Lemma (mathematics)

In mathematics, informal logic and argument mapping, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is a generally minor, proven proposition which is used as a stepping stone to a larger result. For that reason, it is also known as a "helping theorem" or an "auxiliary theorem". In many cases, a lemma derives its importance from the theorem it aims to prove, however, a lemma can also turn out to be more important than originally thought. The word "lemma" derives from the Ancient Greek λῆμμα ("anything which is received", such as a gift, profit, or a bribe).

Comparison with theorem

There is no formal distinction between a lemma and a theorem, only one of intention (see Theorem terminology). However, a lemma can be considered a minor result whose sole purpose is to help prove a more substantial theorem – a step in the direction of proof.

Well-known lemmas

A good stepping stone can lead to many others. Some powerful results in mathematics are known as lemmas, first named for their originally minor purpose.[a] These include, among others:

While these results originally seemed too simple or too technical to warrant independent interest, they have eventually turned out to be central to the theories in which they occur.