Help:IPA/Standard German

The charts below show the way International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-de}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard German phonology and German orthography § Grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.

Consonants
DE AT CH Examples English approximation
b bei[1] ball
ç ich, durch; China (DE)[2] hue
d dann[1] done
f für, von, Phänomen fuss
ɡ gut[1] guest
h hat hut
j Jahr, Yo-Yo yard
k kann, Tag,[3] cremen, sechs cold
l Leben last
Mantel bottle
m Mann must
großem rhythm
n Name not
beiden sudden
ŋ lang long
p Person, ab[3] puck
pf Pfeffer cupful
ʁ r reden[4] DE: French rouge
AT, CH: Scottish red
s lassen, Haus, groß fast
ʃ schon, Stadt, spitz, Champagner, Ski shall
t Tag, und, Stadt[3] tall
ts Zeit, Platz, Potsdam, Celle cats
Matsch, Cello match
v was, Vase[1] vanish
x nach[2] Scottish loch
z Sie, diese[1] zebra
ʔ beamtet[5]
([bəˈʔamtət])
uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
Dschungel, Pidgin[1][6] jungle
ɹ Spray[7] rice
ʒ Genie, Entourage[1][6] pleasure
Stress
ˈ Bahnhofstraße
([ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə])
as in battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
ˌ
Vowels
DE AT CH Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a alles, Kalender father, but short
aber, sah, Staat father
ɛ Ende, hätte bet
ɛː spät, wählen[8] RP hair
eben, gehen, Meer mate
ɪ ist sit
liebe, Berlin, ihm seed
ɔ kommen off
oder, hohe, Boot story
œ öffnen somewhat like hurt
øː Österreich, Möhre, adieu somewhat like heard
ʊ und push
Hut, Kuh true
ʏ müssen, Ypsilon somewhat like cute
über, Mühe, psychisch somewhat like few
Diphthongs
ein, Kaiser, Haydn, Verleih, Speyer high
auf vow
ɔʏ Euro, Häuser roughly like choice
Reduced vowels
ɐ ər immer[4] DE, AT: frustration
CH: Scottish letter[9]
ə Name balance (but not sofa)[9]
Semivowels
ɐ̯ r Uhr[4] DE, AT: sofa
CH: Scottish far
Studie yard
aktuell would
Non-native vowels
ãː Gourmand, Engagement, Restaurant, Chance[10] French Provence
ɛ̃ː Pointe[10] French quinze
ɛɪ̯ Mail[11] roughly like face
õː Garçon[10] French Le Monde
ɔʊ̯ Code[11] American goat
œ̃ː Parfum[10] French emprunte
œːɐ̯ øːr Gouverneur[12] roughly like RP bird
Shortened vowels
ã engagieren[10] French chanson
ɛ̃ impair[10] French vingt-et-un
e Element[13] roughly like dress
i Italien[13] seat
o originell[13] story, but short
õ fon[10] French Mont Blanc
œ̃ Lundist[10] French vingt-et-un
ø Ökonom[13] somewhat like hurt
u Universität, Souvenir[13] truth
y Psychologie[13] like meet, but with the lips rounded

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