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John Herbert Dillinger
(1903-06-22)June 22, 1903
Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
|Died||July 22, 1934(1934-07-22) (aged 31)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Cause of death||Gunshot wounds|
|Criminal charge(s)||Bank robbery, murder, assault, assault of an officer, grand theft auto|
|Criminal penalty||Imprisonment from 1924 to 1933|
|Spouse(s)||Beryl Hovious (divorced)
Evelyn Frechette (common law relationship)
John Herbert Dillinger (June 22, 1903 – July 22, 1934) was an American gangster of the Great Depression. He led a group known as the "Dillinger Gang", which was accused of robbing 24 banks and four police stations. Dillinger was imprisoned several times but escaped twice. He was charged, but not convicted, of the murder of an East Chicago, Indiana, police officer who shot Dillinger in his bullet-proof vest during a shootout; it was the only time Dillinger was charged with homicide.
Dillinger courted publicity. The media ran exaggerated accounts of his bravado and colorful personality and cast him as a Robin Hood. In response, J. Edgar Hoover, then director of the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), used Dillinger and his gang as his campaign platform to evolve the BOI into the Federal Bureau of Investigation, developing more sophisticated investigative techniques as weapons against organized crime.
After evading police in four states for almost a year, Dillinger was wounded and went to his father's home to mend. He returned to Chicago in July 1934 and sought refuge in a brothel owned by Ana Cumpănaș. She informed authorities of his whereabouts. On July 22, 1934, local and federal law enforcement closed in on the Biograph Theater. As BOI agents moved to arrest Dillinger as he exited the theater, he drew a gun while attempting to flee, but was killed; this was later ruled as justifiable homicide.
Family and background
John Dillinger was born on June 22, 1903 at 2053 Cooper Street (now Caroline Avenue), Indianapolis, Indiana, the younger of two children born to John Wilson Dillinger (1864–1943) and Mary Ellen "Mollie" Lancaster (1870–1907).:10
According to some biographers, his German grandfather, Matthias Dillinger, immigrated to the United States in 1851 from Metz, in the region of Lorraine, then still under French sovereignty. Matthias Dillinger was born in Gisingen, near Dillingen in the present-day German state of Saarland. John Dillinger's parents had married on August 23, 1887. Dillinger's father was a grocer by trade and, reportedly, a harsh man.:9 In an interview with reporters, Dillinger said that he was firm in his discipline and believed in the adage "spare the rod and spoil the child".:12
Dillinger's older sister, Audrey, was born March 6, 1889. Their mother died in 1907 just before his fourth birthday. Audrey married Emmett "Fred" Hancock that year and they had seven children together. She cared for her brother John for several years until their father remarried in 1912 to Elizabeth "Lizzie" Fields (1878–1933). They had three children, Hubert M. Dillinger (1913–1974) Doris M. Dillinger Hockman (1918–2001) and Frances Dillinger Thompson (1922–2015).
Formative years and marriage
As a teenager, Dillinger was frequently in trouble with the law for fighting and petty theft; he was also noted for his "bewildering personality" and bullying of smaller children.:14 He quit school to work in an Indianapolis machine shop. His father feared that the city was corrupting his son, prompting him to move the family to Mooresville, Indiana, in 1921.:15 Dillinger's wild and rebellious behaviour was unchanged, despite his new rural life. In 1922, he was arrested for auto theft, and his relationship with his father deteriorated.:16–17
In 1923, Dillinger's troubles led to him enlisting in the United States Navy, where he was a Petty officer third class Machinery Repairman assigned aboard the battleship USS Utah, but he deserted a few months later when his ship was docked in Boston. He was eventually dishonorably discharged some months later.:18–20
Dillinger then returned to Mooresville where he met Beryl Ethel Hovious. The two married on April 12, 1924. He attempted to settle down, but he had difficulty holding a job and preserving his marriage. Unable to find a job, he began planning a robbery with his friend Ed Singleton,:22 who was an ex-convict and umpire for a semi-professional baseball team, the AC Athletics, for which Dillinger played shortstop. The two robbed a local grocery store, stealing $50.:26 While leaving the scene, the criminals were spotted by a minister who recognized the men and reported them to the police. During the robbery, Dillinger had struck a victim on the head with a machine bolt wrapped in a cloth and had also carried a gun which, although it discharged, hit no one. The two men were arrested the next day. Singleton pleaded not guilty, but after Dillinger's father (the local Mooresville Church deacon) discussed the matter with Morgan County prosecutor Omar O'Harrow, his father convinced Dillinger to confess to the crime and plead guilty without retaining a defence attorney.:24
Dillinger was convicted of assault and battery with intent to rob, and conspiracy to commit a felony. He expected a lenient probation sentence as a result of his father's discussion with O'Harrow but instead was sentenced to 10 to 20 years in prison for his crimes. His father told reporters he regretted his advice and was appalled by the sentence. He pleaded with the judge to shorten the sentence, but with no success.:25 En route to Mooresville to testify against Singleton, Dillinger briefly escaped his captors but was apprehended within a few minutes.:27 Singleton had a change of venue and was sentenced to a jail term of 2 to 14 years. He died September 2, 1937 from fatal gunshot wounds. 
Incarcerated at Indiana Reformatory and Indiana State Prison from 1924 to 1933, Dillinger began to become embroiled in a criminal lifestyle. Upon being admitted to prison, he was quoted as saying, "I will be the meanest bastard you ever saw when I get out of here.":26 His physical examination at the prison showed that he had gonorrhea, and the treatment for the condition was, apparently, extremely painful.:22 He became embittered against society because of his long prison sentence and befriended other criminals, including seasoned bank robbers Harry "Pete" Pierpont, Charles Makley, Russell Clark, and Homer Van Meter, who taught Dillinger how to be a successful criminal. The men planned heists that they would commit soon after they were released.:32 Dillinger also studied Herman Lamm's meticulous bank-robbing system and used it extensively throughout his criminal career.
Dillinger's father launched a campaign to have him released and was able to obtain 188 signatures on a petition. On May 10, 1933, after serving nine and a half years, Dillinger was paroled. Just before he was released from the prison his stepmother became sick, and she died before he arrived at her home.:37 Released at the height of the Great Depression, Dillinger had little prospect of finding gainful employment.:35 He immediately returned to crime.:39
On June 21, 1933, he robbed his first bank, taking $10,000 from the New Carlisle National Bank, which occupied the building at the southeast corner of Main Street and Jefferson (State Routes 235 and 571) in New Carlisle, Ohio. On August 14, Dillinger robbed a bank in Bluffton, Ohio. Tracked by police from Dayton, Ohio, he was captured and later transferred to the Allen County Jail in Lima to be indicted in connection to the Bluffton robbery. After searching him before letting him into the prison, the police discovered a document which appeared to be a prison escape plan. They demanded Dillinger tell them what the document meant, but he refused.
Earlier, while in prison, Dillinger had helped conceive a plan to enable the escape of Pete Pierpont, Russell Clark, and six others he had met while in prison, most of whom worked in the prison laundry. Dillinger had friends smuggle guns into their cells which they used to escape four days after Dillinger's capture. The group that formed up, known as "the First Dillinger Gang,” consisted of Pierpont, Clark, Charles Makley, Ed Shouse, Harry Copeland, and John "Red" Hamilton, a member of the Herman Lamm Gang. Pierpont, Clark, and Makley arrived in Lima on October 12, 1933, where they impersonated Indiana State Police officers, claiming they had come to extradite Dillinger to Indiana. When the sheriff, Jess Sarber, asked for their credentials, Pierpont shot Sarber dead, then released Dillinger from his cell. The four men escaped back to Indiana, where they joined the rest of the gang.
Evelyn "Billie" Frechette met John Dillinger in October 1933, and they began a relationship on November 20. After Dillinger's death, Billie was offered money for her story and wrote a memoir for the Chicago Herald and Examiner in August 1934.
Escape from Crown Point, Indiana
On January 25, 1934, Dillinger and his gang were captured in Tucson, Arizona. He was extradited to Indiana and escorted back by Matt Leach, the chief of the Indiana State Police. Dillinger was taken to the Lake County Jail in Crown Point, Indiana and imprisoned to face charges for the murder of a policeman who was killed during a Dillinger gang bank robbery in East Chicago, Indiana, on January 15, 1934. The local police boasted to area newspapers that the jail was escape-proof and had even posted extra guards as a precaution. However, at 9:30 a.m. on Saturday, March 3, 1934, Dillinger was able to escape. During morning exercises at the jail with 15 other immates, Dillinger produced a pistol, catching deputies and guards by surprise, and he was able to leave the premises without firing a shot. Almost immediately afterwards conjecture began whether the gun Dillinger displayed was real or not. According to Deputy Ernest Blunk, Dillinger had escaped using a real pistol. FBI files, on the other hand, indicate that Dillinger used a carved fake pistol. Sam Cahoon, a trustee who Dillinger took hostage in the jail, also believed Dillinger had carved the gun, using a razor and some shelving in his cell. In another version, according to an unpublished interview with Dillinger's attorney, Louis Piquett, investigator Art O'Leary claimed to have snuck the gun in himself.
On March 16, Herbert Youngblood, who escaped from Crown Point alongside Dillinger, was shot dead by three police officers in Port Huron, Michigan. Deputy Sheriff Charles Cavanaugh was mortally wounded in the battle and died a few hours later. Before he died, Youngblood told the officers that Dillinger was in the neighborhood of Port Huron, and immediately officers began a search for the escaped man, but no trace of him was found. An Indiana newspaper reported that Youngblood later retracted the story and said he did not know where Dillinger was at that time, as he had parted with him soon after their escape.
Dillinger was indicted by a local grand jury, and the Bureau of Investigation (a precursor of the Federal Bureau of Investigation) organized a nationwide manhunt for him. Just hours after his escape from the Crown Point jail, Dillinger reunited with his girlfriend, Evelyn "Billie" Frechette, at her half-sister Patsy's Chicago apartment at 3512 North Halsted, where she was also staying.
According to Frechette's trial testimony, Dillinger stayed with her there for "almost two weeks." However, the two had actually traveled to the Twin Cities and taken lodgings at the Santa Monica Apartments (Unit 106) at 3252 Girard Avenue South, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where they stayed for 15 days, from March 4 to March 19, 1934. Dillinger then met up with John "Red" Hamilton (who had been recovering for the past month from his gunshot wounds in the East Chicago robbery), and the two mustered up a new gang consisting of themselves and Baby Face Nelson's gang, including Nelson, Homer Van Meter, Tommy Carroll and Eddie Green.
Lincoln Court Apartments shootout
On Tuesday, March 20, 1934, Dillinger and Frechette moved into apartment 303 of the Lincoln Court Apartments, 93–95 South Lexington Avenue (now Lexington Parkway South) in St. Paul, Minnesota, using the aliases "Mr. & Mrs. Carl T. Hellman." The three-story apartment complex had 32 apartments — 10 units on each floor, plus two basement units.
Daisy Coffey, the landlord/owner, would later testify at Frechette's trial that she spent most evenings during Dillinger's stay furnishing apartment 310, which enabled her to observe what was happening in apartment 303 directly across the courtyard. On March 30, Coffey went to the FBI's St. Paul field office to file a report, including information about the couple's new Hudson sedan parked in the garage behind the apartments.
As a result of Coffey's tip, the building was placed under surveillance by two agents, Rufus Coulter and Rusty Nalls, that night, but they saw nothing unusual, mainly because the blinds were drawn. The next morning at approximately 10:15 a.m., Nalls circled around the block looking for the Hudson, but observed nothing. He parked, first on Lincoln Avenue (the north side of the apartments), then on the west side of Lexington Avenue, at the northwest corner of Lexington and Lincoln, and remained in his car while watching Coulter and St. Paul Police detective Henry Cummings, pull up, park, and enter the building. Ten minutes later, by Nalls's estimate, Van Meter parked a green Ford coupe on the north side of the apartment building.
Meanwhile, Coulter and Cummings knocked on the door of apartment 303. Frechette answered, opening the door two to three inches. She said she was not dressed and to come back. Coulter told her they would wait. After waiting two to three minutes, Coulter went to the basement apartment of the caretakers, Louis and Margaret Meidlinger, and asked to use the phone to call the bureau. He quickly returned to Cummings, and the two of them waited for Frechette to open the door. Van Meter then appeared in the hall and asked Coulter if his name was Johnson. Coulter said it was not, and as Van Meter passed on to the landing of the third floor, Coulter asked him for a name. Van Meter replied, "I am a soap salesman." Asked where his samples were, Van Meter said they were in his car. Coulter asked if he had any credentials. Van Meter said "no", and continued down the stairs. Coulter waited 10 to 20 seconds, then followed Van Meter. As Coulter got to the lobby on the ground floor, Van Meter opened fire on him. Coulter hastily fled outside, chased by Van Meter. Van Meter ran back into the front entrance.
Recognizing Van Meter, Nalls pointed out the Ford to Coulter and told him to disable it. Coulter shot out the rear left tire. While Coulter stayed with Van Meter's Ford, Nalls went to the corner drugstore and called the local police, then the bureau's St. Paul office, but could not get through because both lines were busy. Van Meter, meanwhile, escaped by hopping on a passing coal truck.
Frechette, in her harboring trial testimony, said that she told Dillinger that the police had showed up after speaking to Cummings. Upon hearing Van Meter firing at Coulter, Dillinger opened fire through the door with a Thompson submachine gun, sending Cummings scrambling for cover. Dillinger then stepped out and fired another burst at Cummings. Cummings shot back with a revolver, but quickly ran out of ammunition. He hit Dillinger in the left calf with one of his five shots. He then hastily retreated down the stairs to the front entrance. Once Cummings retreated, Dillinger and Frechette hurried down the stairs, exited through the back door and drove away in the Hudson.
After the shootout, Dillinger and Frechette drove to Eddie Green's apartment in Minneapolis. Green called his associate Dr. Clayton E. May at his office at 712 Masonic Temple in downtown Minneapolis (still extant). With Green, his wife Beth, and Frechette following in Green's car, the doctor drove Dillinger to an apartment belonging to Augusta Salt, who had been providing nursing services and a bed for May's illicit patients for several years, patients he could not risk seeing at his regular office. May treated Dillinger's wound with antiseptics. Green visited Dillinger on Monday, April 2, just hours before Green would be mortally wounded by the FBI in St. Paul. Dillinger convalesced at Dr. May's for five days, until Wednesday, April 4. Dr. May was promised $500 for his services, but received nothing.
Return to Mooresville
After the events in Minneapolis, Dillinger and Frechette traveled to Mooresville to visit Dillinger's father. Friday, April 6, 1934 was spent contacting family members, particularly his half-brother Hubert Dillinger. On April 6, Hubert and Dillinger left Mooresville at about 8:00 p.m. and proceeded to Leipsic, Ohio (approximately 210 miles away), to see Joseph and Lena Pierpont, parents of Prohibition Era gangster, Harry Pierpont. The Pierponts were not home, so the two headed back to Mooresville around midnight.
On April 7 at approximately 3:30 a.m., they rammed a car driven by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Manning near Noblesville, Indiana, after Hubert fell asleep behind the wheel. They crashed through a farm fence and about 200 feet into the woods. Both men made it back to the Mooresville farm. Swarms of police showed up at the accident scene within hours. Found in the car were maps, a machine gun magazine, a length of rope, and a bullwhip. According to Hubert, his brother planned to pay a visit with the bullwhip to his former one-armed "shyster" lawyer at Crown Point, Joseph Ryan, who had run off with his retainer after being replaced by Louis Piquett. At about 10:30 a.m. on April 7, Billie, Hubert and Hubert's wife purchased a black four-door Ford V8, registering it in the name of Mrs. Fred Penfield (Billie Frechette). At 2:30 p.m., Billie and Hubert picked up the V8 and returned to Mooresville.
On Sunday, April 8, the Dillingers enjoyed a family picnic while the FBI had the farm under surveillance nearby. Later in the afternoon, suspecting they were being watched (agents J. L. Geraghty and T. J. Donegan were cruising in the vicinity in their car), the group left in separate cars. Billie drove the new Ford V8, with two of Dillinger's nieces, Mary Hancock in the front seat and Alberta Hancock in the back. Dillinger was on the floor of the car. He was later seen, but not recognized, by Donegan and Geraghty. Eventually, Norman, driving the V8, proceeded with Dillinger and Billie to Chicago, where they separated from Norman.
The following afternoon, Monday, April 9, Dillinger had an appointment at a tavern at 416 North State Street. Sensing trouble, Billie went in first. She was promptly arrested by agents, but refused to reveal Dillinger's whereabouts. Dillinger was waiting in his car outside the tavern and then drove off unnoticed. The two would never see each other again.
Dillinger reportedly became despondent after Billie was arrested. The other gang members tried to talk him out of rescuing her, but Van Meter encouraged him by saying that he knew where they could find bulletproof vests. That Friday morning, late at night, Dillinger and Van Meter took a hostage, Warsaw, Indiana police officer Judd Pittenger. They marched Pittenger at gunpoint into the police station, where they stole several more guns and bulletproof vests. After separating, Dillinger picked up Hamilton, who was recovering from the Mason City robbery. The two then traveled to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where they visited Hamilton's sister Anna Steve.
Escape at Little Bohemia
The Bureau, or Division, of Investigations - precursor to federal jurisdiction and 1935 name change to FBI - received a call Sunday morning, April 22 that John Dillinger and several of his confederates were hiding out at a small vacation lodge called Little Bohemia near present-day Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin.
Special Agent in Charge Purvis and several BOI agents approached the lodge when three men exited the building and began to drive off. Agents yelled for the car to stop, but the men had been drinking and did not hear the agents. Agents opened up fire on the car and the driver was killed.
Dillinger and some of the gang were upstairs in the lodge and began shooting out the windows. While the BOI agents ducked for cover, Dillinger and his men got out the back of the lodge toward the lake and were able to get out of the area very quietly.
Hiding in Chicago
By July 1934, Dillinger had dropped completely out of sight, and the federal agents had no solid leads to follow. He had, in fact, drifted into Chicago where he went under the alias of Jimmy Lawrence, a petty criminal from Wisconsin who bore a close resemblance to Dillinger. Working as a clerk, Dillinger found that, in a large metropolis like Chicago, he was able to lead an anonymous existence for a while. What he did not realize was that the center of the federal agents' dragnet happened to be Chicago. When the authorities found Dillinger's blood-spattered getaway car on a Chicago side street, they were positive that he was in the city.
Dillinger had always been a fan of the Chicago Cubs, and attended Cubs games at Wrigley Field during June and July. He is known to have been at Wrigley on Friday, June 8, only to watch the Cubs lose to Cincinnati 4–3. Also in attendance at the game were Dillinger's lawyer, Louis Piquett, and Captain John Stege of the Dillinger Squad.
According to Art O'Leary, as early as March 1934, Dillinger expressed an interest in plastic surgery and had asked O'Leary to check with Piquett on such matters. At the end of April, Piquett paid a visit to his old friend Dr. Wilhelm Loeser. Loeser had practiced in Chicago for 27 years before being convicted under the Harrison Narcotic Act in 1931. He was sentenced to three years at Leavenworth, but was paroled early on December 7, 1932, with Piquett's help. He later testified that he performed facial surgery on himself and obliterated the fingerprint impressions on the tips of his fingers by the application of a caustic soda preparation. Piquett said Dillinger would have to pay $5,000 for the plastic surgery: $4,400 split between Piquett, Loeser and O'Leary, and $600 to Dr. Harold Cassidy, who would administer the anaesthetic. The procedure would take place at the home of Piquett's longtime friend, 67-year-old James Probasco, at the end of May.
On May 28, Loeser was picked up at his home at 7:30 p.m. by O'Leary and Cassidy. The three of them then drove to Probasco's place. Dillinger chose to have a general anaesthetic. Loeser later testified:
I asked him what work he wanted done. He wanted two warts (moles) removed on the right lower forehead between the eyes and one at the left angle, outer angle of the left eye; wanted a depression of the nose filled in; a scar; a large one to the left of the median line of the upper lip excised, wanted his dimples removed and wanted the angle of the mouth drawn up. He didn't say anything about the fingers that day to me.
Cassidy administered an overdose of ether, which caused Dillinger to suffocate. He began to turn blue and stopped breathing. Loeser pulled Dillinger's tongue out of his mouth with a pair of forceps, and at the same time forcing both elbows into his ribs. Dillinger gasped and resumed breathing. The procedure continued with only a local anaesthetic. Loeser removed several moles on Dillinger's forehead, made an incision in his nose and an incision in his chin and tied back both cheeks.
Loeser met with Piquett again on Saturday, June 2, with Piquett saying that more work was needed on Dillinger and that Van Meter now wanted the same work done to him. Also, both now wanted work done on their fingertips. The price for the fingerprint procedure would be $500 per hand or $100 a finger. Loeser used a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid—commonly known as aqua regia.[page needed]
Loeser met O'Leary the following night at Clark and Wright at 8:30, and they once again drove to Probasco's. Present this evening were Dillinger, Van Meter, Probasco, Piquett, Cassidy, and Peggy Doyle, Probasco's girlfriend. Loeser testified that he worked for only about 30 minutes before O'Leary and Piquett had left.
Cassidy and I worked on Dillinger and Van Meter simultaneously on June 3. While the work was being done, Dillinger and Van Meter changed off. The work that could be done while the patient was sitting up, that patient was in the sitting-room. The work that had to be done while the man was lying down, that patient was on the couch in the bedroom. They were changed back and forth according to the work to be done. The hands were sterilized, made aseptic with antiseptics, thoroughly washed with soap and water and used sterile gauze afterwards to keep them clean. Next, cutting instrument, knife was used to expose the lower skin ... in other words, take off the epidermis and expose the derma, then alternately the acid and the alkaloid was applied as was necessary to produce the desired results.
Minor work was done two nights later, Tuesday, June 5. Loeser made some small corrections first on Van Meter, then Dillinger. Loeser stated:
A man came in before I left, who I found out later was Baby Face Nelson. He came in with a drum of machine gun bullets under his arm, threw them on the bed or the couch in the bedroom, and started to talk to Van Meter. The two then motioned for Dillinger to come over and the three went back into the kitchen.
Peggy Doyle later told agents:
Dillinger and Van Meter resided at Probasco's home until the last week of June 1934; that on some occasions they would be away for a day or two, sometimes leaving separately, and on other occasions together; that at this time Van Meter usually parked his car in the rear of Probasco's residence outside the back fence; that she gathered that Dillinger was keeping company with a young woman who lived on the north side of Chicago, inasmuch as he would state upon leaving Probasco's home that he was going in the direction of Diversey Boulevard; that Van Meter apparently was not acquainted with Dillinger's friend, and she heard him warning Dillinger to be careful about striking up acquaintances with girls he knew nothing about; that Dillinger and Van Meter usually kept a machine gun in an open case under the piano in the parlor; that they also kept a shotgun under the parlor table.
O'Leary stated that Dillinger expressed dissatisfaction with the facial work that Loeser had performed on him. O'Leary said that, on another occasion, "that Probasco told him, 'the son of a bitch has gone out for one of his walks'; that he did not know when he would return; that Probasco raved about the craziness of Dillinger, stating that he was always going for walks and was likely to cause the authorities to locate the place where he was staying; that Probasco stated frankly on this occasion that he was afraid to have the man around."
Agents arrested Loeser at 1127 South Harvey, Oak Park, Illinois, on Tuesday, July 24. O'Leary returned from a family fishing trip on July 24, the day of Loeser's arrest, and had read in the newspapers that the Department of Justice was looking for two doctors and another man in connection with some plastic work that was done on Dillinger. O'Leary left Chicago immediately, but returned two weeks later, learned that Loeser and others had been arrested, phoned Piquett, who assured him everything was all right, then left again. He returned from St. Louis on August 25 and was promptly taken into custody.
On Friday, July 27, Probasco fell to his death from the 19th floor of the Bankers' Building in Chicago while in custody. On Thursday, August 23, Homer Van Meter was shot and killed in a dead-end alley in St. Paul by Tom Brown, former St. Paul Chief of Police, and then-current chief Frank Cullen.
Rita "Polly" Hamilton was a teenage runaway from Fargo, North Dakota. She met Ana Ivanova Akalieva (Ana Cumpănaș; a.k.a. Ana Sage) in Gary, Indiana, and worked periodically as a prostitute in Ana's brothel until marrying Gary police officer Roy O. Keele in 1929. They divorced in March 1933.
In the summer of 1934, the now 26-year-old Hamilton was a waitress in Chicago at the S&S Sandwich Shop located at 1209½ Wilson Avenue. She had remained friends with Sage and was sharing living space with Sage and Sage's 24-year-old son, Steve, at 2858 Clark Street.
Dillinger and Hamilton, a Billie Frechette look-a-like, met in June 1934 at the Barrel of Fun night club located at 4541 Wilson Avenue. Dillinger introduced himself as Jimmy Lawrence and said he was a clerk at the Board of Trade. They dated until Dillinger's death at the Biograph Theater in July 1934.
Division of Investigations chief J. Edgar Hoover created a special task force headquartered in Chicago to locate Dillinger. On July 21, Ana Cumpănaș, a madam from a brothel in Gary, Indiana, also known as "The Woman in Red" contacted the FBI. She was a Romanian immigrant threatened with deportation for "low moral character" and offered agents information on Dillinger in exchange for their help in preventing her deportation. The FBI agreed to her terms, but she was later deported nonetheless. Cumpănaș revealed that Dillinger was spending his time with another prostitute, Polly Hamilton, and that she and the couple were going to see a movie together on the following day. She agreed to wear an orange dress, so police could easily identify her. She was unsure which of two theaters they would attend, the Biograph or the Marbro.
Cumpănaș stated that on Sunday afternoon, July 22, Dillinger asked her whether she wanted to go to the show with them (Polly and him).
She asked him what show was he going to see, and he said he would 'like to see the theater around the corner,' meaning the Biograph Theater. She stated she was unable to leave the house to inform Purvis or Martin about Dillinger's plans to attend the Biograph, but as they were going to have fried chicken for the evening meal, she told Polly she had nothing in which to fry the chicken and was going to the store to get some butter; that while at the store she called Mr. Purvis and informed him of Dillinger's plans to attend the Biograph that evening, at the same time obtaining the butter. She then returned to the house so Polly would not be suspicious that she went out to call anyone.
A team of federal agents and officers from police forces from outside of Chicago was formed, along with a very small number of Chicago police officers. Among them was Sergeant Martin Zarkovich, the officer to whom Cumpănaș had acted as an informant. At the time, federal officials felt that the Chicago police had been compromised and therefore could not be trusted; Hoover and Purvis also wanted more of the credit. Not wanting to take the risk of another embarrassing escape of Dillinger, the police were split into two groups. On Sunday, one team was sent to the Marbro Theater on the city's west side, while another team surrounded the Biograph Theater at 2433 N. Lincoln Avenue on the north side.
Shooting at the Biograph Theater and death
At approximately 8:30 p.m., Sage, Hamilton, and Dillinger were observed entering the Biograph Theater, which was showing the crime drama Manhattan Melodrama, starring Clark Gable, Myrna Loy, and William Powell. During the stakeout, the Biograph's manager thought the agents were criminals setting up a robbery. He called the Chicago police, who dutifully responded and had to be waved off by the federal agents, who told them that they were on a stakeout for an important target.
When the film ended, Purvis stood by the front door and signaled Dillinger's exit by lighting a cigar. Both he and the other agents reported that Dillinger turned his head and looked directly at the agent as he walked by, glanced across the street, then moved ahead of his female companions, reached into his pocket but failed to extract his gun,:353 and ran into a nearby alley. Other accounts stated Dillinger ignored a command to surrender, whipped out his gun, then headed for the alley. Agents already had the alley closed off.
Three men pursued Dillinger into the alley and fired. Clarence Hurt shot twice, Charles Winstead three times, and Herman Hollis once. Dillinger was hit from behind and fell face first to the ground.
Dillinger was struck four times, with two bullets grazing him and one causing a superficial wound to the right side. The fatal bullet entered through the back of his neck, severed the spinal cord, passed into his brain and exited just under the right eye, severing two sets of veins and arteries. An ambulance was summoned, although it was soon apparent Dillinger had died from the gunshot wounds; he was officially pronounced dead at Alexian Brothers Hospital. According to investigators, Dillinger died without saying a word. Winstead was later thought to have fired the fatal shot, and as a consequence received a personal letter of commendation[specify] from J. Edgar Hoover.
Two female bystanders, Theresa Paulas and Etta Natalsky, were wounded. Dillinger bumped into Natalsky just as the shooting started. Natalsky was shot and was subsequently taken to Columbus Hospital.
Dillinger was shot and killed by the special agents on July 22, 1934, at approximately 10:40 p.m, according to a New York Times report the next day. Dillinger's death came only two months after the deaths of fellow notorious criminals Bonnie and Clyde. There were reports of people dipping their handkerchiefs and skirts into the pool of blood that had formed, as Dillinger lay in the alley, as keepsakes: "Souvenir hunters madly dipped newspapers in the blood that stained the pavement. Handkerchiefs were whipped out and used to mop up the blood."
Dillinger is buried at Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis. Dillinger's gravestone has been replaced several times because of vandalism by people chipping off pieces as souvenirs. Hilton Crouch (1903–1976), an associate of Dillinger's on some early heists, is buried only a few yards to the west.
In October 2019, Indiana state officials approved plans to exhume the remains buried in Dillinger's grave, at the request of Dillinger's relatives who believe that the man shot at the Biograph theater was not actually Dillinger. The FBI has dismissed this claim as a "conspiracy theory". The exhumation was scheduled for December 31, 2019. According to information from January 2020, Dillinger’s body will not be exhumed. His nephew and his niece quit those plans and History Channel also cancelled the idea.
- The Shooting of John Dillinger Outside the Biograph Theater, July 22, 1934 a narrative poem by David Wagoner published in his collection Staying Alive (1966). The poet postulates some underlying reasons for the unfolding chain of events, significantly from Dillinger's perspective.
- John Dillinger is frequently referred to in the work of William S. Burroughs.
- John Dillinger is featured as a character in The Illuminatus Trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson.
- John Dillinger is frequently alluded to in the works of Thomas Pynchon.
- John Dillinger is the main character in Jack Higgins Thunder at noon
- 1935: The MGM crime film Public Hero No. 1 incorporates fictionalized details from Dillinger's narrative, including a gun battle at a Wisconsin roadhouse and the killing of the fugitive gangster (Joseph Calleia) as he leaves a theater.
- 1941: Humphrey Bogart played a Dillinger-like role in High Sierra, a film based loosely on research into Dillinger's life by W.R. Burnett.
- 1945: Lawrence Tierney played the title role in the first film dramatization of Dillinger's career; Dillinger.
- 1957: Director Don Siegel's film Baby Face Nelson, starred Mickey Rooney as Nelson and Leo Gordon as Dillinger.
- 1965: "Young Dillinger", starring Nick Adams as John Dillinger, and Robert Conrad as "Pretty Boy" Floyd.
- 1969: Director Marco Ferreri's film Dillinger Is Dead includes documentary footage of real John Dillinger as well as newspaper clips.
- 1971: "Appointment with Destiny; The Last Days of John Dillinger," narrated by Rod Serling, 52 minutes. Shot in newsreel style, very accurate for its time. The late Joseph Pinkston served as technical advisor. Pinkston himself makes an uncredited cameo in the Biograph sequence, playing an agent.
- 1973: Dillinger, directed and written by John Milius with Warren Oates in the title role, presents the gang in a much more sympathetic light, in keeping with the anti-hero theme popular in films after Bonnie and Clyde (1967).
- 1979: Lewis Teague directed the film The Lady in Red, starring Pamela Sue Martin as the eponymous lady in the red dress. However, in this film, it is Dillinger's girlfriend Polly in red, not the Romanian informant Ana Sage (Louise Fletcher). Sage tricks Polly into wearing red so that FBI agents can identify Dillinger (Robert Conrad) as he emerges from the cinema.
- 1991: A TV film Dillinger, starring Mark Harmon
- 1995: Roger Corman produced the fictional film Dillinger and Capone, featuring Martin Sheen as Dillinger and F. Murray Abraham as Al Capone. Dillinger survives the theater stakeout when the FBI mistakenly guns down his brother and is then blackmailed by Capone into retrieving $15 million from his secret vault.
- 2004: "Teargas and Tommyguns; Dillinger Robs the First National Bank", DVD, Mason City Public Library, 38 minutes. Documentary regarding the bank robbery, including contemporary interviews with still-living witnesses; also contains the H.C. Kunkleman film in its entirety.
- 2009: Director Michael Mann's film Public Enemies is an adaptation of Bryan Burrough's book Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI, 1933–34. The film features Johnny Depp as John Dillinger, Marion Cotillard as Billie Frechette, and Christian Bale as FBI agent Melvin Purvis. Although the film has accurate portrayals of several key moments in Dillinger's life—such as his death and dialogue at his arraignment hearing—it is inaccurate in some major historical details, such as the timeline (and location) of deaths of key criminal figures including Pretty Boy Floyd, Baby Face Nelson, and Homer Van Meter.
- 2012: British actor Alexander Ellis portrayed Dillinger in the first Dollar Baby screen adaptation of Stephen King's short story, The Death of Jack Hamilton.
- The experimental metalcore band "The Dillinger Escape Plan" is named for Dillinger.
- In The Simpsons episode Treehouse of Horror IV, Dillinger appears as a member of the Jury of the Damned.
- Woody Allen's character's failed prison escape in the movie "Take The Money and Run" is a parody of Dillinger's 1934 escape.
- In the movie High Fidelity (film) the main character Rob references the shooting at the Biograph movie theater, but gets several details wrong, including who tipped off the federal agents.
- The song, "Reverie", by Protest The Hero (Palimpsest, 2020) depicts Dillinger's hardening into "the meanest bastard you've ever seen" during incarceration.
- Headie One references Dillinger in his 2021 single “Siberia”. The lyric reads: “Jakes (police) wanna deal with me like Johnny Dillinger Dillinger”
- Referenced in Seinfeld Season 4 “The Handicap Spot”.
Gallery of Dillinger Gang members
- Hotel Congress
- List of Depression-era outlaws
- The Dillinger Escape Plan, an American mathcore band who took their name from Dillinger and his multiple escapes from jail.
- The Dillinger Dossier
- The Terror Gang
- Elliott J. Gorn, Dillinger's Wild Ride: The Year That Made America's Public Enemy Number One (2009), p 101.
- Reynolds, Dean (21 June 2009). "On the trail of John Dillinger". CBS News. Retrieved 28 June 2018. "Middle Americans were so angry at the bankers and businessmen who had taken their money, their homes, their jobs, hundreds of thousands of Middle Americans especially were cheering on Dillinger," said Bryan Burrough.
Goodwin, Christopher (28 June 2009). "America's own Robin Hood The Dillinger legend". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
Dillinger's audacious string of robberies and prison escapes in the early 1930s turned him into an American folk hero, a Depression-era Robin Hood. He and his gang robbed more than a dozen banks between May 1933 and July 1934, stealing more than $300,000, the equivalent of more than $5m today. He also destroyed thousands of mortgage records during the robberies, helping many poor people escape onerous payments to rapacious banks.
- "A Byte Out of History – How The FBI Got Its Name". Federal Bureau of Investigation. March 24, 2006. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
- J.J. Kearns' autopsy report
- "Kill Dillinger here". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 23, 1934. p. 1.
- "Famous Cases & Criminals – John Dillinger". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
- Matera, Dary (2005). John Dillinger: The Life and Death of America's First Celebrity Criminal. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1558-8.
- Tolzmann, Dr. Don Heinrich (July 9, 2009). "Was John Dillinger German?". Germerica. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011 – via Internet Archive. citing The Untold Story by G. Russell Giradin and William J. Helmer; and Dary Matera's John Dillinger.
- "Famous Cases: John Dillinger". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on 2009-09-19. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- WTHR.com Staff (January 15, 2015). "Depression-era gangster John Dillinger's sister dies in Mooresville at 92". WTHR. Archived from the original on January 19, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- "Shadow box". navy.togetherweserved.com. Retrieved 2018-02-19.
- "Certificate of Birth: Beryl Hovious" Morgan County Health Department, Martinsville, Indiana. Filed 9-1923.
- Landers, Chris. "Dillinger played ball before he robbed banks". MLB. MLB Advanced Media. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- "Dillinger's Partner In First Crime Killed". Reading Eagle. September 2, 1937. p. 14. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Google News.
- Helmer, p. 165-166
- "Bandits Bind Cashier, Clerk and Assistant", Dayton Daily News, June 21, 1933, pp, 1, 5.
- "John Dillinger". FBI. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
- Defining Documents in american History: The 1930s (1930–1939). Ipswich, Massachusetts: Salem Press. 2014. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-61925-4954.
- PimaLib_LibrarianFiles (February 10, 2015). "Dillinger Captured in Tucson". Pima County Public Library. Archived from the original on December 17, 2017. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
- Raines, Elaine (January 22, 2016). "1934: Dillinger captured in Tucson". tucson.com. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
- "ISP: The Pursuit of Public Enemy #1". www.in.gov.
- Girardin/Helmer, Dillinger: The Untold Story
- Staff (March 22, 1934). "YOUNGBLOOD IS SLAIN IN BATTLE". Lowell Tribune. Lowell, Indiana. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
- "FBI History – Famous Cases, John Dillinger". FBI. Archived from the original on 2011-09-02. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
- U.S. District Court, District of MN, USA vs. Evelyn Frechette, et al., pp. 590–92
- Girardin/Helmer, "Dillinger: The Untold Story", p. 274
- "Plenty of folks still remember infamous Dillinger bank robbery". Globe Gazette. Globe Gazette. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- Millett, Larry, AIA Guide to St. Paul's Summit Avenue & Hill District (2009), p. 68
- USA vs. May/Frechette, et al, p.35
- USA vs May/Frechette, Cutting's testimony, pp. 75–80
- USA vs May, Frechette, et al., testimony from Coffey and Nalls
- Dillinger File 62-29777, Nalls report
- USA vs. May/Frechette, et al. Nalls's testimony, p. 90
- USA vs. May/Frechette, Coulter's testimony, pp. 178–79
- Dillinger File, 62-29777, Nalls report
- USA vs. May/Frechette, Nalls' testimony, p. 90
- Girardin/Helmer, p. 134
- USA vs. May/Frechette, et al., Cummings' testimony, pp. 97–98
- Cromie and Pinkston, "Dillinger: A Short and Violent Life, p. 189
- USA vs. May/Frechette, Clayton May's testimony, pp. 473–87, 501
- FBI Dillinger File 62-29777
- Cromie and Pinkston, p. 196
- "A Byte Out of History: How the FBI Got Its Name". March 24, 2006.
- "FBI: A Brief History".
- "Lessons at Little Bohemia". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
- "Chicago Cubs History and News – Welcome to Just One Bad Century". Justonebadcentury.com. 1934-07-22. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Chicago Daily Tribune, June 9, 1934, edition, box score
- Piquett vs USA, Loeser's testimony, pp. 154–55
- Piquett vs USA, Loeser's testimony
- Piquett vs USA, Loeser's testimony, pp. 152–62
- FBI Dillinger File 62-29777, Peggy Doyle statement
- Helmer/Mattix, "The Complete Public Enemy Almanac"
Purvis, Alston W.; Alex Tresinowski (2005). The Vendetta. PublicAffairs. pp. 155–56. ISBN 9781586483012.
- Massad Ayoob (July–August 2008), "The death of John Dillinger", American Handgunner, archived from the original on 2012-01-19
- FBI Dillinger File 62-29777, S.P. Cowley report, August 1, 1934.
- Chicago Daily Tribune, 7–15–34 through 8–1–34 movie section
- "On This Day (front page)". The New York Times. 1934-07-23. Retrieved 2015-06-28.
- "FBI History – Famous Cases, John Dillinger". FBI. Archived from the original on 2009-09-19. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- The Story of the FBI, E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc. New York, 1947, p. 195.
- "Dillinger Slain in Chicago; Shot Dead by Federal Men in Front of Movie Theater". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- May, Allan, and Marilyn Bardsley. "Biograph Encounter" Archived 2009-03-11 at the Wayback Machine, John Dillinger: Bank Robber or Robin Hood? – Crime Library; accessed July 14, 2017.
- U.S. Government Accountability Office – Document: A-57405, OCTOBER 10, 1934, 14 COMP. GEN. 300; retrieved June 28, 2015.
- agents' communiqués of a set prior classified documents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States of America (2007). John Dillinger: The FBI Files. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007. ISBN 978-1599862460. Retrieved 2015-06-27.[permanent dead link] (ed. doc. refers to the document number)
- doc. F.B.I. comm. July 24, 1934.
- Associated Press, "Most Feared Killer of Decade Reaches Trail's End in Hail of Shots", The San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino, California, Monday 23 July 1934, Volume 40, page 2.
- "In Grave Condition – John H. Dillinger". Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved 2009-10-13.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Girardin, Helmer, p. 313
- "Dillinger's grave attracting crowds due to Public Enemies movie". Wkowtv.com. 2009-06-29. Archived from the original on 2012-09-18. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- Girardin/Helmer, p. 280
- John Dillinger: US gangster's body set to be exhumed, BBC, October 5, 2019
- "John Dillinger's Body Won't Be Exhumed, After All". Rolling Stone Magazine. January 9, 2020.
- Poets, Academy of American. "The Shooting of John Dillinger Outside the Biograph Theater, July 22, 1934 by David Wagoner - Poems | Academy of American Poets". poets.org.
- Sennwald, Andre (June 8, 1935). "Movie Review: Public Hero No. 1". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
- Behlmer, Rudy. "High Sierra". Classic Film Scores by Adolph Deutsch. Archived from the original on April 28, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2018 – via The Film Noir 'net.
- "Dillinger". Variety. March 14, 1945. p. 16. Retrieved August 9, 2018 – via Internet Archive.
- "Baby Face Nelson", IMDb, retrieved 2017-10-11
- Costello, Mark (August 1, 2004). "Public Enemies Review". The New York Times Book Review. Retrieved February 7, 2009.
- Gorn, Elliott (July 2009). "The Real John Dillinger: Is Public Enemies historically accurate?". Slate.com. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- "The Death of Jack Hamilton official movie website". Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Beverly, William. On the Lam: Narratives of Flight in J. Edgar Hoover's America. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. 2003. ISBN 1-57806-537-2.
- Burrough, Bryan. Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI, 1933–34. New York: Penguin Press. 2004. ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
- Cromie, Robert and Pinkston, Joseph. Dillinger: A Short and Violent Life (1962)
- DeBartolo, Anthony. Dillinger's Dupes: Town Seeks To Preserve A Jail Yet Escape A Dastardly Deed. Chicago Tribune.
- Erickson, Matt and Bill Thornbro. John Dillinger: A Year in the Life. The Times of Northwest Indiana.
- Girardin, G. Russell, Helmer, William J., Mattix, Rick. Dillinger: The Untold Story.
- Gorn, Elliott J. Dillinger's Wild Ride: The Year That Made America's Public Enemy Number One (New York, OUP USA, 2009).
- Helmer, William J.; Mattix, Rick (1998). Public Enemies: America's Criminal Past, 1919–1940. New York City, New York: Facts on File. p. 17. ISBN 0-8160-3160-6.
- Peters, Robert. What Dillinger Meant to Me Seahorse Press 1983 (with link to complete text online)
- Toland, John. The Dillinger Days. Random House 1963
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