Gutzon Borglum

Gutzon Borglum
Gutzon Borglum 1919.jpg
Borglum, 1919
Born
John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum

(1867-03-25)March 25, 1867
Died March 6, 1941(1941-03-06) (aged 73)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Resting place Forest Lawn Memorial Park
Nationality American
Education Mark Hopkins
Institute of Art
[1][2]
Académie Julian[3]
École des Beaux-Arts[2]
California School of Design[4]
Known for Sculpture, Painting

John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) was an American sculptor most widely known for the colossal sculpture Mount Rushmore National Memorial. He was also associated with various other public works of art, including Stone Mountain in Georgia, the statue of Union General Philip Sheridan in Washington, D.C., as well as a bust of Abraham Lincoln which was exhibited in the White House by Theodore Roosevelt[5] and which is now held in the United States Capitol crypt in Washington, D.C.[6] Borglum was also deeply involved in Ku Klux Klan politics.[7]

Early life

The son of Danish immigrants, Gutzon Borglum was born in 1867 in St. Charles in what was then Idaho Territory. Borglum was a child of Mormon polygamy. His father, Jens Møller Haugaard Børglum (1839–1909), came from the village of Børglum in northwestern Denmark. He had two wives when he lived in Idaho: Gutzon's mother, Christina Mikkelsen Børglum (1847–1871), and her sister Ida, who was Jens's first wife.[8] Jens Borglum decided to leave Mormonism and moved to Omaha, Nebraska where polygamy was both illegal and taboo.[9] Jens Borglum worked mainly as a woodcarver before leaving Idaho to attend the Saint Louis Homeopathic Medical College[10] in St. Louis, Missouri. At this point "Jens and Christina divorced, the family left the Mormon church, and Jens, Ida, their children, and Christina's two sons, Gutzon and Solon, moved to St. Louis, where Jens earned a medical degree. (Jens) then moved the family to Nebraska, where he became a county doctor".[11][12] Upon his graduation from the Missouri Medical College in 1874, Dr. Borglum moved the family[11] to Fremont, Nebraska, where he established a medical practice. Gutzon Borglum remained in Fremont until 1882, when his father enrolled him in St. Mary's College, Kansas.[13]

After a brief stint at Saint Mary's College, Gutzon Borglum moved to Omaha, Nebraska, where he apprenticed in a machine shop and graduated from Creighton Preparatory School.

New York City

Back in the U.S. in New York City, he sculpted saints and apostles for the new Cathedral of St. John the Divine in 1901; in 1906 he had a group sculpture accepted by the Metropolitan Museum of Art[14]— the first sculpture by a living American the museum had ever purchased—and made his presence further felt with some portraits. He also won the Logan Medal of the Arts. His reputation soon surpassed that of his younger brother Solon Borglum, already an established sculptor.

Mary Montgomery Williams Borglum

Borglum married Mary Montgomery Williams, on May 20, 1909, with whom he had three children,[8] including a son, Lincoln, and a daughter, Mary Ellis (Mel) Borglum Vhay (1916–2002).

Public life

Borglum was active in the committee that organized the New York Armory Show of 1913, the birthplace of modernism in American art. By the time the show was ready to open, however, Borglum had resigned from the committee, feeling that the emphasis on avant-garde works had co-opted the original premise of the show and made traditional artists like himself look provincial. He moved into an estate in Stamford, Connecticut[15] in 1914 and lived there for 10 years. He sheltered Czechoslovak Legion members on his land at Stamford in 1917.[16]

Borglum was an active member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons (the Freemasons), raised in Howard Lodge #35, New York City, on June 10, 1904, and serving as its Worshipful Master 1910–11. In 1915, he was appointed Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City Consistory on October 25, 1907.[17]

While it has been claimed that Borglum was a member of the Ku Klux Klan,[18] an article in the Smithsonian Magazine denies that there is proof that he officially joined the KKK.[19] That said, he became "deeply involved in Klan politics", attending Klan rallies and serving on Klan committees.[7] In 1925, having only completed the head of Robert E. Lee, Borglum was dismissed from the Stone Mountain project, with some holding that it came about due to infighting within the KKK, with Borglum involved in the strife.[20] Later, he stated "I am not a member of the Kloncilium, nor a knight of the KKK," but Howard Shaff and Audrey Karl Shaff claim that "that was for public consumption."[21] The museum at Mount Rushmore displays a letter to Borglum from D. C. Stephenson, the infamous Klan Grand Dragon who later was convicted of the rape and murder of Madge Oberholtzer. The 8x10 foot portrait contains the inscription "To my good friend Gutzon Borglum, with the greatest respect." Correspondence from Borglum to Stephenson during the 1920s detailed a deep racist conviction in Nordic moral superiority and strict immigration policies.[22]

Monuments

General Philip Sheridan, sculpted by Borglum in 1908, in Washington, D.C.

In 1925, the sculptor moved to Texas to work on the monument to trail drivers commissioned by the Trail Drivers Association. He completed the model in 1925, but due to lack of funds it was not cast until 1940, and then was only a fourth its originally planned size. It stands in front of the Texas Pioneer and Trail Drivers Memorial Hall next to the Witte Museum in San Antonio. Borglum lived at the historic Menger Hotel, which in the 1920s was the residence of a number of artists. He subsequently planned the redevelopment of the Corpus Christi waterfront; the plan failed,[why?] although a model for a statue of Christ intended for it was later modified by his son and erected on a mountaintop in South Dakota. While living and working in Texas, Borglum took an interest in local beautification. He promoted change and modernity, although he was berated by academicians.[23]

A fascination with gigantic scale and themes of heroic nationalism suited his extroverted personality. His head of Abraham Lincoln, carved from a six-ton block of marble, was exhibited in Theodore Roosevelt's White House and can be found in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C. A "patriot," believing that the "monuments we have built are not our own," he looked to create art that was "American, drawn from American sources, memorializing American achievement," according to a 1908 interview.[citation needed] Borglum was highly suited to the competitive environment surrounding the contracts for public buildings and monuments, and his public sculptures are found all around the United States.

In 1908, Borglum won a competition for an equestrian statue of the Civil War General Philip Sheridan to be placed in Sheridan Circle in Washington, D.C. A second version of General Philip Sheridan was erected in Chicago, Illinois, in 1923. Winning this competition was a personal triumph for him because he won out over sculptor J.Q.A. Ward, a much older and more established artist and one whom Borglum had clashed with earlier in regard to the National Sculpture Society. At the unveiling of the Sheridan statue, one observer, President Theodore Roosevelt (whom Borglum was later to include in the Mount Rushmore portrait group), declared that it was "first rate"; a critic wrote that "as a sculptor Gutzon Borglum was no longer a rumor, he was a fact." (Smith:see References)[full citation needed]

Stone Mountain

Stone Mountain Memorial Half Dollar, 1925 (design by Borglum)

Borglum was initially involved in the carving of Stone Mountain in Georgia. Borglum's nativist stances made him seem an ideologically sympathetic choice to carve a memorial to heroes of the Confederate States of America, planned for Stone Mountain, Georgia. In 1915, coinciding with the Klan-glorifying, highly successful The Birth of a Nation, he was approached by the United Daughters of the Confederacy with a project for sculpting a 20-foot (6 m) high bust of General Robert E. Lee on the mountain's 800-foot (240 m) rockface. Borglum accepted, but told the committee, "Ladies, a twenty-foot head of Lee on that mountainside would look like a postage stamp on a barn door."[24]

Borglum's ideas eventually evolved into a high-relief frieze of Lee, Jefferson Davis, and Stonewall Jackson riding around the mountain, followed by a legion of artillery troops. Borglum agreed to include a Ku Klux Klan altar in his plans for the memorial to acknowledge a request of Helen Plane in 1915, who wrote to him: "I feel it is due to the KKK that saved us from Negro domination and carpetbag rule, that it be immortalized on Stone Mountain".[20]

After a delay caused by World War I, Borglum and the newly chartered Stone Mountain Confederate Monumental Association set to work on this monument, the largest ever attempted. Many difficulties slowed progress, some because of the sheer scale involved. After finishing the detailed model of the carving, Borglum was unable to trace the figures onto the massive area on which he was working, until he developed a gigantic magic lantern to project the image onto the side of the mountain.

Carving officially began on June 23, 1923, with Borglum making the first cut. At Stone Mountain he developed sympathetic connections with the reorganized Ku Klux Klan, who were major financial backers of the monument. Lee's head was unveiled on Lee's birthday January 19, 1924, to a large crowd, but soon thereafter Borglum was increasingly at odds with the officials of the organization. His domineering, perfectionist, authoritarian manner brought tensions to such a point that in March 1925 Borglum smashed his clay and plaster models. He left Georgia permanently, his tenure with the organization over. None of his work remains, as it was all blasted off the mountain's face for the work of Borglum's replacement Henry Augustus Lukeman. In his abortive attempt however, Borglum had developed the necessary techniques for sculpting on a gigantic scale that made Mount Rushmore possible.[25]

Mount Rushmore

His Mount Rushmore project, 1927–1941, was the brainchild of South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson.[26] His first attempt with the face of Thomas Jefferson had to be redone when it was determined that there was not enough stone to complete it.[27] Dynamite was used to remove large areas of rock from under Washington's brow. The initial pair of presidents, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, was soon joined by Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt.[28]

Ivan Houser, father of John Sherrill Houser, was assistant sculptor to Gutzon Borglum in the early years of carving; he began working with Borglum shortly after the inception of the monument and was with Borglum for a total of seven years. When Houser left Gutzon to devote his talents to his own work, Gutzon's son, Lincoln, took over as Assistant-Sculptor to his father.[29]

Borglum alternated exhausting on-site supervising with world tours, raising money, polishing his personal legend, sculpting a Thomas Paine memorial for Paris and a Woodrow Wilson memorial for Poznań, Poland (1931).[30] In his absence, work at Mount Rushmore was overseen by Bill Tallman[31] and later his son, Lincoln Borglum.[32] During the Rushmore project, father and son were residents of Beeville, Texas. When he died in Chicago, following complications of surgery, his son finished another season at Rushmore, but left the monument largely in the state of completion it had reached under his father's direction.[33]

Other works

North Carolinian soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg

In 1909, the sculpture Rabboni was created as a grave site for the Ffoulke Family in Washington, D.C. at Rock Creek Cemetery.[34]

Four public works by Borglum are in Newark, New Jersey: Seated Lincoln (1911), Indian and the Puritan (1916), Wars of America (1926), and a stele with bas-relief, First Landing Party of the Founders of Newark (1916).[35][36]

In 1912, the Nathaniel Wheeler Memorial Fountain was dedicated in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

Memorial to Robert Louis Stevenson at Baker Cottage, Saranac Lake, New York. Unveiled in 1915.

In 1918, he was one of the drafters of the Czechoslovak declaration of independence.[37]

One of Borglum's more unusual pieces is the Aviator completed in 1919 as a memorial for James Rogers McConnell, who was killed in World War I while flying for the Lafayette Escadrille. It is located on the grounds of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.[38]

In 1922, he crafted a sculpture of William D. Hoard in what is now the Henry Mall Historic District on the campus of the University of Wisconsin.[citation needed]

His statue of Harvey W. Scott was completed in 1933 and stands at the peak of Mount Tabor, Portland, Oregon.

Borglum sculpted the memorial Start Westward of the United States, which is located in Marietta, Ohio (1938).[39]

He built the statue of Daniel Butterfield at Sakura Park in Manhattan (1918).[40]

He created a memorial to Sacco and Vanzetti (1928), a plaster cast of which is now in the Boston Public Library.[41][42][43][44][45]

Another Borglum design is the North Carolina Monument on Seminary Ridge at the Gettysburg Battlefield in south-central Pennsylvania. The cast bronze sculpture depicts a wounded Confederate officer encouraging his men to push forward during Pickett's Charge. Borglum had also made arrangements for an airplane to fly over the monument during the dedication ceremony on July 3, 1929. During the sculpture's unveiling, the plane scattered roses across the field as a salute to those North Carolinians who had fought and died at Gettysburg.[citation needed]

In 1939 when German troops marched into Poland they destroyed Borglum's statue of Woodrow Wilson located in Poznań.[46]

Death

Borglum died in 1941 of a heart attack and is buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California.[47]

In popular culture

  • Historian Simon Schama, in his Landscape and Memory, discusses Borglum's life and work.[48]

Publications

  • Borglum, Gutzon (June 1914). "Art That Is Real And American: Why We Should Create Our Own Art out Of Our Own National History Instead Of Imitating The Work That Properly Expressed The Triumphs Of Greece And Rome". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XLIV (2): 200–215.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Harte, Bret (31 August 2017). "The Overland Monthly". Samuel Carson – via Google Books.
  2. ^ a b "Gutzon Borglum". Marriott Library - The University of Utah. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  3. ^ Dimmick, Lauretta; Hassler, Donna J. (31 August 1999). American Sculpture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: A catalogue of works by artists born between 1865 and 1885. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870999239 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "John Borglum". Galerie Gabrie. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  5. ^ "Abraham Lincoln Bust". aoc.gov. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  6. ^ Howard Shaff and Audrey Karl Shaff, Six Wars at a Time; The Life and Times of Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, Center for Western Studies, St. Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 1985, p. 197
  7. ^ a b Tagliaferro, John (2004). Great White Fathers. New York, NY: PublicAffairs. p. 186. ISBN 978-1586482053.
  8. ^ a b Paller, Orvill (October 1990). "I Have a Question: Artists James T. Harwood, Gutzon and Solon Borglum, and Cyrus Dallin are said by some to be associated with the Church. Were they members?". Ensign: 52–54. Archived from the original on 2021-01-07.
  9. ^ "Borglum biography". American Experience. PBS. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013.
  10. ^ Price, Willadene, Gutzon Borglum: Artist and Patriot, copyright Willadene Price, 1961, 1972 edition p. 10
  11. ^ a b Swisher, Kaija. "The lesser-known Borglum brother?". bhpioneer.com. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  12. ^ Howard Shaff and Audrey Karl Shaff, Six Wars at a Time: The Life and Times of Gutzon Borglum, Sculptor of Mount Rushmore, The Center for Western Studies, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 1985, p. 18
  13. ^ Smith RA. (1985). The carving of Mount Rushmore. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers
  14. ^ "Gives a Borglum Group: James Stillman presents "The Mares of Diomedes" to the Metropolitan". The New York Times. February 12, 1906. Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Mr. Borglum is the sculptor who shattered several angels that he had intended for St. John's Cathedral a month or so ago because some critics held that his angels were feminine, not masculine.
  15. ^ Jeff Morganteen, 'The Dart: Artists Drawn to Stamford Home', Stamford Advocate, Dec. 18, 2011, [1] Archived 2021-01-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Preclík, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (Masaryk and legions), váz. kniha, 219 str., vydalo nakladatelství Paris Karviná, Žižkova 2379 (734 01 Karviná) ve spolupráci s Masarykovým demokratickým hnutím (Masaryk Democratic Movement, Prague), 2019, ISBN 978-80-87173-47-3, pages 101-102, 124–125, 128, 129, 132, 140–148, 184–190.
  17. ^ Let's do some carving Archived 2008-01-13 at the Wayback Machine; Gary Leazer, KCCH
  18. ^ Howard Shaff and Audrey Karl Shaff, Six Wars at a Time; The Life and Times of Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, Center for Western Studies, St. Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 1985, p. 197
  19. ^ Matthew Shaer, Smithsonian Magazine (October, 2016)
  20. ^ a b Michael J. Hyde (2004). "The Ethos of Rhetoric". p. 161. University of South Carolina Press
  21. ^ Howard Shaff and Audrey Karl Shaff, Six Wars at a Time; The Life and Times of Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, Center for Western Studies, St. Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 1985, p.203
  22. ^ Harriet Senie (2014). "Critical Issues in Public Art: Content, Context, and Controversy". Smithsonian Institution,
  23. ^ "Borglum, John Gutzon de la Mothe (1867–1941)". Texas State Historical Society: Handbook of Texas Online. 2010-06-12. Archived from the original on 2021-01-07.
  24. ^ Smith, Rex Allen (1985). The Carving of Mount Rushmore. New York: Abbeville Press. p. 62. ISBN 1558596658.
  25. ^ "The Carving of Stone Mountain". American Experience.
  26. ^ Price, Waldine, Gutzon Borglum: The Man Who Carved a Mountain, Waldine Price, 1961 p. 136
  27. ^ Smith, Rex Alan, The Carving of Mount Rushmore, Abbeville Press Publishers, New York, 1985 pp. 221-23
  28. ^ Smith, Rex Alan, The Carving of Mount Rushmore, Abbeville Press Publishers, New York, 1985
  29. ^ Smith 1985, p. 327-29.
  30. ^ "Poznań - Pomnik Woodrowa Wilsona. Atrakcje turystyczne Poznania. Ciekawe miejsca Poznania". www.polskaniezwykla.pl. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  31. ^ Shaff, Audrey Karl, Six Wars at a Time: The Life and Times of Gutzon Borglum, Sculptor of Mount Rushmore, The Center for Western Studies, Augustana College, Sioux City, South Dakota, 1985, p. 277
  32. ^ Smith 1985, p. 230-234.
  33. ^ Price, Waldine, Gutzon Borglum: Artist and Patriot, Waldine Price, 1961 p. 211-213
  34. ^ Rabboni (Smithsonian Institution)
  35. ^ "The Public Sculpture of John de la Mothe Gutzon Borglum, 1911-1926." The National Register of Historic Places, April 27, 1994
  36. ^ Thurlow, Fearn, "Newark's Sculpture: A survey of public monuments and memorial statuary" The Newark Museum Quarterly, Winter 1975, vol. 6, no. 1,
  37. ^ "The Contagion of Sovereignty: Declarations of Independence since 1776" (PDF). harvard.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 September 2012.
  38. ^ Bruce, Philip Alexander (1922). History of the University of Virginia: The Lengthening Shadow of One Man. V. New York: Macmillan. p. 408.
  39. ^ PATTERSON, JANELLE. "Start Westward monument to be placed under shelter". mariettatimes.com.
  40. ^ "General Daniel Butterfield". The City of New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Archived from the original on January 7, 2021.
  41. ^ Bold, Christine (31 August 2017). Writers, Plumbers, and Anarchists: The WPA Writers' Project in Massachusetts. Univ of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1558495395 – via Google Books.
  42. ^ "Put Sacco & Vanzetti sculpture on display - The Boston Globe". bostonglobe.com. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  43. ^ "Menino, the mayor who welcomed Sacco and Vanzetti - The Boston Globe". bostonglobe.com. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  44. ^ "90 years on, legacy of Sacco and Vanzetti executions lingers". Washington Post.
  45. ^ "Aldino Felicani Sacco-Vanzetti Collection, 1915-1977 - Boston Public Library Archival and Manuscript Finding Aid Database". archon.bpl.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021.
  46. ^ Price 1961, p. 181.
  47. ^ Bahn, Paul (14 April 2014). The Archaeology of Hollywood. ISBN 9780759123793.
  48. ^ Schama, Simon, Landscape and Memory, Random House, New York 1995, chapter 7.

Other sources

External links

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