Late Ottoman genocides

Late Ottoman genocides
Location Ottoman Empire
Date 1913–1924, with earlier and later episodes of mass violence
Target Genocide: Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians
Mass violence: Muslim minorities (especially Kurds) and Jews
Attack type
Genocide, ethnic cleansing, deportation, death march, pogrom
Perpetrators Young Turks

Late Ottoman genocides is a historiographical theory which claims that the concurrent Armenian, Greek, and Assyrian genocides that occurred during the 1910–1920s ought to be seen as part of a single event rather than separate policies led by the Young Turks.[1] Although some sources, including The Thirty-Year Genocide by Benny Morris and Dror Ze'evi, characterize this event as a genocide of Christians,[2][3] Dominik J. Schaller and Jürgen Zimmerer [de] contend that such an approach "ignores the Young Turks' massive violence against non-Christians", in particular against Muslim Kurds.[4][5]

Uğur Ümit Üngör states that mass violence in the late Ottoman empire and its successors includes, but is not limited to, persecutions of Muslims during Ottoman contraction in the 19th and early 20th century, the Adana massacre of Armenians in 1909, the Greek genocide (1913–1922), the Assyrian genocide (1914–1924), the Armenian genocide (1915–1917), the 1921 Koçgiri massacres of Kurdish rebels, "the mass violence against Kurds from the 1925 Sheikh Said conflict to the 1938 Dersim massacre", the 1934 Thrace pogroms against Jews, through the 1955 Istanbul pogrom against Greeks and Armenians.[6] Other scholars sometimes also include the earlier Hamidian massacres of Armenians in the 1890s, or deportations of Kurds between 1916 and 1934.[citation needed]

According to Thomas de Waal, there is a lack of a work similar to Timothy Snyder's Bloodlands that attempts to cover all of the mass violence in Anatolia and the Caucasus between 1914 and 1921. De Waal suggests that while "the genocide of 1915–1916 would stand out as the biggest atrocity of this period... [such a work] would also establish a context that would allow others to come to terms with what happened and why, and also pay homage to the many Muslims who died tragically in this era".[7]


  1. ^ Shirinian, George N. (2017). Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks, 1913–1923. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-78533-433-7.
  2. ^ Morris, Benny; Ze’evi, Dror (2019). The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey's Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-674-24008-7.
  3. ^ Gutman, David (2019). "The thirty year genocide: Turkey's destruction of its Christian minorities, 1894–1924". Turkish Studies. Routledge. 21: 1–3. doi:10.1080/14683849.2019.1644170. S2CID 201424062.
  4. ^ Schaller, Dominik J.; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies—introduction". Journal of Genocide Research. 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820. S2CID 71515470.
  5. ^ Schaller, Dominik J.; Zimmerer, Jürgen, eds. (2013). Late Ottoman Genocides: The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-99045-1.
  6. ^ üngör, Ug˘ur ümit (2008). "Seeing like a nation-state: Young Turk social engineering in Eastern Turkey, 1913–50". Journal of Genocide Research. 10 (1): 15–39. doi:10.1080/14623520701850278. S2CID 71551858.
  7. ^ de Waal, Thomas (2015). Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide. Oxford University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-19-935069-8.

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