Gorgan in one.png
Gorgan is located in Iran
Coordinates: 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472Coordinates: 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472
Country  Iran
Province Golestan
County Gorgan
Bakhsh Central
 • Mayor Abdolreza Dadboud[1]
 • City Council Chairman Faezeh Abdollahi
 • City 1,700 km2 (656 sq mi)
155 m (509 ft)
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
350,676 [2]
Time zone UTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+04:30 (IDST)
Climate Csa
Gorgan at GEOnet Names Server

Gorgan (Persian: گرگان[ɡoɾˈɡɒːn] (About this soundlisten); also romanized as Gorgān, Gurgān, and Gurgan), formerly Astarabad (استرآباد [ʔæsˌtæɾɒːˈbɒːd]; also romanized as Astarābād, Asterabad, and Esterābād),[3] is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately 400 km (250 mi) to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km (19 mi) away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census; its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families.[4]


There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras. Some other important Neolithic sites in the area are Yarim Tepe, and Sange Chaxmaq. Also, the nearby Shahroud Plain has many such sites. The number of confirmed Neolithic sites on the Gorgan Plain now totals more than fifty.[5]

Historic wall of Gorgan signs

According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace".[6] The term means "the yellow city", and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city.[7]

Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559–530 BC), its founder, or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC).

The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.

At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.[8]

Gorgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by the Muslim Arabs in the 8th century.

In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli.[9][10]

"Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", which is currently called "Gorgan".

Gorgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia (the Greater Khorasan) or the Tabaristan regions.

Astarabad was an important political and religious city during the Qajar dynasty.

Linguistic Map of Golestan province

Geography and climate

The wide Dasht-e Gorgan (Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 170 square kilometres (66 sq mi).

Some 150 km (93 mi) east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park, home to a large portion of the fauna of Iran.

Gorgan has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa). In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) and the annual rainfall is 601 millimetres (23.7 in).

Notable people

Picture showing Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi in pink clothes and Nader Shah Afshar on horseback.


Mirdamad Cultural Institute (MCI)


Shahrdari Gorgan competes in the Iranian Basketball Super League.

Currently the main football team of Gorgan is Etka Gorgan F.C., which competes in the Azadegan League.

Sister cities

See also


  1. ^ "شهردار گرگان معرفی شد- اخبار استانها - اخبار تسنیم - Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim.
  2. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home". www.amar.org.ir.
  3. ^ Gorgan can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3064853" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  4. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
  5. ^ Kourosh Roustaei (2017), Neolithic developments in the Gorgan Plain, south-east of the Caspian Sea. academia.edu
  6. ^ Arrian (1884). "Chapter XXV: March to Bactra.—Bessus Aided by Satibaezanes." . The Anabasis of Alexander . 3. Translated by E.J. Chinnock. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 191–193 .
  7. ^ electricpulp.com. "GORGAN v. Pre-Islamic history – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
  8. ^ Bivar, A.D.H. "Gorgan" Encyclopædia Iranica online
  9. ^ Yar-Shater, Ehsan (2010). Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2, Parts 5-8. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 892.
  10. ^ Brosset, Marie-Felicite (1858). Histoire de la Géorgie depuis l'Antiquité jusqu'au XIXe siècle. France: imprimerie de l'Académie Impériale des sciences. pp. 468–472.
  11. ^ "Golestan University of Medical Sciences- دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان - Golestan University of Medical Sciences - دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان". GOUMS. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
  12. ^ KZ-Today Archived 2008-06-04 at the Wayback Machine September 11, 2006

External links