Haplogroup K-M9

Haplogroup K
Possible time of origin 47,000-50,000
Possible place of origin Southeast or East Asia[1]
Ancestor IJK
Descendants haplogroup K2,[2] and LT
Defining mutations M9, P128/PF5504, P131/PF5493, P132/PF5480

Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. A sublineage of haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant clades represent a geographically widespread and diverse haplogroup. The lineages have long been found among males on every continent.

The direct descendants of K-M9 are Haplogroup K2 (formerly KxLT; K-M526) and Haplogroup K1 (L298 = P326, also known as LT).[2][3]

Origins and distribution

Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage that arose approximately 47,000-50,000 years ago,[4] probably in South Asia or West Asia.

Basal K* is exceptionally rare and under-researched; while it has been reported at very low frequencies on many continents it is not always clear if the examples concerned have been screened for subclades.[2][5] Confirmed examples of K-M9* now appear to be most common amongst some populations in Island South East Asia and Melanesia.[6][7][8]

Primary descendants of haplogroup LT are L (M20), also known as K1a, and T (M184), also known as K1b.[2][3]

The descendants of haplogroup K2 include:

  • K2a (detected in paleolithic specimens Oase1 and Ust'-Ishim),[9] the subclades of which include the major haplogroups N and O,[10] and;
  • K2b – the ancestor of haplogroups M, P, Q, R, S.[11]

According to Hallast et al. 2020, haplogroup K and its sub-clades spreaded with Eastern-Eurasian hunter gatherers.[12]

Structure

Haplogroup K-M9 tree [2] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

References

  1. ^ Hallast, Pille; Agdzhoyan, Anastasia; Balanovsky, Oleg; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2020-07-14). "A Southeast Asian origin for present-day non-African human Y chromosomes". Human Genetics. doi:10.1007/s00439-020-02204-9. ISSN 1432-1203.
  2. ^ a b c d e f International Society of Genetic Genealogy, 2020, Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2019-2020 (8 May 2020).
  3. ^ a b Chiaroni, J.; Underhill, P. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (December 2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (48): 20174–9. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10620174C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106. JSTOR 25593348. PMC 2787129. PMID 19920170.
  4. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Res. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
  5. ^ Rowold, Daine J.; et al. (2016). "On the Bantu expansion". Gene. 593 (1): 48–57. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2016.07.044. PMID 27451076. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  6. ^ Frederick Delfin et al.,2011, "The Y-chromosome landscape of the Philippines: extensive heterogeneity and varying genetic affinities of Negrito and non-Negrito groups", European Journal of Human Genetics vol. 19, pp. 224–230.
  7. ^ [Karafet TM et al. 2005, "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders.", Human Biology, vol. 77, no. 1 (Feb), pp. 93-114.
  8. ^ Cox, Murray P. & Lahr, Marta Mirazon, 2006, "Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands", American Journal of Human Biology, vol. 18, iss. 1 (January/February), pp. 35–50.
  9. ^ a b c d G. David Poznik et al., 2016, "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences", Nature Genetics, no. 48, pp. 593–599. (24 March 2017)
  10. ^ Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; Fedorova, Sardana A; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Stoneking, Mark; Lin, Alice A; Ferak, Vladimir; Parik, Jüri; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; et al. (2007). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (2): 204–211. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388.
  11. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
  12. ^ Hallast, Pille; Agdzhoyan, Anastasia; Balanovsky, Oleg; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2020-07-14). "A Southeast Asian origin for present-day non-African human Y chromosomes". Human Genetics. doi:10.1007/s00439-020-02204-9. ISSN 1432-1203.
  13. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (June 2014). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23 (3): 369–373. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMC 4326703. PMID 24896152.
  14. ^ Raghavan M, Skoglund P, Graf KE, et al. (January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature. 505 (7481): 87–91. Bibcode:2014Natur.505...87R. doi:10.1038/nature12736. PMC 4105016. PMID 24256729.
  15. ^ Rasmussen M, Anzick SL, Waters MR, et al. (February 2014). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana". Nature. 506 (7487): 225–9. Bibcode:2014Natur.506..225R. doi:10.1038/nature13025. PMC 4878442. PMID 24522598.
  16. ^ Hollard C, Keyser C, Giscard PH, et al. (September 2014). "Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 12: 199–207. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.05.012. PMID 25016250.
  17. ^ Fregel R, Gomes V, Gusmão L, et al. (2009). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 181. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. PMC 2728732. PMID 19650893.
  18. ^ Grugni V, Battaglia V, Hooshiar Kashani B, et al. (2012). "Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: new clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e41252. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...741252G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC 3399854. PMID 22815981.
  19. ^ Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  20. ^ Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, et al. (2013). "Introducing the Algerian mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome profiles into the North African landscape". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e56775. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...856775B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775. PMC 3576335. PMID 23431392.
  21. ^ Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, et al. (December 2000). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (6): 1526–43. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948. PMID 11078479.
  22. ^ Pichler I, Mueller JC, Stefanov SA, et al. (August 2006). "Genetic structure in contemporary south Tyrolean isolated populations revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu polymorphisms". Human Biology. 78 (4): 441–64. doi:10.1353/hub.2006.0057. PMID 17278620. S2CID 20205296.
  23. ^ Robino C, Varacalli S, Gino S, et al. (October 2004). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios". Forensic Science International. 145 (1): 61–4. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.02.026. PMID 15374596.
  24. ^ Trivedi, R.; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Bindu, G. Hima; Banerjee, Jheelam; Tandon, Manuj; Gaikwad, Sonali; Rajkumar, Revathi; Sitalaximi, T; Ashma, Richa; Chainy, G. B. N.; Kashyap, V. K. (2007). "High Resolution Phylogeographic Map of Y-Chromosomes Reveal the Genetic Signatures of Pleistocene Origin of Indian Populations" (PDF). Anthropology Today.
  25. ^ Hirbo, Jibril Boru (2011). Complex Genetic History of East African Human Populations (PhD Thesis). hdl:1903/11443.[page needed]
  26. ^ Sanchez, J.J. (2004). "Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis". International Congress Series. 1261: 347–349. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(03)01635-2.
  27. ^ Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Sellitto D, et al. (July 2010). "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (7): 800–7. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.231. PMC 2987365. PMID 20051990.
  28. ^ yhrd.org[full citation needed]
  29. ^ Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z. (2010). "Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 717–27. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247. PMID 20837606.
  30. ^ http://www.phylotree.org/Y/tree/index.htm[full citation needed]
  31. ^ Magoon, Gregory R; Banks, Raymond H; Rottensteiner, Christian; Schrack, Bonnie E; Tilroe, Vincent O; Robb, Terry; Grierson, Andrew J (2013). "Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using 'next-generation' sequencing data". bioRxiv 10.1101/000802.
  32. ^ https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Arab_T/default.aspx?section=yresults
  33. ^ a b c Nagle, N. et al., 2015, "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology (epub ahead of print version; abstract).
  34. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpS.html
  35. ^ As of 2017, S1a1a1 (P308) – formerly K2b1a1 – included an unnamed subclade, identified by the SNP P60 (and previously by P304, which has been removed by ISOGG as unreliable). S1a1a1 and any sublades have only been found among indigenous Australians.

External links

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R

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