Heydar Aliyev

Heydar Aliyev
Heydər Əliyev
Heydar Aliyev (crop).jpg
3rd President of Azerbaijan
In office
10 October 1993 – 31 October 2003
Acting: 24 June – 10 October 1993
Prime Minister Surat Huseynov
Fuad Guliyev
Artur Rasizade
Ilham Aliyev
Preceded by Abulfaz Elchibey
Succeeded by Ilham Aliyev
Speaker of the National Assembly
In office
15 June 1993 – 5 November 1993
President Abulfaz Elchibey
Prime Minister Surat Huseynov
Fuad Guliyev
Preceded by Isa Gambar
Succeeded by Rasul Guliyev
First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union
In office
24 November 1982 – 23 October 1987
President Vasili Kuznetsov (acting)
Yuri Andropov
Vasili Kuznetsov (acting)
Konstantin Chernenko
Vasili Kuznetsov (acting)
Andrei Gromyko
Premier Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Ryzhkov
Preceded by Ivan Arkhipov
Succeeded by Andrei Gromyko
Full member of the 26th, 27th Politburo
In office
22 November 1982 – 21 October 1987
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan
In office
14 July 1969 – 3 December 1982
Preceded by Veli Akhundov
Succeeded by Kamran Baghirov
Candidate member of the 25th, 26th Politburo
In office
5 March 1976 – 22 November 1982
Chairman of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
In office
17 November 1990 – 9 October 1993
Preceded by Position Established
Succeeded by Vasif Talibov
Personal details
Heydar Alirza oğlu Aliyev

(1923-05-10)10 May 1923
Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan SSR, Transcaucasian SFSR, Soviet Union
Died 12 December 2003(2003-12-12) (aged 80)
Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Nationality Azerbaijani
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1945–1991)
New Azerbaijan Party (1992–2003)[1]
Spouse(s) Zarifa Aliyeva
Children Sevil Aliyeva
Ilham Aliyev
Alma mater Baku State University
Awards Hero of Socialist Labor medal.svg Hero of Socialist Labor medal.svg
Military service
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Branch/service KGB of Azerbaijan SSR
Years of service 1941–1969
Rank Major General

Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev, IPA: [hejˈdæɾ æliɾˈzɑ oɣˈlu æˈlijef]; Russian: Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев, romanizedGeydar Aliyevich Aliyev, IPA: [ɡʲɪjˈdar ɐˈlʲijɪvʲɪtɕ ɐˈlʲijɪf]; 10 May 1923[2] – 12 December 2003) was a Soviet and Azerbaijani politician who served as the third President of Azerbaijan from October 1993 to October 2003. Originally a high-ranking official in the KGB of the Azerbaijan SSR, he led Soviet Azerbaijan from 1969 to 1982 and held the post of First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union from 1982 to 1987.

Aliyev became president of independent Azerbaijan while the country was on the brink of civil war and suffering serious losses in the First Nagorno-Karabakh War with neighboring Armenia. Aliyev's supporters credit him with restoring stability to Azerbaijan and turning the country into a major international energy producer.[3] Aliyev's regime in Azerbaijan has been described as dictatorial,[4][5][6][7][8][9] authoritarian,[10][11][12][13] and repressive.[14] He was also said to have ran a heavy-handed police state where elections were rigged and dissent was repressed.[15][16] A cult of personality developed around Aliyev, which has continued after his death. Following his death in 2003, his son Ilham Aliyev was elected president in a controversial election and continues to lead Azerbaijan to this day.[17]

Career in the Soviet era

Early life

Heydar Aliyev with his family in 1920s

Heydar Aliyev was born on 10 May 1923 in the city of Nakhchivan.[18] His family had moved to Nakhchivan from the village of Jomardly (modern-day Tanahat in the Syunik Province of Armenia) before his birth (some sources claim that Aliyev was actually born earlier, in Jomardly).[19] Aliyev had four brothers: Hasan, Huseyn, Jalal, and Agil, as well as three sisters: Sura, Shafiga and Rafiga. After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, Aliyev attended the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University) from 1939 to 1941, where he studied architecture. In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR Ministry of State Security Higher School in Leningrad. Aliyev's official biography also states that he studied at Baku State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957.[18] According to American journalist Pete Earley, Aliyev first attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad and graduated in 1944.[20] He also attended Senior Staff Professional Development courses at the Dzerzhinsky Higher School of the KGB in Moscow in 1966.[21]

In 1948, he married Zarifa Aliyeva.[22] On 12 October 1955, their daughter, Sevil Aliyeva was born. On 24 December 1961, their son Ilham was born. Zarifa Aliyeva died of cancer in 1985.

Early career

Young Heydar Aliyev

Aliyev served at the Archive Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1941 to 1944, before his appointment to the Head of General Department of the Council of People's Commissars of the Nakhchivan ASSR. He joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) in 1944, and proceeded to become the department head of State Security Committee of Azerbaijan SSR in 1950 after he graduated from Senior Staff Training School of the USSR State Security Committee.[21] In 1954, as part of a government reform, the NKGB was renamed to the KGB. Aliyev rose quickly through the KGB ranks, becoming a Deputy Chairman of the Azerbaijani KGB in 1964, its chairman in 1967, and eventually reaching the rank of major general.[23][24]

From KGB to leader of Azerbaijan SSR

Aliyev in his KGB uniform.
Aliyev during his visit to state collective farm in 70s.

As head of the KGB's branch in Azerbaijan, Aliyev ran an anti-corruption campaign.[25][26][27] Following the campaign, he became the undisputed leader of Azerbaijan. He was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party at its Plenary Session held on 12 July 1969.[21][28][29] Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms, and in 1975, five factory and collective farm managers were sentenced to death for gross corruption.[30] In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the children of certain legal personnel from attending the republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption. In 1977, he visited Iran.[31]

During the period of his leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan, Aliyev's efforts led to considerably increased economic, social and cultural growth rates in Azerbaijan SSR.[32] Aliyev became perhaps the most successful republican leader, raising the profile of the underprivileged republic and consistently promoting Azerbaijanis to senior posts.[33][34]

Aliyev became a candidate (non-voting) member of the Soviet Politburo in 1976. He held this position until December 1982, when Yuri Andropov promoted him to the office of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and made him a full member of the Politburo.[25][35] Heydar Aliyev also served at the USSR Council of Ministers as the first deputy chairman in 1974–1979.[21] On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo[35] and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR,[36] responsible for transportation and social services. Aliyev thus attained the highest position ever reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union.[37]

Aliyev was dismissed from his position as First Deputy Premier and from the Politburo by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987, officially on health grounds.[37][17]

Fall and re-invention

After his forced retirement in 1987, Aliyev remained in Moscow until 1990. He suffered a heart attack during this time. Aliyev opposed January 1990 Soviet military crackdown in Baku, which had followed conflict regarding Nagorno-Karabakh since 1988 between Azerbaijan SSR and Armenia.[1][17]

Almost immediately after this public appearance in Moscow, Aliyev left Moscow for his native Nakhchivan. Here, Aliyev reinvented himself as a moderate nationalist. He was elected to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR in Baku in October 1990.[1] Under the pressure and criticism from the groups connected to his nemesis, the then-leader of Soviet Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov, Aliyev again returned to Nakhchivan, where he was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in 1991. He resigned that same year from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[1]

By December 1991, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist and Azerbaijan formally became an independent state, Aliyev independently governed Nakhchivan, despite Mutallibov's presidency. Early 1992 was marked by increased violence in the First Nagorno-Karabakh War with the fall of Shusha, the last Azerbaijani-populated town in Nagorno-Karabakh. These events resulted in the resignation of Mutallibov and the subsequent rise to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front led by Abulfaz Elchibey. During Elchibey's one year in power, Aliyev continued to govern Nakhchivan without any subordination to the official government in Baku. The attempt by the Popular Front's Minister of Interior Isgandar Hamidov to forcibly overthrow Aliyev in Nakhchivan was thwarted by local militia at the regional airport. During the same period, Aliyev independently negotiated a cease-fire agreement in Nakhchivan with the then-President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian.

Heydar Aliyev was elected as the leader of New Azerbaijan Party at its constituent congress organized in Nakhchivan on November 21, 1992.[21]

In May–June 1993, when as a result of a crisis in the government, the country was on the verge of civil war and faced the peril of losing independence, the people of Azerbaijan demanded to bring Heydar Aliyev to power, and the then leaders of Azerbaijan were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku. On 24 June 1993, amidst the advancement of insurgent forces under Surat Huseynov's control towards Baku, Elchibey fled from the city to his native village of Keleki in Nakhchivan. Earlier, on 15 June 1993, Aliyev had been elected Chairman of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, and after Elchibey's flight, he also assumed temporary presidential powers.[38] In August 1993, Elchibey was stripped of his presidency by a nationwide referendum, and in October 1993, Aliyev was elected President of Azerbaijan. In May 1994, Aliyev agreed to ceasefire agreement to end the hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh, which largely held until the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in 2020.


Aliyev during his Inauguration.

On 3 October 1993, as a result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[39] On 11 October 1998, he was re-elected, winning 77 percent of the votes.[40] Aliyev was nominated as a candidate in the 2003 presidential elections, but declined to run in the elections in connection with health problems.[21]

Domestic policy

Aliyev assembled the Constitutional Commission in June 1995 in order to create a new constitution to substitute the 1978 Azerbaijan SSR Constitution. The first draft was ready in October for public debate[41] and the final version composed of 5 chapters, 12 sections and 147 articles. The new constitution was confirmed by a referendum held on November 12, 1995.[42] As a result, separation of power was provided among 3 divisions: legislative (Milli Majlis), executive (President) and judicial (courts).[43]

Aliyev suggested amendments to the Constitution of Azerbaijan in June 2002. The first amendment to the Constitution of Azerbaijan was approved as the result of the referendum that took place in August 2002. Consequently, 39 amendments to 23 articles of the Constitution of Azerbaijan were made, proportional party-list elections to Parliament was abolished; transferring presidential power to Prime Minister instead of Chairman of Milli Majlis in case of resignation of President was confirmed; simple majority was preferred in the procedure of calculating the results of presidential elections; citizens, courts and Ombudsman of Azerbaijan received right to appeal directly to the Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan.[44][45]

Heydar Aliyev requested the elimination of the death penalty on 3 February 1998. In his speech addressed to Milli Majlis, Aliyev stated: "I am convinced that the abolition of the death penalty is a crucial step in the humanization of criminal justice policy, moreover it is an important stage in the reform of the legal system as a whole. Taking into consideration all the facts, I am submitting a draft law on amendments and additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedure, and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan regarding the abolition of capital punishment in the Republic of Azerbaijan in accordance with Article 96 of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan for the discussion.”[46] Milli Majlis approved the draft law, so on 10 February 1998 the “Law on Amendments and Additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedural and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan regarding the elimination of the death penalty in the Republic of Azerbaijan” was adopted.[47] As a result, capital punishment was replaced with life imprisonment.[48][49]

Azerbaijan joined the “Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty” on 22 January 1999.[50]

Heydar Aliyev issued a decree on “Measures for Ensuring Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms” on February 22, 1998. State Program on "Protection of Human Rights" was confirmed by the Presidential Order dated 18 June 1998.[51][52] Ombudsman institution in Azerbaijan was established based on this State Program and commitments before CoE[51] according to the Constitutional Law “On the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Azerbaijan” adopted on 28 December 2001[53] and Presidential Decree dated 5 March 2002 on implementation of this law.[52] Elmira Süleymanova was appointed as the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) among 3 nominees requested by later President Heydar Aliyev according to the Decision No. 362 of the Milli Majlis on July 2, 2002.[54][55]

Agrarian reforms implemented during the presidency of Heydar Aliyev can be divided into 2 phases:

  • 1995-1997 - At the first stage the legislative base for agrarian sector was reestablished with adopting a number of legislative documents. Privatization of agriculture of Azerbaijan with dissolving the traditional collective and state farms was in the center of these laws,[56] as the Law on “the Basis of Agrarian Reform” (18 February 1995);[57] “Reform of state and collective farms” (18 February 1995);[58]“Land Reform” (16 July 1996).[59] On 10 January 1997 Heydar Aliyev issued a Decree on “Approval of some legal documents assuring implementation of agrarian reforms”. State Commission on Agrarian Reforms was formed by the Decree of Heydar Aliyev dated 2 March 1995.[60][61]
  • 1998-2001 - At the second phase the main attention was paid to post-privatization support and removing bureaucratic barriers to implement these reforms more effectively. Ministry of Agriculture was reorganized by presidential decree dated 6 June 1998 (On Ratification of the Statue on the Ministry of Agriculture),[62] the law on “State land cadaster, land monitoring and structure” (22 December 1998),[63] decree on “Land rent” (12 March 1999),[64] law on “land market” (7 May 1999)[65] was adopted, moreover The Land Code of Azerbaijani Republic was approved by the Law on “Approval of Land Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan”[66] dated 25 June 1999.[56]

Foreign policy

A meeting between Heydar Aliyev, Vladimir Putin and Robert Kocharyan in Kremlin on 30 November 2001.

During the presidency of Heydar Aliyev, the foreign policy of Azerbaijan was rebuilt and transformed into a balanced policy. The bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and other countries, as well as cooperation with international organizations, started to deepen.[67]

  • Relations with United Nations. Azerbaijan began actively participating within the international organizations such as United Nations. Heydar Aliyev attended 49th session of UN General Assembly in 1994, in the special session of UN GA dedicated to 50th anniversary of United Nations in October 1995.[68] He received former Secretary General of UN Boutros Boutros-Ghali in October 1994 in Baku. H.Aliyev met with Kofi Annan during his trip to USA in 1997 July.[69] Heydar Aliyev addressed the Millennium Summit of UN held in September 2000 where he mentioned about Armenian invasion of Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent regions, UN resolutions (822, 853, 874, 884) demanding unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed forces from the occupied Azerbaijani territories.[70] After 11 September attacks, Azerbaijan joined anti-terror coalition of UN and cooperated with Office of Counter-Terrorism and Sanctions Committee of the UN SC. In October 2001, Azerbaijan joined International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism adopted by UN SC in 1999.[69]
  • Relations with NATO. Partnership for Peace (PfP) Framework Document was signed to enhance security and defense cooperation with NATO on May 4, 1994.[71] Aliyev approved PfP Presentation Document on April 19, 1996. In November 1997, Azerbaijan joined the PfP Planning and Review Process.[72] Azerbaijan became an associate member of due to the decision of NATO PA in November.[73]
  • Relations with EU. The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement came into force on June 22, 1999, which was signed in Luxembourg between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on cooperation in the field of trade, investment, economy, legislation, culture, immigration and the prevention of illicit trade on April 22, 1996. Azerbaijan received assistance from the EU for the economic reforms in the country through TACIS and TRACECA programmes.[74] “Restoration of the Historic Silk Road” international conference was organized in Baku on 8 September 1998 with the support of EU TACIS and TRACECA programmes based on the initiative of later presidents Heydar Aliyev and Eduard Shevardnadze.[75]
  • Relations with Council of Europe. Azerbaijan participated as a specially invited guest at the Council of Europe on 28 June 1996. Consequently, a number of resolutions and legal acts were adopted in 1996–2001 in order to improve the legislative system of Azerbaijan to meet the requirements of European standards and international law. On 28 June 2000, Azerbaijan's admission to CoE as a full member was recommended at the session of PACE and Azerbaijan became the member a full member of CoE on 17 January with the official ceremony conducted on 25 January 2011.[76] Presidential orders “On the implementation of the measures of the program of cooperation between the Council of Europe and the Republic of Azerbaijan” (July 8, 1996),[77] "On the measures of Deepening Cooperation between the Council of Europe and the Republic of Azerbaijan" dated 20 January 1998, “On the measures of expanding cooperation between Azerbaijan and CoE for defending interests of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Council of Europe"[77] dated 14 May 1999 were adopted by Heydar Aliyev.[78]
  • Relations with Russia. Heydar Aliyev gave importance to establish warmer relations with Russia than the previous leadership of Azerbaijan did. He stated in his speech at Milli Majlis on June 15, 1993, after being elected as the head of Parliament of Azerbaijan:[79] "Russia, our northern neighbor, is absolutely a vast state. Undoubtedly, the relation based on independent principles between Azerbaijan and Russia must be better, broader and more fruitful".[80] The Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Security between Russia and Azerbaijan was signed on July 3, 1997.[81] Heydar Aliyev paid his first official trip to Russia as a President of the Republic of Azerbaijan in July 1997 with the invitation of the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin. The relations with Russia developed further through Aliyev-Putin negotiations during their bilateral visits (Vladimir Putin visited Azerbaijan in 2001 and Heydar Aliyev paid a reciprocal visit to Russia in 2002).[79] The Agreements on “The Status and Benefiting Principles of Gabala Radio Location Station”, “Long term economic cooperation agreement between Russian Federation and the Azerbaijan Republic until the year 2010”, as well as “The common declaration of the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin and President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev” were signed in the latter meeting.[82]
  • Relations with US. Establishing closer relations and developing cooperation with USA was among the main directions of the foreign policy of the former President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev. He stated in one of his speeches regarding this issue: “The relations of Azerbaijan with the United States are important as we need to learn the Western democracy, culture, achievements, to benefit from them, to use and apply them in Azerbaijan. In this regard, the United States is a special country for us".[83] The relations between these two countries began to strengthen after oil contracts were signed between them as a result of Heydar Aliyev's oil strategy. Heydar Aliyev paid his first official visit to USA and met with President Bill Clinton on August 1, 1997. They signed Joint Statement on future relations between the US and Azerbaijan in defense and military issues. During this trip (27 July-5 August 1997), the statement on intentions of formation of bilateral dialogue between the US and Azerbaijan regarding the energy issues, the general agreement between the Government of the Azerbaijani Republic, the National Bank, and the U.S. Export-Import Bank on the promotion of projects were signed. Additionally, 4 agreements on development and production sharing for the Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea were signed.[83] Heydar Aliyev issued an order on “Measures to expand partnership relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the United States” on 2 September 1997 after the visit.[84] Azerbaijan joined US-lead international coalition against terrorism after 11 September attacks,[85] and sent a military contingent to Afghanistan.[86] An amendment to the Freedom Support Act was adopted in 2002 (24 October) by the US Senate to allow the president of US to temporarily waive Section 907 which used to forbid to export any financial or humanitarian support to Azerbaijan.[87]

Oil strategy

Oil pipeline routes

Heydar Aliyev used the oil potential of Azerbaijan to avoid the difficulties his country faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union by attracting foreign investment into Azerbaijan. After a series of negotiations took place in Baku, Istanbul and Houston over a year,[88][89]“Agreement on the Joint Development and Production Sharing for the Azeri and Chirag Fields and the Deep Water Portion of the Gunashli Field in the Azerbaijan Sector of the Caspian Sea” was signed in Baku on September 20, 1994, by the Government of Azerbaijan and the consortium of 11 oil companies from 6 countries (USA, UK, Russia, Norway, Turkey, Saudi Arabia) in the presence of Heydar Aliyev.[90][91]

State Oil Fund of Azerbaijan was established by the Presidential Decree of Heydar Aliyev in December 1999 to gather the income gained from oil profit with the aim of financing social and economic projects.[92] As a result of oil strategy developed by Heydar Aliyev, Azerbaijani oil was planned to be carried through different routes as Baku-Supsa, BTC, etc.[89] In order to export Azerbaijani oil to the European market, the presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey agreed on constructing Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in 1998 in Ankara. The ground-breaking ceremony of BTC took place in September 2002 with the participation of Heydar Aliyev, Ahmet Necdet Sezer and Edward Shevardnadze.[93][94][95]

To export Azerbaijani crude oil to the Novorossiysk port of Russia was decided by the contract signed in Moscow on February 18, 1996,[96][95] transportation of oil through this route was realized in October 1997.[97] Establishment of the alternative Baku-Supsa route was agreed on March 8, 1996, by Heydar Aliyev and Edward Shevardnadze. This route started to operate in April 1999.[98][99]

Death and successor

Aliyev's health began to fail in 1999, when he had a major heart bypass operation in the United States at the Cleveland Clinic. He later had prostate surgery and a hernia operation. He suffered a collapse while giving a speech on live television in April 2003. On 6 August, Aliyev returned to the United States for treatment of congestive heart failure and kidney problems. He stood down from the presidency at the start of October 2003 and appointed his son Ilham as his party's sole presidential candidate. On 12 December 2003, President Heydar Aliyev died at the Cleveland Clinic.[100] He was given a large state funeral and buried at the Alley of Honor cemetery in Baku.

Heydar Aliyev's son Ilham Aliyev won a fraudulent presidential election of 15 October 2003. International observers criticized the contest as falling well below expected standards.[101] This transfer of power became the first case of top-level succession in the former Soviet Union.[102]


Aliyev's statue in Belgrade

Throughout his life, Aliyev was awarded a number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected honourable doctor of universities in many countries, including the Order of Lenin four times, the Order of the Red Star once and Hero of the Socialist Labor twice. On 27 March 1997 in Kyiv, Ukraine, Aliyev received Ukraine's highest award, the Yaroslav Mudry Order, and on 13 April 1999, Turkey's highest honour, the Peace Premium of Atatürk Order. On 3 April 2003, he was elected a professor and authorized member of the Academy of Safety of the Russian Federation, and was subsequently awarded the Premium of Y. V. Andropov. On 10 May 2003, he was decorated with the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called—Russia's supreme award.[2][103] A statue of Heydar Aliyev has been unveiled in a Tašmajdan Park in Belgrade whose renovation was aided by 2 million euros ($2.9 million) from the Azerbaijani government.[104]

Full list of honours and awards

Soviet Union

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Roger East, Richard J. Thomas. Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1-85743-126-X, p. 32
  2. ^ a b "Heydar Aliyev biography". Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
  3. ^ Sultanova, Shahla (2013-01-18). "Azerbaijan: Taking Veneration for Past Leader to a Turkmenbashi Level?". eurasianet.org. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  4. ^ The Two Faces of Azerbaijan’s Mr. Aliyev // The New York Times, JAN. 11, 2015
  5. ^ Hans Slomp. Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO, 2011. ISBN 0-313-39181-5, 9780313391811. P.672
  6. ^ FranCoise Companjen, Laszlo Maracz, Lia Versteegh. Exploring the Caucasus in the 21st Century: Essays on Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context. Amsterdam University Press, 2011. ISBN 90-8964-183-1, 9789089641830. P.121
  7. ^ Thomas Goltz. Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter’s Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic. M.E. Sharpe, 1999. ISBN 0-7656-0244-X, 9780765602442. P.66
  8. ^ Elisabeth Precht. Azerbaijan In the Shadow of a Dictatorship //Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation, 2012
  9. ^ В турецком учебнике Гейдар Алиев представлен как диктатор Archived 2017-08-20 at the Wayback Machine // Сontact.az. 2013 Февраль 09 «В изданной в Турции учебнике „Конституционное права“ для студентов университетов бывший президент Азербайджана Гейдар Алиев назван „диктатором“» (copy)
  10. ^ Rise of Leader's Son Sharpens Azerbaijan's Identity Crisis // Washington Post. August 9, 2003
  11. ^ David J. Kramer and Richard Kauzlarich. It’s time for the United States to act on Azerbaijan // Washington Post, September 8, 2016
  12. ^ Svante E. Cornell Democratization Falters in Azerbaijan // Journal of Democracy 12.2 (2001) 118—131
  13. ^ Борисов Николай Александрович. Институционализация института президентства и перспективы консолидации политических режимов на постсоветском пространстве // «Полития».-2011.-№ 4(63).-С.93-103. «И хотя эта гипотеза ещё нуждается в дополнительной проверке, уместно предположить, что в этих государствах состоялась авторитарная консолидация, причем важнейшим её фактором был институт президентства и сами личности президентов (Сапармурат Ниязов, Эмомали Рахмон, Нурсултан Назарбаев, Гейдар Алиев)»
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Heydar Aliyev.

    Azerbaijani politician who, was one of the most powerful men in Azerbaijan for more than 30 years, as deputy chairman (1964-67) and chairman (1967-69) of the regional KGB, as secretary (1969-87) of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, and from 1993 as the repressive and autocratic president of independent Azerbaijan.

  15. ^ "Heidar Aliev, maestro of the Caucasus". The Economist. 2000-08-31. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2017-09-03. "There is stability, because Mr Aliev is an acute tactician who runs a heavy-handed police state. Opposition leaders who decline to be co-opted are in jail, in exile or bullied. Elections are rigged, the media muzzled."
  16. ^ Kucera, Joshua (2008-05-20). "Travels in the Former Soviet Union". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  17. ^ a b c "Azerbaijan: Biography Of Deceased Former President Heidar Aliyev". eurasianet.org. 2003-12-14. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  18. ^ a b "Biography". Heydar Aliyev Center. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  19. ^ De Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. New York and London: New York University Press. p. 306. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9. Some maintain that Heidar Aliev was actually born in Armenia in 1921, not in Nakhichevan in 1923. His younger brother, Jalal Aliev, interviewed on 4 November 2000, said that the Aliev family came from the village of Jomartly in Zangezur but had moved to Nakhichevan by the time Heidar was born.
  20. ^ Earley, Pete (2008). Comrade J: The Untold Secrets of Russia's Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War. Penguin Books. p. 200. ISBN 9781101207673.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev". en.president.az. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  22. ^ "Remembering Zarifa Aliyeva - wife, mother, scientist". AzerNews. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  23. ^ "Heydar Aliyev Foundation - Biography". heydar-aliyev-foundation.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
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  29. ^ Bernard Anthony Cook. Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN 0-8153-4057-5, p. 70
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Party political offices
Preceded by First Secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party
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Political offices
Preceded by
Parliamentary Chairman of Nakhchivan
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Preceded by President of Azerbaijan
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