Greeneye spurdog

Greeneye spurdog
Squalus chloroculus.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Squaliformes
Family: Squalidae
Genus: Squalus
S. chloroculus
Binomial name
Squalus chloroculus
Last, White & Motomura, 2007

The greeneye spurdog (Squalus chloroculus) is a species of dogfish described in 2007.[2] It is a member of the family Squalidae, found off the coast of southeastern Australia. The length of the longest specimen measured is 85.6 cm (33.7 in).[3] It was considered conspecific with the shortspine spurdog.


The widely-distributed shortspine spurdog (Squalus mitsukurii) was found to comprise a number of distinct species; populations from southern Australian waters were described as Squalus chloroculus in 2007, the holotype collected off Portland, Victoria in 1998. The species name is derived from the Ancient Greek chloros "green" and Latin oculus "eye".[4]


The greeneye spurdog is a robust dogfish with a fusiform body shape, bright green eyes, and overall grey colour. The underparts are paler: paler grey chin and throat to grey-white along the body and tail. The dorsal fins are pale grey with black margins. The pectoral and pelvic fins are grey with paler trailing edges and undersurfaces. The caudal fin is mostly grey with a dark patch over the notch.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The species lives in waters off southern and eastern Australia from Eucla in Western Australia to Jervis Bay in New South Wales,[5] on the upper and middle continental slope from depths of 216 to 1,360 metres (709 to 4,462 ft).[4]

The greeneye spurdog is one of four species identified as threatened with extinction by trawling in a 2021 report.[6] The species is caught up in demersal trawling and automatic longline fishing on the upper continental slope by the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark fishery and the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery.[5]


  1. ^ Walker, T.I. & Rochowski , B.E.A. 2019. Squalus chloroculus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T161360A68644464. Downloaded on 26 July 2019.
  2. ^ Australian Biological Resources Study (16 April 2012). "Species Squalus chloroculus Last, White & Motomura, 2007". Australian Faunal Directory. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Australian Government. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2016). "Squalus chloroculus" in FishBase. 10 2016 version.
  4. ^ a b c Last, P.R., White, W.T. and Motomura, H. 2007. Description of Squalus chloroculus sp. nov., a new spurdog from southern Australia, and the resurrection of S. montalbani Whitley. In: P.R Last, W.T. White and J.J. Pogonoski (eds) (eds), Descriptions of New Dogfishes of the genus Squalus (Squaloidea: Squalidae), pp: 55‒69.. CSIRO,, Australia.
  5. ^ a b Daley, Ross K.; Gray, Charles A. "On-the-water management solutions to halt the decline and support the recovery of Australia's endemic elasmobranchs" (PDF). Australian Marine Conservation Society and Humane Society International. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  6. ^ Readfearn, Graham (15 March 2021). "Threatened Australian shark and skates at 'extreme risk' of being wiped out". Guardian Online. Retrieved 17 March 2021.