Help:IPA/Standard German

The charts below show the way International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-de}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard German phonology and German orthography § Grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.

IPA Examples English approximation
b bei ball
ç ich, durch; China (DE) hue
d dann done
f für, von, Phänomen fuss
ɡ gut guest
h hat hut
j Jahr, Yo-Yo yard
k kann, Tag,[1] cremen, sechs cold
l Leben last
Mantel bottle
m Mann must
großem rhythm
n Name not
beiden sudden
ŋ lang long
p Person, ab[1] puck
pf Pfeffer cupful
ʁ reden[2] French rouge
r far (Scottish English)
s lassen, Haus, groß fast
ʃ schon, Stadt, Champagner, Ski shall
t Tag, und, Stadt[1] tall
ts Zeit, Platz, Potsdam, Celle cats
Matsch, Cello match
v was, Vase vanish
x nach loch (no lock–loch merger)
z Sie, diese zebra
ʔ beamtet[3]
the glottal stops in uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
Dschungel, Pidgin[4] jungle
ɹ Spray[5] rice
ʒ Genie, Entourage[4] pleasure
ˈ Bahnhofstraße
as in battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
IPA Examples English approximation
a alles, Kalender father, but short
aber, sah, Staat father
ɛ Ende, hätte bet
ɛː spät, wählen[6] RP hair
eben, gehen, Meer mate
ɪ ist sit
liebe, Berlin, ihm seed
ɔ kommen off
oder, hohe, Boot story
œ öffnen somewhat like hurt
øː Österreich, Möhre, adieu somewhat like heard
ʊ und push
Hut, Kuh true
ʏ müssen, Ypsilon somewhat like cute
über, Mühe, psychisch somewhat like few
ein, Kaiser, Haydn, Verleih, Speyer high
auf vow
ɔʏ Euro, Häuser roughly like choice
Reduced vowels
ɐ immer[2] frustration[7]
ə Name balance (but not sofa)[7]
ɐ̯ Uhr[2] sofa
Studie yard
aktuell would
Non-native vowels
ãː Gourmand, Engagement, Restaurant, Chance[8] French Provence
ɛ̃ː Pointe[8] French quinze
ɛɪ̯ Mail[9] roughly like face
õː Garçon[8] French Le Monde
ɔʊ̯ Code[9] American goat
œ̃ː Parfum[8] French emprunte
œːɐ̯ Gouverneur[10] roughly like RP bird
Shortened vowels
ã engagieren[8] French chanson
ɛ̃ impair[8] French vingt-et-un
e Element[11] roughly like dress
i Italien[11] seat
o originell[11] story, but short
õ fon[8] French Mont Blanc
œ̃ Lundist[8] French vingt-et-un
ø Ökonom[11] somewhat like hurt
u Universität, Souvenir[11] truth
y Psychologie[11] like meet, but with the lips rounded

See also

  • If your browser does not display IPA symbols, you probably need to install a font that includes the IPA. Good free IPA fonts include Gentium and Charis SIL (more complete); a monospaced font is Everson Mono which is complete; download links can be found on those pages.
  • For a guide to adding pronunciations to Wikipedia articles, see the {{IPA}} template.
  • For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters.