Help:IPA/Danish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-da}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Transcriptions in articles are primarily based on the "distinct form" set out in Brink et al. (1991). Stress, stød, and vowel length are frequently lost in actual running speech.

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Key

Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
ɑ tak [ˈtsʰɑk] art
ɑː rane [ˈʁɑːnə] father
ʌ ånd [ˈʌnˀ] somewhat like off
ɒ normal [nɒˈmɛˀl] off
ɒː kort [ˈkʰɒːt] dog
æ kat [ˈkʰæt] bat
æː græde [ˈkʁæːðə] bad
bed [ˈpe̝ð] ('garden plot') bit
e̝ː mene [ˈme̝ːnə] bid
e ven [ˈven], frisk [ˈfʁesk] bait
mæle [ˈmeːlə] bade
ɛ bær [ˈpɛɐ̯] bet
ɛː gade [ˈkɛːðə] bed
i tisse [ˈtsʰisə] beat
mile [ˈmiːlə] bead
o foto [ˈfoto] story, but short
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] story
ɔ ost [ˈɔst] ('cheese') somewhat like growth
ɔː måle [ˈmɔːlə] somewhat like grow
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] somewhat like hurt
øː løber [ˈløːpɐ] ('runner') somewhat like herd
œ bønne [ˈpœnə] somewhat like hurt
œː høne [ˈhœːnə] somewhat like herd
ɶ tør [ˈtsʰɶɐ̯ˀ] ('dry') somewhat like but
ɶː røre [ˈʁɶːɐ] somewhat like bud
u ud [ˈuðˀ] moot
hule [ˈhuːlə] mood
y tyk [ˈtsʰyk] somewhat like refute
synlig [ˈsyːnli] somewhat like feud
Unstressed-only
ɐ løber [ˈløːpɐ] ('runner') coda
ð̩ malet [ˈmɛːlð̩][1] the book (pronounced quickly)
ə hoppe [ˈhʌpə] focus
gammel [ˈkɑml̩][1] bottle
København [kʰøpm̩ˈhɑwˀn][1] rhythm
vinden [ˈve̝nˀn̩] ('the wind')[1] sudden
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœkŋ̍][1] Washington
Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
ɐ̯ er [ˈɛɐ̯] near
ɕ sjat [ˈɕæt] sheep
ð øde [ˈøːðə] bathe
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] fan
h hat [ˈhæt] heart
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ], mig [ˈmɑj] yawn
k god [ˈkoðˀ] scar
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] car
l lykke [ˈløkə] lake
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] man
n node [ˈnoːðə] nap
ŋ lang [ˈlɑŋˀ] ring
p bog [ˈpɔwˀ] spot
pol [ˈpʰoˀl] pot
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] French parler
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] soon
t dåb [ˈtɔˀp] start
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ] chin
tsʰ tak [ˈtsʰɑk] tart
v våd [ˈvɔðˀ] very
w hav [ˈhɑw] ('ocean') cow
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Description
ˈ  ˌ husmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯] Stress (places before the stressed syllable)[2]
ˀ hun hund About this sound[ˈhun ˈhunˀ] Stød[3]

Comparison of transcription schemes

Transcriptions of Danish in linguistic and lexicographic literature deviate from the standard IPA in many aspects in order to dispense with diacritics and to maintain resemblance to the Dania transcription, which was influential in the development of Danish linguistics and maintains resemblance to Danish orthography. The conventions of this guide, on the other hand, seek adherence to standard IPA usage as much as possible, so that readers who are already familiar with the standard IPA would not have to look up or remember the value of each symbol in the Danish tradition.

WP Example Basbøll (2005) Den Danske Ordbog Grønnum (2005) Molbæk Hansen (1990) udtale-
ordbog
.dk
Brink et al. (1991) Politikens Nudansk Ordbog Narrow
tran-
scription[4]
Vowels
ɑ takke, sejle ɑ ɑ ɑ α a α, α̇[5] α[5] [ɑ̈]
kræft æ ɑ̈ ä
ɑː trane, arne ɑː ɑː ɑː αː α·[5] α·[5] [ɑ̈ː]
ʌ måtte ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ɒ ɔ ɔ [ɒ̽]
ɒ vor ɒ ɒ ɒ ɔ ɒ å[6] år[7] [ɒ̝]
ɒː tårne ɒː ɒː ɒː ɔː ɒː å·[6] [ɒ̝ː]
æ malle a a a a æ ɑ a [æ]
række æ ɑ̈ ä [a]
æː græde ɑː[8] æː ɑ̈ð ä· [æː]
list e e e e e e e []
e̝ː mele [e̝ː]
e læst ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ æ æ [e]
brist æ æ []
mæle, bære ɛː ɛː ɛː, æː[8] ɛː ɛː, æː æ· æ· []
grene, kræse æː æː æ·, æᶖ[9] [e̞ː~e̞j]
ɛ bær æ æ æ æ æ ɑ̇ ä [ɛ]
ɛː male æː æː æː æː ɑ̇· [ɛː]
i mis i i i i i i i [i]
mile []
o foto o o o o o o o []
mole [o̝ː]
ɔ ost ɔ ɔ ɔ å ɔ ɑ̊ å [ɔ̽]
ɔː måle ɔː ɔː ɔː åː ɔː ɑ̊· å· [ɔ̽ː]
ø kys ø ø ø ø ø ø ø [ø]
øː køle øː øː øː øː øː ø· ø· [øː]
œ høns, grynt œ œ œ, œ̞[8] ö œ ö ö [œ̝]
œː høne, røbe œː œː œː, œ̞ː[8] öː œː ö· ö· [œ̝ː]
ɶ gør ɶ ɶ œ̞ ɔ̈ ɶ ɔ̈ ɔ̈ [œ]
grøn ɶ [ɶ̝]
ɶː gøre ɶː ɶː œ̞ː ɔ̈ː ɶː ɔ̈· ɔ̈· [œː]
u guld, brusk u u u, o[8] u u u u [u]
mule, ruse uː, oː[8] []
y lyt y y y y y y y [y]
kyle []
Unstressed-only
ɐ fatter ɐ ʌ ɐ ʌ ɐ ɔ ɔ [ɒ̽]
ð̩ måned ð̩ əð ð̩ əð ð̩ ð̩ əð [ð̩˕˗ˠ]
ə hoppe ə ə ə ə ə ə ə [ə]
gammel əl əl əl [l̩]
hoppen ən ən ən [m̩]
hesten [n̩]
ŋ̍ pakken ŋ̩ ŋ̩ ŋ̩ ŋ̩ [ŋ̍]
Consonants
ɐ̯ smør ɐ̯ ɐ̯ ɐ̯ ʀ ɐ ɹ r [ɒ̯̽]
ɕ sjat ɕ ɕ ɕ ʃ ɕ sj [ɕ]
ð mad ð ð ð ð ɤ ð ð [ð̠˕ˠ]
f fisk f f f f f f f [f]
h hus h h h h h h h [h]
j jul j j j j j j j [j]
mig ɪ̯ ɪ [9]
k gås ɡ̊ ɡ ɡ̊ g k ɡ g [k]
kål k k k k [kʰ]
l lås l l l l l l l [l]
m mus m m m m m m m [m]
n ni n n n n n n n [n]
ŋ perron ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ [ŋ]
p bål b b p b b [p]
pille p p p p [pʰ]
ʁ rose ʁ ʁ ʁ r ʁ r r [ʁ̞]
s sæl s s s s s s s [s]
t dåse d d t d d [t]
tjene tˢj tj t͡ɕ tj tj tj []
tsʰ taske t t ts t t [tsʰ]
v vams v v v v v v v [ʋ]
w hav ʊ̯ w w w ʊ w w [w]
Stød and stress
ˈtsʰiˀ ti ˈtˢiːˀ ˈtiˀ ˈtˢiːˀ ˈtiːʼ ˈtsḭː ˈtiʼ ˈtiʼ [ˈtsʰḭˑ]

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