Haplogroup E-M132

Haplogroup E-M132
Possible time of origin c. 50,000 years ago[1]
Ancestor E-P147
Descendants E-M44, E-Z958
Defining mutations M132, L633, M33
Highest frequencies Fulbe (Cameroon) 53%,[2] Dogon (Mali) 45%,[3] Felupe-Djola (Guinea-Bissau) 34%,[4] Papel-Manjaco-Mancanha (Guinea-Bissau) 20%,[4] Tali (Cameroon) 20%,[2] Hausa (Sudan) 16%,[5] Nalú (Guinea-Bissau) 12%,[4] Wolof (Senegambia) 12%,[3] Balanta (Guinea-Bissau) 12%,[4] Fulani (Sudan) 12%,[5] Fulbe (Burkina Faso) 10%[2]

Haplogroup E-M132, formerly known as E-M33 (E1a), is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Along with E-P177, it is one of the two main branches of the older E-P147 paternal clade. E-M132 is divided into two primary sub-branches, E-M44 and E-Z958, with many descendant subclades.


E-M132 Frequencies in select populations

E-M132 is found most often in West Africa, and today it is especially common in the region of Mali. One study has found haplogroup E-M132 Y-chromosomes in as much as 34% (15/44) of a sample of Malian men, including 2/44 E-M44 and 13/44 E-M33/M132(xE-M44).[6] In particular, the Dogon people of Mali have been found to carry haplogroup E-M132 with a frequency as high as 45.5% (25/55). This makes it perhaps the most common Y-DNA haplogroup in this population, though haplogroup E-P1 appears to be almost equally frequent among the Dogon (24/55 = 43.6%).[3] Another study has found haplogroup E-M132 in 15.6% (44/282) of a pool of seven samples of various ethnic groups in Guinea-Bissau.[4] Haplogroup E-M132 also has been found in samples obtained from Moroccan Berbers, Sahrawis, Burkina Faso (including E-M33/M132(xE-M44) in 2/20 = 10% Fulbe and 2/37 = 5.4% Rimaibe[2]), northern Cameroon (including E-M44 in 9/17 = 53% Fulbe and E-M33/M132(xE-M44) in 3/15 = 20% Tali[2]), Senegal (7/139 = 5.0%[7]), Ghana (1/29 = 3% Ga, 1/32 = 3% Fante[3]), Sudan (including 5/32 = 15.6% Hausa and 3/26 = 11.5% Fulani[5]), Egypt (1%[3]-1.4%[8]) Calabria (including both Italian and Albanian inhabitants of the region), 1 Italian (from 67 tested) from Trentino in northeastern Italy,[9] and Romanians from Constanţa.[10]

The E-M132 or E1a haplogroup has been found in ancient Guanche (Bimbapes) fossils excavated in Punta Azul, El Hierro, Canary Islands, which have been dated to the 10th century (~6%).[11]


Phylogenetic history

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being, above all, timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
E-P29 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E* E E E E E E E E E E
E-M132/M33 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E1* E1 E1a E1a E1 E1 E1a E1a E1a E1a E1a
E-M44 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E1a E1a E1a1 E1a1 E1a E1a E1a1 E1a1 E1a1 E1a1 E1a1
E-M75 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E2a E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2
E-M54 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E2b E2b E2b E2b1 - - - - - - -
E-P2 25 III 4 14 Eu3 H2 B E3* E3 E1b E1b1 E3 E3 E1b1 E1b1 E1b1 E1b1 E1b1
E-M2 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a* E3a E1b1 E1b1a E3a E3a E1b1a E1b1a E1b1a E1b1a1 E1b1a1
E-M58 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a1 E3a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1 E3a1 E3a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1a1a E1b1a1a1a
E-M116.2 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a2 E3a2 E1b1a2 E1b1a2 E3a2 E3a2 E1b1a2 E1b1a2 E1ba12 removed removed
E-M149 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a3 E3a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a3 E3a3 E3a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a1a1c E1b1a1a1c
E-M154 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a4 E3a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a4 E3a4 E3a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a1a1g1c E1b1a1a1g1c
E-M155 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a5 E3a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a5 E3a5 E3a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a1a1d E1b1a1a1d
E-M10 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a6 E3a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a6 E3a6 E3a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a1a1e E1b1a1a1e
E-M35 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b* E3b E1b1b1 E1b1b1 E3b1 E3b1 E1b1b1 E1b1b1 E1b1b1 removed removed
E-M78 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b1* E3b1 E1b1b1a E1b1b1a1 E3b1a E3b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1a1 E1b1b1a1
E-M148 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b1a E3b1a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a1c1 E3b1a3a E3b1a3a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a1c1 E1b1b1a1c1
E-M81 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b2* E3b2 E1b1b1b E1b1b1b1 E3b1b E3b1b E1b1b1b E1b1b1b E1b1b1b E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1a
E-M107 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b2a E3b2a E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1a E3b1b1 E3b1b1 E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1a E1b1b1b1a1
E-M165 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b2b E3b2b E1b1b1b2 E1b1b1b1b1 E3b1b2 E3b1b2 E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b1a2a
E-M123 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b3* E3b3 E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E3b1c E3b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1b2a
E-M34 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b3a* E3b3a E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E3b1c1 E3b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1b2a1
E-M136 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3ba1 E3b3a1 E1b1b1c1a E1b1b1c1a1 E3b1c1a E3b1c1a E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1b2a1a1

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

Phylogenetic trees

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree[12] and subsequent published research.

  • E-P147 (P147)
    • E-M132 (M132, L633, M33)
      • E-M44 (M44)
      • E-L96 (L94)
      • E-L133 (L133)

See also

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2


  1. ^ 52.8-46.3 95% CI. Haplogroup YTree v6.02 at 02 April 2018
  2. ^ a b c d e Cruciani Fulvio, Santolamazza Piero, Shen Peidong; et al. (2002). "A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes". American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (5): 1197–1214. doi:10.1086/340257. PMC 447595. PMID 11910562.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e Wood, Elizabeth T.; et al. (2005). "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 867–876. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408. PMID 15856073. S2CID 20279122. Retrieved 5 June 2017. ; cf. Appendix A for population frequencies
  4. ^ a b c d e Rosa Alexandra, Ornelas Carolina, Jobling Mark A; et al. (2007). "Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2007 (7): 124. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-124. PMC 1976131. PMID 17662131.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ a b c Hassan, Hisham Y.; et al. (2008). "Y‐chromosome variation among Sudanese: Restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 137 (3): 316–323. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876. PMID 18618658. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  6. ^ Peter A. Underhill, Peidong Shen, Alice A. Lin et al., "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations," Nature Genetics, Volume 26, November 2000
  7. ^ Semino Ornella, Santachiara-Benerecetti A. Silvana, Falaschi Francesco; et al. (2002). "Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny". American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (1): 265–268. doi:10.1086/338306. PMC 384897. PMID 11719903.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Luis, Javier R.; et al. (2004). "The Levant Versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (3): 532–544. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781.
  9. ^ Vincenza Battaglia, Simona Fornarino, Nadia Al-Zahery et al., "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008), 1 – 11
  10. ^ Bosch E., Calafell F., González-Neira A.; et al. (2006). "Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns". Annals of Human Genetics. 70 (4): 459–487. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x. PMID 16759179. S2CID 23156886.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Ordóñez, A. C.; Fregel, R.; Trujillo-Mederos, A.; Hervella, M.; de-la-Rúa, C.; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M. (2017). "Genetic studies on the prehispanic population buried in Punta Azul cave (El Hierro, Canary Islands)". Journal of Archaeological Science. 78: 20–28. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.004.
  12. ^ Karafet et al. 2008

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