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German studies is the field of humanities that researches, documents, and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms. Academic departments of German studies often include classes on German culture, German history, and German politics in addition to the language and literature component. Common German names for the field are Germanistik, Deutsche Philologie, and Deutsche Sprachwissenschaft und Literaturwissenschaft. In English, the terms Germanistics or Germanics are sometimes used (mostly by Germans), but the subject is more often referred to as German studies, German language and literature, or German philology.
Modern German studies is usually seen as a combination of two sub-disciplines: German linguistics and Germanophone literature studies.
- Old High German (Althochdeutsch) 8th – 11th centuries
- Middle High German (Mittelhochdeutsch) 11th – 14th centuries
- Early New High German (Frühneuhochdeutsch) 14th – 17th centuries
- Modern German (Standard German, German dialectology) 18th – 21st centuries
In addition, the discipline examines German under various aspects: the way it is spoken and written, i.e., spelling; declination; vocabulary; sentence structure; texts; etc. It compares the various manifestations such as social groupings (slang, written texts, etc.) and geographical groupings (dialects, etc.).
German literature studies
The study of German literature is divided into two parts: Ältere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft deals with the period from the beginnings of German in the early Middle Ages up to post-Medieval times around AD 1750, while the modern era is covered by Neuere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft. The field systematically examines German literature in terms of genre, form, content, and motifs as well as looking at it historically by author and epoch. Important areas include edition philology, history of literature, and textual interpretation. The relationships of German literature to the literatures of other languages (e.g. reception and mutual influences) and historical contexts are also important areas of concentration. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory: Fourth Edition (ISBN 0-14-051363-9) is printed in English but contains many German-language literary terms that apply cross-culturally in the field of literary criticism; quite a few of the in terms in the book originated in German but have since been adopted by English-language critics and scholars.
German teacher education
At least in Germany and Austria, German studies in academia play a central role in the education of German school teachers. Their courses usually cover four fields:
- Linguistics of German (Sprachwissenschaft)
- German language and literature of up to about 1750 (Ältere Sprache und Literatur)
- German language and literature since approximately 1750 (Neuere Literaturwissenschaft)
- Specifics of the didactics of teaching German (Fachdidaktik)
Several universities offer specialized curricula for school teachers, usually called "Deutsch (Lehramt)". In Germany, they are leading to a two step exam and certificate by the federal states of Germany cultural authorities, called the Staatsexamen ("state exam").
As an unsystematic field of interest for individual scholars, German studies can be traced back to Tacitus' Germania. The publication and study of legal and historical source material, such as Medieval Bible translations, were all undertaken during the German Renaissance of the sixteenth century, truly initiating the field of German studies. As an independent university subject, German studies was introduced at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Georg Friedrich Benecke, the Brothers Grimm, and Karl Lachmann.
University departments and research institutions
- Department of German Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson
- German Program of the Department of World Languages & Literatures, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
- Department of German Studies, Brown University
- Department of German, University of California, Berkeley
- Department of Germanic Languages, University of California, Los Angeles
- Department of German Studies, University of Cincinnati
- Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO
- Department of Germanic Languages, Columbia University
- Department of German Studies, Cornell University
- Department of German, Duke University
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Harvard University
- Department of Germanic Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- Department of Germanic Studies, Indiana University
- German and Scandinavian Studies, University of Massachusetts Amherst
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
- Department of German, Scandinavian, and Dutch, University of Minnesota
- Department of German, New York University
- Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- Department of German, Northwestern University
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, University of Pennsylvania
- Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literature, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- Department of German, Princeton University
- Department of Germanic Studies, University of Texas at Austin
- Department of Classical & Modern Languages, Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri
- Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
- Department of Germanic and Russian, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, University of Virginia
- Department of Germanics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri
- Department of German, Nordic, and Slavic, University of Wisconsin – Madison
- Department of German, Yale University
- Department of Linguistics & Germanic, Slavic, Asian and African Languages, Michigan State University
- Department of German, University of Oxford
- Department of German, University of Cambridge
- Department of German, University of Manchester
- Department of German Studies, University of Warwick
- Institute for German Studies (Institut für Germanistik), University of Vienna
- Department of German Language and Literature, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, University of Toronto
- Department of German, Beijing Foreign Studies University, Haidian District, Beijing
- Institute of German and European Studies, Tongji University, Yangpu District, Shanghai
- Czech Republic
- Department of German and Austrian Studies, Charles University in Prague
- Department of German Studies, Palacký University in Olomouc
- Department of Germanic Studies, Trinity College, The University of Dublin, Ireland
- Department of German, National University of Ireland – University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
- Bucerius Institute for Research of Contemporary German History and Society – University of Haifa
- Haifa Center for German and European Studies – University of Haifa
"German studies" is taught at many German universities. Some examples are:
- Germanistisches Seminar der Universität Bonn, Institut für Germanistik, vergleichende Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaft, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
- Institut für deutsche Sprache und Literatur I & II, Albertus-Magnus-Universität zu Köln
- Institut für Germanistik I & II, Hamburg University
- Germanistisches Seminar, Heidelberg University Faculty of Modern Languages
- Institut für deutsche Philologie, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
- Germanistisches Institut, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
- Deutsches Seminar, Tübingen University Faculty of Modern Languages
- Faculty of German Language and Literature, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
- School of German Language and Literature, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
- Area studies
- German National Honor Society (Delta Epsilon Phi) in the US
- German Studies Association
- Germanic philology
- Germanisches Nationalmuseum
- New Objectivity
- Sturm und Drang
- Atlas Deutsche Sprache [CD-ROM]. Berlin: Directmedia Publishing. 2004.
- Die Deutschen Klassiker (CD-ROM).
- Berman, Antoine: L'épreuve de l'étranger. Culture et traduction dans l'Allemagne romantique: Herder, Goethe, Schlegel, Novalis, Humboldt, Schleiermacher, Hölderlin. Paris: Gallimard, 1984. ISBN 978-2-07-070076-9.
- Beutin, Wolfgang. Deutsche Literaturgeschichte. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1992.
- Bogdal, Klaus-Michael, Kai Kauffmann, & Georg Mein. BA-Studium Germanistik. Ein Lehrbuch. In collaboration with Meinolf Schumacher and Johannes Volmert. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 2008. ISBN 978-3-499-55682-1
- Burger, Harald. Sprache der Massenmedien. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1984.
- Ernst, Peter. Germanistische Sprachwissenschaft. Vienna: WUV, 2004.
- Fohrmann, Jürgen & Wilhelm Voßkamp, eds. Wissenschaftsgeschichte der Germanistik im 19. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1994.
- Hartweg, Frédéric G. Frühneuhochdeutsch. Eine Einführung in die deutsche Sprache des Spätmittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2005.
- Hermand, Jost. Geschichte der Germanistik. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1994. ISBN 978-3-499-55534-3
- Hickethier, Knut. Film- und Fernsehanalyse. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1993.
- Hickethier, Knut, ed. Aspekte der Fernsehanalyse. Methoden und Modelle. Hamburg: Lit, 1994.
- Hohendahl, Peter Uwe. German Studies in the United States: A Historical Handbook. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2003.
- Kanzog, Klaus. Einführung in die Filmphilologie. Munich: Schaudig, Bauer, Ledig, 1991.
- Muckenhaupt, Manfred: Text und Bild. Grundfragen der Beschreibung von Text-Bild-Kommunikation aus sprachwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1986.
- Prokop, Dieter: Medienprodukte. Zugänge – Verfahren – Kritik. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1981.
- Schneider, Jost, ed. Methodengeschichte der Germanistik. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2009.
- Schumacher, Meinolf. Einführung in die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2010. ISBN 978-3-534-19603-6
- Shitanda, So. "Zur Vorgeschichte und Entstehung der deutschen Philologie im 19. Jh.: Karl Lachmann und die Brüder Grimm", in Literarische Problematisierung der Moderne. Medienprodukte : Zugänge-- Verfahren-- Kritik, ed. by Teruaki Takahashi. Munich: Iudicium, 1992.
- Van Cleve, John W. and A. Leslie Willson. Remarks on the Needed Reform of German Studies in the United States. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1993.
- Acta Germanica
- The Journal of English and Germanic Philology
- Journal of Germanic Linguistics
- German Studies Review
- New German Critique
- Germanistik in Ireland
- BUBL Link (UK-based) Catalogue of Internet Resources Concerning the German Language: https://web.archive.org/web/20060218094937/http://bubl.ac.uk/link/g/germanlanguage.htm (well organized; covers many aspects of the language and the study of it)
- https://web.archive.org/web/20050718171402/http://www.library.adelaide.edu.au/guide/hum/german/german_net.html (University of Adelaide's categorized guide to German Area Studies online)[dead link]
- http://www.dartmouth.edu/~wess/wesslit.html (Dartmouth's German-Studies Web links, annotated and arranged by topic)
- https://web.archive.org/web/20051104142631/http://libadm87.rice.edu/ref/german.cfm (Rice University's guide to German studies, including printed literature and links to German newspapers and magazines)[dead link]
- http://www.germanistik.net/ germanistik.net (tries to get the user straight to the best sources of help; in German)
- Germanistik im Netz – Erlanger Liste (The 'Erlanger Liste' is currently[as of?] the largest collection of links to the various aspects of G***, including such archives, publishers, etc.; in German)
- Literaturwissenschaft online ("Literaturwissenschaft online" Kiel University's e-learning site with live and archived lectures; free of charge; in German.)
- Bibliographie der Deutschen Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft ("BDSL Online" is the electronic version of the largest bibliography in the field of German language and literature studies. Access to report years 1985–1995 is free of charge.)
- https://web.archive.org/web/20060418211215/http://www.doaj.org/ljbs?cpid=8 (DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals, Literature and Languages)
- https://web.archive.org/web/20060411030830/http://www.sign-lang.uni-hamburg.de/Medienprojekt/Literatur/9.med.analy.html (University of Hamburg site with media studies bibliography)
- Categorical list of German Departments around the world
- Departmental Ratings (USA)
- Directory of some German resources in libraries and research centers throughout California
- American Library Association German Studies Web
- Library guides
- Norsk bokmål
- Norsk nynorsk
- Српски / srpski
- Tiếng Việt
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