Government of Sweden

Government of the Kingdom of Sweden
Coat of arms of Sweden.svg
Overview
Established 1975
State Kingdom of Sweden
Leader Prime Minister (Statsminister)
Appointed by Prime Minister is elected by the Riksdag.
Other ministers (statsråd) are appointed by the Prime Minister.
Main organ Cabinet
Responsible to Riksdag
Headquarters Rosenbad, Stockholm
Website www.government.se

The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sveriges regering) is a parliamentary democracy, and the executive authority of Sweden.

The national cabinet consists of the Prime Minister—appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag—and other cabinet ministers (Swedish: Statsråd), appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag.[1]

The short-form name Regeringen ("the Government") is used both in the Basic Laws of Sweden and in the vernacular, while the long-form is only used in international treaties.[2]

Organization

The Government operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister—appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag (following an actual vote in the Riksdag before an appointment can be made)—and other cabinet ministers (Swedish: Statsråd), appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag.[1]

Following the adoption of the 1974 Instrument of Government on 1 January 1975—the Government in its present constitutional form was constituted—and in consequence thereof the Swedish Monarch is no longer vested any nominal executive powers at all with respect to the governance of the Realm, but continues to serve as a strictly ceremonial head of state.[3]

History

Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.[4]

The present Government is formed according to the laws set out in the 1974 Instrument of Government. But it traces its history to the Middle Ages when in the 12th century the Swedish Privy Council was formed. It functioned in this capacity until 1789 when King Gustav III had it abolished when the Riksdag passed the Union and Security Act. The old privy council had only had members from the aristocracy. Gustav III instead instituted Rikets allmänna ärendens beredning. It functioned as the Government until 1809 when a new Instrument of Government was introduced, thus creating the present Government predecessor, the Council of State. It acted as the Government of Sweden until the 31 December 1974.

Role and scope

The Government governs the Realm. It is accountable to the Riksdag

— Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1.[1]

The Instrument of Government (Swedish: Regeringsformen)—one of the Fundamental Laws of the Realm—sets out the main responsibilities and duties of the Government (including the Prime Minister's and other cabinet ministers') and how it relates to other organs of the State.[1]

The Chancellor of Justice and other State administrative authorities come under the Government, unless they are authorities under the Riksdag according to the present Instrument of Government or by virtue of other law.

— Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1.[1]

Most state administrative authorities (statliga förvaltningsmyndigheter), as opposed to local authorities (kommuner), sorts under the Government, including the Armed Forces, Coast Guard, Customs Service and the police.

While the judiciary technically sort under the Government in the fiscal sense, Chapter 11 of the Instrument of Government provides safeguards to ensure its independence.[1][5]

In a unique feature of the Swedish constitutional system, individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers cannot intervene in individual cases in matters that are to be handled by the individual agencies, unless otherwise specifically provided for in law; thus the origin of the pejorative, in Swedish political parlance, term ministerstyre (English: "ministerial rule").

High Contracting Party

Image of the signature blocks with seals of the 2011 Croatia EU Accession Treaty for Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Note that Sweden is the only one of the four not with its head of state as high contracting party.

The Government of Sweden is the high contracting party when entering treaties with foreign sovereign states and international organisations (such as the European Union), as per 10:1 of the Instrument of Government.[1] In most other parliamentary systems (monarchies and republics alike) this formal function is usually vested in the head of state but exercised by ministers in such name.

Promulgation

Chapter 6, Article 7 prescribes that laws and ordinances are promulgated by the Government (by the Prime Minister or other cabinet minister),[1] and are subsequently published in the Swedish Code of Statutes (Swedish: Svensk författningssamling).[6]

Formation and dismissal

Following a general election, Speaker of the Riksdag begins to hold talks with the leaders of the parties with representation in the Riksdag, the Speaker then nominates a candidate for Prime Minister (statsminister). The nomination is then put to a vote in the chamber. Unless an absolute majority of the members (175 members) votes "no", the nomination is confirmed, otherwise it is rejected. The Speaker must then find a new nominee. This means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Minister without casting any "yes" votes.

After being elected the Prime Minister appoints the cabinet ministers and announces them to the Riksdag. Prospective ministers do not have to be sitting members of the Riksdag, but if one accepts a nomination, they would surrender their seat to a substitute member. The new Government takes office at a special council held at the Royal Palace before the monarch, at which the Speaker of the Riksdag formally announces to the monarch that the Riksdag has elected a new Prime Minister and that the Prime Minister has chosen his cabinet ministers.

The Riksdag can cast a vote of no confidence against any single cabinet minister (Swedish: statsråd), thus forcing a resignation. To succeed a vote of no confidence must be supported by an absolute majority (175 members) or it has failed.

If a vote of no confidence is cast against the Prime Minister this means the entire government is rejected. A losing government has one week to call for a general election or else the procedure of nominating a new Prime Minister starts anew.

Cabinets

Government of Sweden
Sveriges regering
Coat of arms of Sweden.svg
Role Executive cabinet
Established 1975
Constitution instrument Instrument of Government
Predecessor entities Privy Council
(12th century—1789)
Rikets allmänna ärendens beredning
(1789-1809)
Council of State
(1809—1974)
Cabinet
Members Löfven III Cabinet
Prime Minister Stefan Löfven
Deputy to the Prime Minister Morgan Johansson
Number of members Twenty-two
Administration
Working
language
Swedish
Staff organization Government Offices
(the ministries are organised as entities within it)
Location Stockholm, Stockholm County, Sweden
Seat Rosenbad (since 1981)

Present Cabinet

Portfolio Minister Took office Left office Party
Prime Minister's Office
Prime Minister Stefan Löfven 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Deputy Prime Minister
not a separate minister post
Morgan Johansson (de facto) 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Per Bolund (de jure) 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Green
Minister for EU Affairs Hans Dahlgren 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Ministry of Justice
Minister for Justice
Minister for Migration
Morgan Johansson 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister of the Interior Mikael Damberg 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Minister for Foreign Affairs Ann Linde 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister for Foreign Trade
Minister for Nordic Cooperation
Anna Hallberg 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister for International Development Cooperation Per Olsson Fridh 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Green
Ministry of Defence
Minister for Defence Peter Hultqvist 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Ministry of Health and Social Affairs
Minister for Health and Social Affairs Lena Hallengren 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister for Social Security Ardalan Shekarabi 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Ministry of Finance
Minister for Finance Magdalena Andersson 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister for Financial Markets
Deputy Minister for Finance
Åsa Lindhagen 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Green
Minister for Public Administration
Minister for Consumer Affairs
Lena Micko 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Ministry of Education and Research
Minister for Education Anna Ekström 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister for Higher Education and Research Matilda Ernkrans 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Ministry of the Environment
Minister for the Environment
Minister for the Climate
Per Bolund 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Green
Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation
Minister for Enterprise Ibrahim Baylan 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Ministry of Culture
Minister for Culture
Minister for Democracy
Minister for Sports
Amanda Lind 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Green
Ministry of Employment
Minister for Employment Eva Nordmark 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister for Gender Equality
Minister for Housing
Minister with responsibility for anti-discrimination, anti-segregation
and urban development
Märta Stenevi 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Green
Ministry of Infrastructure
Minister for Infrastructure Tomas Eneroth 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic
Minister for Energy
Minister for Digital Development
Anders Ygeman 9 July 2021 Incumbent   Social Democratic

Former cabinets

Each appointment of a new Prime Minister is considered to result in a new cabinet, irrespective if the Prime Minister is reappointed or not. However, there is no automatic resignation following a defeat in a general election, so an election does not always result in a new cabinet.

Government offices

Chancellery House (Swedish: Kanslihuset) was the seat of the Government Offices until 1981, and the housed its predecessor, the Royal Chancery, dating back to the days of the Royal Palace fire in 1697.[7]

Previously known as the Royal Chancery (Swedish: Kunglig Majestäts kansli), the name was changed to the Government Offices (Swedish: Regeringskansliet) on 1 January 1975 with the current Instrument of Government entering into effect.[8]

The Instrument of Government briefly mentions in Chapter 7, Article 1 that there is a staff organization supporting the Government known as the Government Offices. The present organizational charter for the Government Offices is found in the ordinance named Förordning (1996:1515) med instruktion för Regeringskansliet. Since the issuance of that ordinance in 1996, all the ministries are technically entities within the Government Offices (headed by the Prime Minister), rather than as separate organisations even though they operate as such. Below follows a short summary of the current structure.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Instrument of Government (as of 2012)" (PDF). The Riksdag. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
  2. ^ "Treaty between Sweden and Hong Kong" (PDF). Riksdag. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
  3. ^ "The Head of State". Government of Sweden. Archived from the original on 2014-02-25. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
  4. ^ "The Swedish Government Offices - a historical perspective". Government Offices of Sweden. Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
  5. ^ "The Swedish courts". Domstolsverket. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
  6. ^ "Lag (1976:633) om kungörande av lagar och andra författningar" (in Swedish). Notisum. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
  7. ^ "Premises of the Government Offices". Government Offices of Sweden. Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
  8. ^ "History of the Government Offices". The Riksdag. Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
  9. ^ "Förordning (1996:1515) med instruktion för Regeringskansliet" (in Swedish). Swedish Code of Statutes. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
Bibliography

External links

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