General of The Salvation Army

General of The Salvation Army
Salvation Army - General.svg
Rank insignia of General
Standard of the Salvation Army.svg
Standard of the Salvation Army
Peddle IHQ.png
Incumbent
Brian Peddle

since 3 August 2018
The Salvation Army
Style General
Type Chief Executive Officer
Residence London, United Kingdom
Appointer High Council,
but must be under 68 years old
Term length Five years,
extendable up to a maximum of seven years
Constituting instrument Parliament of the United Kingdom[1][note 1]
Formation 2 July 1865
First holder William Booth

General is the title of the international leader and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Salvation Army, a Christian denomination with extensive charitable social services that gives quasi-military rank to its ministers (who are therefore known as officers). The General is elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army and serves a term of five years, which may be extended to seven years. Brian Peddle, the current general, assumed the position in August 2018 upon the retirement of Andre Cox. The organisation's founder, William Booth, was the first and longest-serving general. There have been 21 generals as of 2018.

History and procedures for election

Usage of the term "general" began with the founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. His wife, Catherine Booth, the organisation's co-founder, became known as the "Mother" of The Salvation Army. General Booth served as general until his death in 1912; Booth selected his son, Bramwell Booth as his successor. It was William Booth's intention to have each general choose his successor, but the Salvation Army Act of 1931 passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom requires that each general is selected by the High Council of The Salvation Army. Every general since Bramwell Booth has been selected by the High Council.[1] In accordance with the Salvation Army Act of 1931, a general must "retire" at age 68 and may serve as long as seven years.[2] The general is elected by the High Council when his predecessor retires or dies (known within the Salvation Army as being promoted to Glory). William Booth was the only general to die in office. The High Council is composed of the Chief of the Staff, all active commissioners, except the spouse of the incumbent general, and all territorial commanders. The High Council may also remove a general from office for violations of his "covenant to God", disability, or the inability to fulfill his duties, though this has never happened.

The officer of the Salvation Army who is elected general is the worldwide spiritual leader of the Salvation Army and the chief executive officer of the organization. The general has a role that is similar to the Pope's role within the Catholic Church. Since The Salvation Army maintains a hierarchical, quasi-military structure, all appointments and regulations are issued under the general's authority.

Three women have been elected General of the Salvation Army: Evangeline Booth, William Booths's daughter, in 1934, Eva Burrows in 1986, and Linda Bond in 2011.

On January 31, 2011, after 10 days of meetings which began on January 21, 2011, the 17th High Council elected Linda Bond as the 19th General of The Salvation Army. Bond was the third woman to hold the post and the fourth Canadian. This election was handled by the largest High Council in history and was especially significant due to the number of women delegates (57) outnumbering the number of men delegates (52).[3]

On 3 August 2013 the then-Commissioner Andre Cox was elected by the High Council of 2013 as the 20th General of The Salvation Army.[4] The High Council of 2018 selected Brian Peddle as Cox's successor in May 2018; he took office in August 2018. [5]

List of living retired Generals

As of December 2020, there are five retired generals living. The most recent general to die was Bramwell Tillsley in November 2019.

Leadership

The general serves as the Chief executive officer (CEO) of The Salvation Army at the international level, but the organization is divided into many subunits controlled by other individuals. For instance, Commissioner David Hudson, appointed by Cox, serves as the CEO of The Salvation Army of the United States.

Generals of The Salvation Army

No. Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Nationality
Took office Left office Time in office
1 William Booth.jpg William Booth OBE
(1829–1912)
2 July 1865 20 August 1912 † 47 years, 49 days United Kingdom
2 Bramwell Booth 1910-1915.jpg Bramwell Booth CH
(1856–1929)
21 August 1912 8 January 1929 16 years, 140 days United Kingdom
3 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-13847, Edward Higgins und Horace Rumbold (cropped).jpg Edward Higgins
(1864–1947)
13 February 1929 11 November 1934 5 years, 271 days United Kingdom
4 Evangeline Cory Booth.jpg Evangeline Booth OF
(1865–1950)
11 November 1934 1 November 1939 4 years, 355 days United Kingdom, United States
5 George Carpenter
(1872–1948)
1 November 1939 21 June 1946 6 years, 232 days Australia
6 General Albert Orsborn (1951).jpg Albert Orsborn
(1886–1967)
21 June 1946 1 July 1954 8 years, 10 days United Kingdom
7 Installatie van Kolonel Palstra tot territoriaal leider van het Leger des Heils,, Bestanddeelnr 911-0245.jpg Wilfred Kitching CBE
(1893–1977)
1 July 1954 23 November 1963 9 years, 145 days United Kingdom
8 Frederick Coutts CBE
(1899–1986)
23 November 1963 21 September 1969 5 years, 302 days United Kingdom
9 Erik Wickberg
(1904–1996)
21 September 1969 6 July 1974 4 years, 288 days Sweden
10 Clarence Wiseman OC
(1907–1985)
6 July 1974 5 July 1977 2 years, 364 days Canada
11 Arnold Brown OC
(1913–2002)
5 July 1977 14 December 1981 4 years, 162 days Canada
12 Lady-Baden-Powell-1960 (cropped).jpg Jarl Wahlström
(1918–1999)
14 December 1981 9 July 1986 4 years, 207 days Finland
13 GeneralEvaBurrows.jpg Eva Burrows AC
(1929–2015)
9 July 1986 9 July 1993 7 years, 0 days Australia
14 Bramwell Tillsley
(1931–2019)
9 July 1993 18 May 1994 313 days Canada
15 Paul Rader
(born 1934)
23 July 1994 23 July 1999 5 years, 0 days United States
16 Gowans Congress.jpg John Gowans
(1934–2012)
23 July 1999 13 November 2002 3 years, 113 days United Kingdom
17 John Larsson
(born 1938)
13 November 2002 2 April 2006 3 years, 140 days Sweden
18 Shaw Clifton 30 juni 2007.jpg Shaw Clifton
(born 1945)
2 April 2006 2 April 2011 5 years, 0 days United Kingdom
19 Bond College for Officers training.png Linda Bond
(born 1946)
2 April 2011 13 June 2013 2 years, 72 days Canada
20 General André Cox.jpg André Cox
(born 1954)
3 August 2013 3 August 2018 5 years, 0 days United Kingdom Switzerland
21 Peddle IHQ.png Brian Peddle
(born 1957)
3 August 2018 Incumbent 2 years, 279 days Canada

Timeline

Below is a timeline of Salvation Army Generals' terms in office.

Brian PeddleAndre CoxLinda BondShaw CliftonJohn LarssonJohn GowansPaul RaderBramwell TillsleyEva BurrowsJarl WahlstromArnold Brown (General of the Salvation Army)Clarence WisemanErik WickbergFrederick CouttsWilfred KitchingAlbert OrsbornGeorge Carpenter (Salvation Army)Evangeline BoothEdward HigginsBramwell BoothWilliam Booth

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