Julius Plücker
Julius Plücker



Julius Plücker


Born  (18010616)16 June 1801^{[citation needed]} 
Died  22 May 1868(18680522) (aged 66)^{[citation needed]}
Bonn,
Kingdom of Prussia
^{[citation needed]}

Nationality  German^{[citation needed]} 
Alma mater  University of Bonn University of Heidelberg University of Berlin University of Paris University of Marburg^{[citation needed]} 
Known for  
Awards  Copley Medal (1866) 
Scientific career  
Fields  Mathematics Physics 
Doctoral advisor  Christian Ludwig Gerling^{[1]} 
Doctoral students  Felix Klein^{[citation needed]} August Beer^{[citation needed]} 
Julius Plücker (16 June 1801 – 22 May 1868) was a German mathematician and physicist. He made fundamental contributions to the field of analytical geometry and was a pioneer in the investigations of cathode rays that led eventually to the discovery of the electron. He also vastly extended the study of Lamé curves.
Biography
Early years
Plücker was born at Elberfeld (now part of Wuppertal). After being educated at Düsseldorf and at the universities of Bonn, Heidelberg and Berlin he went to Paris in 1823, where he came under the influence of the great school of French geometers, whose founder, Gaspard Monge, had only recently died.
In 1825 he returned to Bonn, and in 1828 was made professor of mathematics.
In the same year he published the first volume of his Analytischgeometrische Entwicklungen, which introduced the method of abridged notation.
In 1831 he published the second volume, in which he clearly established on a firm and independent basis projective duality.
Career
In 1836, Plücker was made professor of physics at University of Bonn. In 1858, after a year of working with vacuum tubes of his Bonn colleague Heinrich Geißler,^{[2]} he published his first classical researches on the action of the magnet on the electric discharge in rarefied gases. He found that the discharge caused a fluorescent glow to form on the glass walls of the vacuum tube, and that the glow could be made to shift by applying an electromagnet to the tube, thus creating a magnetic field ^{[3]}. It was later shown that the glow was produced by cathode rays.
Plücker, first by himself and afterwards in conjunction with Johann Hittorf, made many important discoveries in the spectroscopy of gases. He was the first to use the vacuum tube with the capillary part now called a Geissler tube, by means of which the luminous intensity of feeble electric discharges was raised sufficiently to allow of spectroscopic investigation. He anticipated Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in announcing that the lines of the spectrum were characteristic of the chemical substance which emitted them, and in indicating the value of this discovery in chemical analysis. According to Hittorf, he was the first who saw the three lines of the hydrogen spectrum, which a few months after his death, were recognized in the spectrum of the solar protuberances.
In 1865, Plücker returned to the field of geometry and invented what was known as line geometry in the nineteenth century. In projective geometry, Plücker coordinates refer to a set of homogeneous coordinates introduced initially to embed the set of lines in three dimensions as a quadric in five dimensions. The construction uses 2×2 minor determinants, or equivalently the second exterior power of the underlying vector space of dimension 4. It is now part of the theory of Grassmannians, to which these coordinates apply in generality (kdimensional subspaces of ndimensional space).
Bibliography
 1828: AnalytischGeometrische Entwicklungen from Internet Archive
 1835: System der analytischen Geometrie, auf neue Betrachtungsweisen gegründet, und insbesondere eine ausführliche Theorie der Kurven dritter Ordnung enthaltend
 1839: Theorie der algebraischen Curven, gegründet auf eine neue Behandlungsweise der analytischen Geometrie
 1846: System der Geometrie des Raumes in neuer analytischer Behandlungsweise, insbesondere die Theorie der Flächen zweiter Ordnung und Classe enthaltend
 1852: System der Geometrie des Raumes in neuer analytischer Behandlungsweise, insbesondere die Theorie der Flächen zweiter Ordnung und Classe enthaltend. Zweite wohlfeilere Auflage
 1865: On a New Geometry of Space Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 14: 53–8
Awards
Plücker was the recipient of the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 1866.^{[4]}
See also
 Plücker's conoid
 Plücker coordinates
 Plücker embedding
 Plücker formula
 Plücker surface
 Plücker matrix
 Timeline of lowtemperature technology
References
 ^ http://www.genealogy.ams.org/id.php?id=7402
 ^ John Theodore Merz, A history of European thought in the nineteenth century (2). W. Blackwood and sons, 1912, pp. 189–190.
 ^ http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/history/plucker.html
 ^ http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Plucker.html
Bibliography
 Born, Heinrich, Die Stadt Elberfeld. Festschrift zur DreihundertFeier 1910. J.H. Born, Elberfeld 1910
 Giermann, Heiko, Stammfolge der Familie Plücker, in: Deutsches Geschlechterbuch, 217. Bd, A. Starke Verlag, Limburg a.d.L. 2004
 Strutz, Edmund, Die Ahnentafeln der Elberfelder Bürgermeister und Stadtrichter 17081808. 2. Auflage, Verlag Degener & Co., Neustadt an der Aisch 1963 ISBN 3768640698
 Gustav Karsten (1888), "Plücker, Julius", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 26, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 321–323
External links
 Julius Plücker at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
 The Cathode Ray Tube site
 Weisstein, Eric Wolfgang (ed.). "Plücker, Julius (18011868)". ScienceWorld.
 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Julius Plücker", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
 Julius Plücker in the German National Library catalogue
 Julius Plücker in der philosophischen Fakultät der Universität Halle (PDF)
 Julius Plücker und die Stammfolge der Familie Plücker, Deutsches Geschlechterbuch, 217. Bd., A. Starke Verlag, Limburg a.d.L. 2004 (Word)
 unibonn.de^{[permanent dead link]} „Ein streitbarer Gelehrter im 19. Jahrhundert. Der Mathematiker Julius Plücker starb vor 140 Jahren.“ Pressemitteilung der Universität Bonn vom 21. Mai 2008
 "Discussion of the general form for light waves" (English translation)
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