Inverted breve

◌̑
Inverted breve
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave`
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
hook above ̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ 
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂ 
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
full stop/period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
avagraha
chandrabindu
nuqta
virama
visarga
Gurmukhī diacritics
Khmer diacritics
Thai diacritics
IPA diacritics
Japanese kana diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Syriac diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols

Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), which has a sharp tip (Â â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û), while the inverted breve is rounded: (Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ).

Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet,[citation needed] but as a phonetic indicator. It is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex.

Uses

Serbo-Croatian

The inverted breve above is used in traditional Slavicist notation of Serbo-Croatian phonology to indicate long falling accent. It is placed above the syllable nucleus, which can be one of five vowels (ȃ ȇ ȋ ȏ ȗ) or syllabic ȓ. This use of the inverted breve is derived from the Ancient Greek circumflex, which was preserved in the polytonic orthography of Modern Greek and influenced[clarification needed] early Serbian Cyrillic printing through religious literature. In the early 19th century, it began to be used in both Latin and Cyrillic as a diacritic to mark prosody in the systematic study of the Serbian-Croatian linguistic continuum.

International Phonetic Alphabet

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, an inverted breve below is used to mark a vowel as non-syllabic, i.e. assuming the role of a semivowel. The diacritic thus expands upon the four primary symbols [j, w, ɥ, ɰ] the IPA reserves for semivowels, which correspond to the full vowels [i, u, y, ɯ], respectively. Any vowel is eligible for marking as non-syllabic; a frequent use of the diacritic is in conjunction with the centralised equivalents of the vowels just mentioned: [ɪ̯, ʊ̯, ʏ̯].

The same diacritic is placed under iota (ι̯) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *y as it relates to Greek grammar; upsilon with an inverted breve (υ̯) is used alongside digamma (ϝ) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *w.[1]

Encoding

Inverted breve characters are supported in Unicode and HTML code (decimal numeric character reference).

Name Letter Unicode HTML
Combining Inverted Breve ◌̑ U+0311 ̑
Combining Inverted Breve Below ◌̯ U+032F ̯
Combining Double Inverted Breve ◌͡◌ U+0361 ͡
Combining Double Inverted Breve Below ◌᷼◌ U+1DFC ᷼
Modifier Breve With Inverted Breve U+AB5B ꭛
Latin Capital Letter A With Inverted Breve Ȃ U+0202 Ȃ
Latin Small Letter A With Inverted Breve ȃ U+0203 ȃ
Latin Capital Letter E With Inverted Breve Ȇ U+0206 Ȇ
Latin Small Letter E With Inverted Breve ȇ U+0207 ȇ
Latin Capital Letter I With Inverted Breve Ȋ U+020A Ȋ
Latin Small Letter I With Inverted Breve ȋ U+020B ȋ
Latin Capital Letter O With Inverted Breve Ȏ U+020E Ȏ
Latin Small Letter O With Inverted Breve ȏ U+020F ȏ
Latin Capital Letter R With Inverted Breve Ȓ U+0212 Ȓ
Latin Small Letter R With Inverted Breve ȓ U+0213 ȓ
Latin Capital Letter U With Inverted Breve Ȗ U+0216 Ȗ
Latin Small Letter U With Inverted Breve ȗ U+0217 ȗ

In LaTeX the control \textroundcap{o} puts an inverted breve over the letter o.[2]

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