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José Canalejas y Méndez
|Prime Minister of Spain|
9 February 1910 – 12 November 1912
|Deputy||Manuel García Prieto|
|Preceded by||Segismundo Moret y Prendergast|
|Succeeded by||Álvaro Figueroa, Count Romanones|
|Born||(1854-07-31)31 July 1854
|Died||12 November 1912(1912-11-12) (aged 58)
|Political party||Liberal Party|
Son of a railway engineer, politician and editor of the newspaper El Eco Ferrolano José Canalejas y Casas and of María del Amparo Méndez Romero. He moved with his family to Madrid, and in October 1867 he enrolled in the Instituto San Isidro, "because at that time the incorporated schools could not teach the last two years of the six who made up the baccalaureate ». Already at the Central University of Madrid, he obtained the degrees of Law in 1871 and Philosophy in 1872, and the degree of doctor in both faculties. In 1873 he was assistant professor, but failed in two chair examinations, so he left teaching. He joined the company of the Railways of Madrid to Ciudad Real and Badajoz, where he became secretary general and He defended the company as a lawyer in lawsuits with other Spanish railway companies.
In 1881 Canalejas was elected deputy for Soria. Two years later, he was appointed under-secretary for the Prime Minister's department under Posada Herrera; he became minister of justice in 1888 and finance from 1894 to 1895. A brief spell as Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce from March to May 1902 ended after only two months, when he resigned as he regarded the Sagasta Ministry weak and "incapable of safeguarding the Sovereignty of the State in view of the encroachments of the Vatican".
He served as President of the Congress of Deputies (the equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon office of parliamentary Speaker) from 1906 to 1907.
After the 1909 "Tragic Week" bloody confrontations in Barcelona, Antonio Maura resigned and Segismundo Moret was again appointed prime minister. Moret was forced to resign in February 1910 when he was replaced by Canalejas who became Prime Minister and chief of the Liberal party. Moret denounced the Canalejas Ministry as 'a democratic flag being used to cover reactionary merchandise'.
While in office, Canalejas (with the support of his sovereign, Alfonso XIII) introduced several electoral reforms that aimed to win working-class support for moderately conservative policies; to curb the power of independent political bosses, quite common at the time, especially in rural areas; to weaken excesses of Catholic educational clericalism without threatening the Catholic Church as such; and to turn Spain into a true democracy. These policies successfully faced the social turmoil that radicals had been creating within Spain (and which had led, in 1909, to a brief but bloody unrest in Barcelona).
Canalejas believed in the possibility of a monarchy open to a thoroughgoing democratic policy both in economic and in civil and political matters. Salvador de Madariaga, the liberal historian, argued that the disasters Spain experienced during the 1930s could be traced to Canalejas' murder, given that this murder deprived King Alfonso of one of his few genuine statesmen.
- Francos Rodríguez, José (1918). "In the Institute of San Isidro". The life of Canalejas (in Spanish). Madrid: Tip. of the "Rev. de arch., bibl. and museums". p. 6. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- [cited in The Times 30 May 1902 "Latest intelligence - Spain". The Times (36781). London. 30 May 1902. p. 5. ]
- Professor J. C J. Metford: The Spanish Anarchist Movement, 1908-75, Mastermind Quiz Book, 1984
Media related to José Canalejas at Wikimedia Commons
- José Canalejas Méndez Proyecto Filosofía en español
- José Canalejas Méndez Archivo Canalejas (In Spanish)
- José Canalejas Méndez Universidad Carlos III de Madrid - Biographical page in Spanish about "José Canalejas"
- Newspaper clippings about José Canalejas y Méndez in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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