elements of a civil war. Further complications came when a section of the French Army rebelled and openly backed the Algérie française movement to defeat separation.[5][page needed] Charles de Gaulle, who had retired from politics a decade before, placed himself in the midst of the crisis, calling on the nation to suspend the government and create a new constitutional system. De Gaulle was carried to power by the inability of the parliament to choose a government, popular protest, and the last parliament of the Fourth Republic voting for their dissolution and the convening of a constitutional convention.[6]

The Fourth Republic suffered from a lack of political consensus, a weak executive, and governments forming and falling in quick succession since 1946. With no party or coalition able to sustain a parliamentary majority, prime ministers found themselves unable to risk their political position with unpopular reforms.[7][page needed]

De Gaulle and his supporters proposed a system of strong presidents elected for seven-year terms. The president, under the proposed constitution, would have executive powers to run the country in consultation with a prime minister whom he would appoint. On 1 June 1958, Charles de Gaulle was appointed head of the government;[8] on 3 June 1958, a constitutional law empowered the new government to draft a new constitution of France,[1] and another law granted Charles de Gaulle and his cabinet the power to rule by decree for up to six months, except on certain matters related to the basic rights of citizens (criminal law, etc.[vague]).[9] These plans were approved by more than 80% of those who voted in the referendum of 28 September 1958.[10] The new constitution was signed into law on 4 October 1958.[11] Since each new constitution established a new republic, France moved from the Fourth to the Fifth Republic.

The new constitution contained transitional clauses (articles 90–92) extending the period of rule by decree until the new institutions were operating. René Coty remained president of the Republic until the new president was proclaimed. On 21 December 1958, Charles de Gaulle was elected president of France by an electoral college.[12] The provisional constitutional commission, acting in lieu of the constitutional council, proclaimed the results of the election on 9 January 1959. The new president began his office on that date, appointing Michel Debré as prime minister.

The 1958 constitution also replaced the French Union with the French Community, which allowed fourteen member territories (excluding Algeria) to assert their independence.[13] 1960 became known as the "Year of Africa" because of this wave of newly independent states.[14] Algeria became independent on 5 July 1962.

Evolution

The president was initially elected by an electoral college but in 1962 de Gaulle proposed that the president be directly elected by the citizens and held a referendum on the change. Although the method and intent of de Gaulle in that referendum were contested by most political groups except for the Gaullists, the change was approved by the French electorate.[15] The Constitutional Council declined to rule on the constitutionality of the referendum.[16]

The president is now elected every five years, changed from seven by a constitutional referendum in 2000, to reduce the probability of cohabitation due to former differences in the length of terms for the National Assembly and presidency. The president is elected in one or two rounds of voting: if one candidate gets a majority of votes in the first round that person is president-elect; if no one gets a majority in the first round, the two candidates with the greatest number of votes go to a second round.

Two major changes occurred in the 1970s regarding constitutional checks and balances.[17] Traditionally, France operated according to parliamentary supremacy: no authority was empowered to rule on whether statutes passed by Parliament respected the constitutional rights of the citizens.[18] In 1971, however, the Constitutional Council, arguing that the preamble of the constitution referenced the rights defined in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and the preamble of the 1946 constitution, concluded that statutes must respect these rights and so declared partially unconstitutional a statute because it violated freedom of association.[19] Only the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, or the president of either house of Parliament could ask for a constitutional review before a statute was signed into law—which greatly reduces the likelihood of such a review if all these officeholders happened to be from the same side of politics, which was the case at the time. Then in 1974, a constitutional amendment widened this prerogative to 60 members of the National Assembly or 60 members of the senate.[20] From that date, the opposition has been able to have controversial new statutes examined for constitutionality.[21]

Presidents of the Fifth Republic

  Socialist (PS)   Centrist (CD)   Centrist (REM)   Republican (UDF)   Gaullist (UDR; RPR)   Neo-Gaullist (UMP)

No. President Lived from to Party
1 Charles de Gaulle 1890–1970 8 January 1959 28 April 1969 (resigned) Independent
- Alain Poher 1909–1996 28 April 1969 15 June 1969 (interim) CD
2 Georges Pompidou 1911–1974 15 June 1969 2 April 1974 (died in office) UDR
- Alain Poher 1909–1996 2 April 1974 19 May 1974 (interim) CD
3 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 1926–2020 19 May 1974 21 May 1981 UDF
4 François Mitterrand 1916–1996 21 May 1981 17 May 1995 Socialist
5 Jacques Chirac 1932–2019 17 May 1995 16 May 2007 RPR then UMP
6 Nicolas Sarkozy b. 1955 16 May 2007 15 May 2012 UMP
7 François Hollande b. 1954 15 May 2012 14 May 2017 Socialist
8 Emmanuel Macron b. 1977 14 May 2017 Incumbent REM

Source: "Les présidents de la République depuis 1848" [Presidents of the Republic Since 1848] (in French). Présidence de la République française.

President image gallery

Prime Ministers of the Fifth Republic

Current prime minister, Jean Castex of La République En Marche!

  Socialist (PS)   Centrist (REM)   Republican (UDF)   Gaullist (UNR; UDR; RPR)   Neo-Gaullist (UMP; LR)

Name Term start Term end Political party President
Michel Debré 8 January 1959 14 April 1962 UNR Charles de Gaulle
(1959–1969)
Georges Pompidou 14 April 1962 10 July 1968 UNR then UDR
Maurice Couve de Murville 10 July 1968 20 June 1969 UDR
Jacques Chaban-Delmas 20 June 1969 6 July 1972 UDR Georges Pompidou
(1969–1974)
Pierre Messmer 6 July 1972 27 May 1974 UDR
Jacques Chirac (1st term) 27 May 1974 26 August 1976 UDR Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
(1974–1981)
Raymond Barre 26 August 1976 21 May 1981 Independent
Pierre Mauroy 21 May 1981 17 July 1984 Socialist François Mitterrand
(1981–1995)
Laurent Fabius 17 July 1984 20 March 1986 Socialist
Jacques Chirac (2nd term) 20 March 1986 10 May 1988 RPR
Michel Rocard 10 May 1988 15 May 1991 Socialist
Édith Cresson 15 May 1991 2 April 1992 Socialist
Pierre Bérégovoy 2 April 1992 29 March 1993 Socialist
Édouard Balladur 29 March 1993 18 May 1995 RPR
Alain Juppé 18 May 1995 3 June 1997 RPR Jacques Chirac
(1995–2007)
Lionel Jospin 3 June 1997 6 May 2002 Socialist
Jean-Pierre Raffarin 6 May 2002 31 May 2005 UMP
Dominique de Villepin 31 May 2005 17 May 2007 UMP
François Fillon 17 May 2007 15 May 2012 UMP Nicolas Sarkozy
(2007–2012)
Jean-Marc Ayrault 15 May 2012 31 March 2014 Socialist François Hollande
(2012–2017)
Manuel Valls 31 March 2014 6 December 2016 Socialist
Bernard Cazeneuve 6 December 2016 10 May 2017 Socialist
Édouard Philippe 15 May 2017 3 July 2020 LR then
Independent
Emmanuel Macron
(since 2017)
Jean Castex 3 July 2020 Incumbent REM

Source: "Former Prime Ministers of the Fifth Republic". Government of France.

Institutions of the Fifth Republic

See also

Copyright