Help:IPA/Spanish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-es}}, {{IPAc-es}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

In general, Castilian Spanish is used in IPA transcriptions except for some words with /θ/ and /ʎ/:

  • For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone yeísmo (where words such as haya and halla are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨ll⟩ can be transcribed with [ʝ].
  • For terms that are more relevant to regions with seseo (where words such as caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨z⟩ or ⟨c⟩ (the latter only before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩) can be transcribed with [s].

In all other cases, if a local pronunciation is made, it should be labeled as "local" (for example, {{IPA-es|...|local}}.

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Spanish, and Spanish dialects and varieties for regional variation.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b[1] bestia, embuste, vaca, envidia, fútbol about
β bebé, obtuso, vivir, curva, apto[2] about, but without the lips completely closed
d[1] dedo, cuando, aldaba today
ð diva, arder, admirar, atmósfera[2] this
f fase face
ɡ[1] gato, lengua, guerra again
ɣ trigo, amargo, signo, doctor[2] again, but without the tongue touching the roof of the mouth
ʝ[1][3] ayuno you
ɟʝ[1][3] cónyuge, yermo Not found in English; something like jeep
k caña, quise, kilo scan
l lino lean
ʎ[1][3] llave, pollo million
m[4] madre, campo mother
ɱ[4] anfibio comfort
n[4] nido, sin, álbum need
ɲ[4] ñandú, cónyuge canyon
ŋ[4] cinco, venga sing
p pozo spouse
r[5] rumbo, carro, honra, subrayar trilled r
ɾ[5] caro, bravo, partir autumn (with flapping)
s[6][7] saco, espita, xenón sack
θ[6] cereal, encima, zorro, jazmín[8] thing
t tamiz stand
chubasco choose
v[8] afgano van
x[9] jamón, general, México,[10] hámster[11] Scottish loch
z[8] isla, mismo, riesgo zoo
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
ʃ[12] show, Rocher, Freixenet, Gilda shack
ts abertzale, pizza cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a azahar father
e vehemente berry
i dimitir, mío, y see
o boscoso more
u cucurucho, dúo food
 
Semivowels[13]
IPA Examples English approximation
j ciudad, rey yet
w[14] cuadro, Huila, auto wine
 
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Leo

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